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In actual practice, then, the close of in the old type, academic, college prethe first decade of reorganization finds paratory, high school. the 6-3-3 plan ranking first in favor II. The retention in school, by comwith 294 schools, or 56 per cent, and the pulsory attendance laws, of types of 6-2-6 ranking second with 201 schools, children who formerly went to work or about 3712 per cent of all, and only about their twelfth or thirteenth birthfour schools, or less than 1 per cent, em day. ploying 6-4-2. Is it likely that the next III. Attendance at school of children decade will witness any radical depar- from families who under old conditions ture from these types? Is it likely that had no access to schools of any sort. the 6-4-2 plan will gain in favor? If so, IV. Demands that the school assume what type or types will it displace! functions formerly performed by home, These questions seem pertinent to the church, employer, or other agencies. topic under discussion, and warrant, I V. A school population of such numbelieve, a brief review of the chief rea bers that to house it forced school ausons why any reorganization of the old thorities either to deliberately duplicate 8-4 plan is under way.

old types of schools or to develop new I shall pass over those early discus- types of buildings better adapted to the sions of the need of shortening and en

new needs. riching the school curriculum which It would be of more than passing inwere provoked by speeches of Doctor terest to know how many reorganizaEliot and the issuance during the 1890's tions have been made possible through of various epoch-making reports of cer the demand for school housing alone. tain N. E. A. committees. The far It may interest some to know that forreaching effect of these discussions is mer Supterintendent Frank Bunker, not to be minimized, but I believe that who has been credited by many writers certain other factors have been more as the pioneer in junior high school orpotent in forcing action upon school ganization and who thoroughly believed authorities. Among these factors are: in such reorganization, was able to de

1. The increased economic well-being velop junior high schools in Berkeley, of the average American which has California, in 1909 because the high helped produce a widespread popular school was overcrowded, the time was disapproval of child labor and an almost not propitious for a bond issue, and universal demand for equality of edu four grade school buildings could care cational opportunity for all children. for the ninth grade if it were divided II. The steady growth of American

up among them. industries coupled with the complete To school administrators faced with breakdown of the apprentice system. the problem of an increased school popu

III. The rapid growth of our cities. lation, heterogeneous in character, four

IV. The remarkable development of lines of procedure were possible:: highways, coupled with the widespread I. They might attempt to force all use of automobiles and the development pupils up to the legal permissible leavof motor bus transportation.

ing age to attend the old type elemenTo the operation of these causes we tary school and college preparatory high may trace, I believe, some of our big school. school problems, among them :

II. They might make some modificaI. The presence of pupils of types tions in the old types of schools, such as who appear to have little or no interest enriched curricula and departmentalized

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teaching in the upper elementary I. “A mass of evidence goes to prove
grades, and vocational courses in the that an elementary course of six years
four year high school. This solution is is adequate.
being tried in many school systems to “If the task can be adequately per-
day and doubtless accounts for the large formed in six years, it is folly to con
number of 6-2-4 plans reported.

sume more time and to encroach upon III. They might adopt the old Euro- the rights of individualism as sought in pean school system, merely extending a differentiated type of training.'* downward the high schools with their Table 1 itself indicates that 499 schools work in foreign languages, drawings out of 523, or 95 per cent, begin junior and mathematics; and, at the same high school work with grade 7. We may time, lengthening, if need be, the ele- take this as an indication that these mentary school course. Such a scheme school systems are endeavoring to do the might have solved the administrative strictly elementary work in six grades. problems and enriched the curriculum II. No artificial barrier should prefor certain pupils, but it did not square vent a child's escape from the elemenwith our notions of democracy. Since tary school. Evidence of pubescence the Great War this plan appears to be should entitle him to admittance to a rapidly losing favor in Europe itself. secondary school where work in physi

IV. Educators might attempt a reor cal education, hygiene and music will ganization of our school system by de- be adapted to his physiological maturity veloping an entirely new transitional and all other work to his needs and unit, a school which would be separate interests. from both the elementary school and III. Our democratic society has the the high school, designed to meet the right to fix the minimum age at which most diverse pupil needs in a manner

children may take their places among not inconsistent with democratic ideals. wage-earners. Up to this age all chilTo this new school unit the term “junior dren, except those unfit to live outside high school" is now quite generally of special institutions, should be in applied.

schools adapted to their special needs. We now have a decade of experience IV. The chief consideration of the behind us.

We have a rather extensive secondary school is the pupil, not subliterature in pamphlet and periodical ject matter. Its goal is “the physical, form and we have ten important vol intellectual, moral and social training of umes on the subject. We must admit each pupil.” Curricula constitute, that more time is needed for experiment therefore, but one means, although a ing before a final answer can be given very important means, in accomplishing to the questions: With what grade shall this goal. the junior high school begin? and, With V. "Until the economic and domestic what grade shall it end? It should basis of our present civilization changes prove helpful to those desiring to ex radically, it will be inevitable that the periment to set forth some principles majority of our boys and girls will dewhich are quite generally accepted and sire and will be obliged by circumstances which appear to have a bearing on these to enter upon self-supporting work problems. Time forbids, however, more somewhere between the ages of fifteen than a mere dogmatic statement of these and eighteen. For many of these it will principles, which are:

be found that specific vocational schools *C. 0. Davis, “Junior High School Education," p. 68.

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designed to give or, at any rate, to well for the next Federal questionnaire supervise their initial vocational educa to contain such questions as these: Do tion will be of the utmost importance."* you have two independent school boards A junior high school, then, will min

with overlapping territorial jurisdicister to normal pupils of all sorts from tion? Do you have a high school buildthe onset of pubescence until they have

ing with plenty of room for more been adjusted to work in a higher

pupils ? etc. The answers to such quesschool or are ready to leave school for

tions would tell us whether the reasons wage-earning. What may it be expected for the 6-2-4 plan were chiefly pedagogto do for them?

ical or merely administrative. I. It will help each pupil discover his

As it is, Table No. 1 indicates that the own capacities, limitations, interests and aptitudes.

smaller the city the greater chance of II. It will provide adequate guid- finding the 6-2-4 plan and generally the ance, develop proper study habits, and larger the city the greater likelihood of offer preliminary training for all who finding the 6-3-3 plan. are capable of entering higher schools

To perform the functions indicated and financially able to go on.

above without undue expense it will be III. It will retain to the compulsory necessary to gather student bodies of school attendance age those who must

considerable size. Dr. Engelhardt has soon enter wage-earning groups, pro

told us that a junior high school may vide exploratory courses to discover

well handle 1,200 to 1,500 pupils. Detheir aptitudes and interests and train

troit's “Standard Intermediate School” them, so far as possible, to be most pro

houses 1,800 pupils. A little pamphlet ductive in the economic life of the

entitled “School Buildings" describes country.

plans of twenty-nine junior high schools IV. It will provide rather elementary

exhibited at our 1922 and 1923 national work in English for recent immigrants,

conventions. The pupil capacities of and review courses for such students as

these buildings varies from a minimum need more work in fundamental tool of 600 to a maximum of 3,000, with a subjects.

median of 1,200. Dr. Engelhardt has V. It will provide a curriculum of

also told us that a pupil of junior high studies and activities designed to:

school age may be expected to walk a. Develop in each pupil a high sense

three-quarters mile to mile to of values that he may work out for him

school. I think we have no published self “a philosophy of life'';

studies of areas required to produce b. Train each pupil in proper care of 1,200 pupils of adolescent age. In most his personal health and an insistence residence cities an area two miles in upon high standards of public sanita diameter should produce this number,

at least, if grades 7, 8 and 9 are inc. Make him intelligent and inter- cluded. ested in the proper discharge of his Should grade 10 be included in the duties as a citizen in a democracy. junior high school, we might expect that

To properly discharge these functions the senior high school population would two years is inadequate. It may well be be reduced to a point where economic asked, then, why so many schools have administration and proper specialization only a two years' course. It might be of teachers would be impossible. More

Snedden, Sociological Determination of Objectives in Education."



over, it is only fair to the senior school dentistry, veterinary surgery, etc., than that those it sends to college should be the 6-3-3 plan. in its care for the full three years.

When the compulsory school attendThe one exception to the 6-3-3 plan, ance age is sixteen years, a specialized so far as college preparatory pupils are four-year junior high school may well concerned, exists where the high school turn out workers with considerable skill maintains a junior college in the same as file clerks, typists, comptometer operbuilding with the high school. Under ators, retail sales clerks, automobile resuch circumstances the 6-4-4 plan should pairmen, apprentices in building trades, afford the senior school better oppor etc. tunity for developing finishing courses The efforts of one city to meet the in home making, many aspects of busi needs of the many types of pupils is ness, agriculture, trades, and perhaps shown in Table No. 2:


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The two junior high schools, so advanced to a junior high school or a named, have grades 7, 8 and 9 and plan technical school as rapidly as they can primarily to send their pupils on to be prepared for higher work. There is, senior high school. Work in French and of course, no fixed period of residence Spanish is begun in grade 7 if pupils in these schools, and no especial reason show high enough attainment in Eng- except housing space why it should not lish. Capable pupils may enter grade 10 be a division of the junior high schools. with five credits toward graduation and It is, therefore, the belief of the writer be ready for college one year earlier that our experimenting should be with: than under the old plan. In the so (a) The 6-3-3 plan under ordinary called technical schools, there are also circumstances; three-year junior high school courses, (b) The 6-6 plan in small communibut along with these are being developed ties; four-year vocational courses in agricul (c) The 6-4 (?) plan for pupils who tural, commercial and industrial lines. leave school at sixteen years;

In the intermediate schools are pupils (d) The 6-4-4 plan when junior colwho have passed thirteen years but have leges are directly associated with senior not completed the sixth grade. They are high schools.

Recent Achievements and Next Forward

Steps in Rural Education *

By FRANK PIERREPONT GRAVES, New York State Commissioner of Education

Each year New York holds an old- intelligence or a greater humiliation time spelling match at its state fair in than to have proved inferior to children Syracuse, and this contest, like all such, from the rural regions. Such terms as generally teaches us something about "boobs”, “hicks”, “rubes”, “jays'', human nature, if it does nothing else. and “hayseeds”, with their opprobrious A few years ago the young girl repre connotation, clearly indicate the consenting New York city, who, as coming tempt and scorn prevalent among city from the great metropolis, was most con people who do not understand or make fident of success and decidedly con any effort to discover the handicaps undescending toward the other contestants, der which rural communities are laborfailed in the middle of the match and ing. fled from the hall in tears. To one who On the other hand, it must be contried to comfort her she confided: “I fessed that the country folk do not alwould not have minded missing, but ways understand or have any real conwhat shall I say to them in the city, fidence in people from the city. They when I go back and tell them I was simply grow exceedingly angry at their beaten by a set of upstate hicks?” Here aspersions as gratuitous lies, or treat was a real tragedy. Nothing to this their statements with disdain. They are poor little metropolitan's mind-and to fairly complacent and satisfied with that of several hundred thousand older their own standing and achievements. minds-could indicate a lower state of They are certain that they know all that

Address delivered at Chicago meeting N. E. A. Department of Superintendence, February 26, 1924.

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