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the critics, there are beauties in that poem which I humbly think have been greatly overlooked--beauties which, had he given to the world nothing more, would have insured him a name and reputation among the poets. The genius of Campbell took so lofty a position at the first soar, that in every successive flight, whatever did not literally surpass, was pronounced to fall short of his former efforts. He was his own rival; and they who had admired, and wept over, "The Pleasures of Hope" and "Gertrude of Wyoming," were unmoved by the "domestic," simple pathos of "Theodric."

The "Rhenish Baron," already alluded to, was probably, of the two poems, the prior conception, and, though afterwards rejected, gave rise to the story of "Theodric." The subjects, however, differ so considerably as to evince little, if any, resemblance between their respective characters.*


* The following passage, taken at random, may serve as a specimen :-
... the Abbot's mien was high,
And fiery black his persecuting eye;

And swarthy his complexion-void of bloom,
As if the times had steeped it in their gloom.
No butt for sophists, they got back from him
Shafts venomous with zeal, and winged with whim:
For he had wit-'twas whispered, even to shine
In merriment, and joys not quite divine.
His bigotry itself had something gay,

A tiger's strength-exuberant even to play.
But make him serious! and how trivial then
Was all the gravity of other men
Compared to his! At the High Mass, you saw
His presence deepening the mysterious awe.
What-though his creed, a Babel-structure, frowned
In human pride, usurping Scripture ground,
His preaching terrified the heart to scan

Its faith, and stunn'd the reasoning powers of man;
Yet still the effect was awful, and the mind
Was kindled by the flash it left behind.

Wild legends, relics, things grotesque and naught,
He made them great by passions which he wrought;
Till visions cross'd the rapt enthusiast's glance,
And all the scene became a waking trance!
Then tears of pictured saints appear'd to fall—
Then written texts seemed speaking from the wall:
The halleluja burst-the tapers blazed-
With more than earthly pomp: and Bernard raised
A voice that filled the abbey with its tones,
Till fancy dreamt the very tombs and stones
Of Martyrs, glaring through the aisle's long track,
Were conscious of the sounds they echoed back!" &c.

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ET. 56.J


Between the autumn of 1825 and the close of the present year, the published lyrics amount to only seventeen; but most of these, though drawn from various sources, bear the stamp of his genius.*


During the interval between his election in November, 1826, and the close of his third year's Rectorship, in November, 1829, his public and official duties, with others of a painful and private nature, absorbed nearly all those hours previously given to the Muses. The grand objects which had successively engaged his time and energies, during the ten or twelve years previous to this date, were the founding of the London University; the LordRectorship of the Glasgow University; the Editorship of "The New Monthly" and "The Metropolitan" Magazines; the cause of Poland; the organizing and direction of "The Literary Association of the Friends of Poland;" the establishment of a club in Glasgow, and of "The Literary Union" in London; the "Life of Mrs. Siddons ;" various letters and pamphlets in support of the London University, public education, &c.; numerous critiques on classic history and works of fiction; with a correspondence which, as he informs us, occupied four hours every morning-obliging him to write not only in French and German, but also, for the sake of the Hungarian friends, in Latin. These, exclusive of much fugitive poetry, and many social duties, not only engaged his mind, but, in the end, exhausted his constitution. He could seldom act with the moderation necessary for his health. Whatever object he once took in hand, he determined to carry out, and found no rest until it was accomplished. But the accomplishment of one object was a fresh stimulus to another; and what at first promised him relaxation from labor, brought only its renewal. His whole life,

"Hallowed Ground," "Field Flowers," "Deathboat of Heligoland," "Lines on the Departure of Emigrants," with the pieces written during his retreat at St. Leonards, were all received with enthusiasm, and retain their full share of popularity. 1825 produced "Hallowed Ground;" 1826, Field Flowers," and "Lines on revisiting a Scottish River," 1827, no poetry; 1828," Battle of Navarino," " Deathboat of Heligoland,” and “Lines on the Departure of Emigrants;" 1829, Song, "When Love came first to Earth;" 1830, "Farewell to Love," and "Lines to a Girl in the attitude of Prayer" 1831 was unusually fertile-" Lines on the View from St. Leonards," "Lines on Poland." Lines on the Camp Hill, Hastings," "Lines written in a blank leaf of La Perouse's Voyages," "The Power of Russia," and "Ode to the Germans;" 1832, "To Sir Francis Burdett, Bart., on his Speech delivered in Parliament, August 2d," and "The Cherubs;" 1833, no poetry published or acknowledged, so far as I have ascertained.

so far as I can trace it, appears to have been a life of excitement-the excitement of philanthropy. Sincere himself in all that he said or did, he never questioned the sincerity of others; or if he did, it neither suspended, nor chilled his active benevolence. He listened to every case of distress; and before the sufferer's tale was half told, the Poet's hand was stretched forth to relieve him. "In tales of human misery," he said, “we can never believe too much." But this facility, as I have more than once remarked, operated too often to his prejudice, and made him an easy prey to the subtle and designing.

Having mentioned his fugitive poetry, I shall merely observe in passing, that, in denying it a place in his authorized edition, he acted with the same nervous diffidence of his own powers, which led to the exclusion of the "Dirge of Wallace"-" Lines on visiting a scene in Bavaria," &c., from the early editions of his poems. Some of these rejected pieces, though in certain instances too personal, evince a talent for that playful satire, which first distinguished him as a boy at college; and in his latter years, often beguiled his own sad thoughts, and amused his friends. It is not generally known, perhaps, that Campbell wrote Latin epigrams with considerable point and force; among the last pieces put into my hand, when he finally retired from London, was a Latin epigram on a mutual friend. These were generally written in moments of political exasperation; but the milk of human kindness flowed with such warmth and constancy in his own heart, that it neutralized all the gall; and his epigrams, instead of alienating, endeared him to his friends.

Among the playful effusions which found their way into the Paris edition of Campbell's poems, is "The Friars of Dijon," a sort of "buffo-burlesque poem," in which two "frères ignorants" are the heroes. This, perhaps, is the only piece in which Campbell has made a sustained effort to blend the pungency of wit and broad humor with grotesque and ludicrous description. It appeared first in the "New Monthly;" and by its singular union of opposite talents, found many readers. The author, however, considered it a failure-as he did some other pieces of acknowledged merit, and only written as an experiment, to drive away melancholy. Like other grave didactic poets, who for a similar purpose, have left proofs of the same lively vein, Campbell found habitulal relief in these sallies. He was subject, as we have seen, to great mental depression; and, while the fit was upon him, his struggles to overcome the pressure were like those of a captive striving to break his chain. In writing his "Friars," he

ET. 56.]



had probably before his eyes "the facetious history of John Gilpin ;" and, fairly launched into a new region of ludicrous scenes and images, it may easily be imagined that his spirits enjoyed a complete holiday.*

Among the fugitive pieces of 1823 is a martial lyric-"The Spanish Patriot's Song"-which, though never republished by Campbell, was set to music, and first sung by the Patriots at one of their evening parties, in Seymour-street. The following is an extract :

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Among the MSS. quoted, or referred to, in the preceding chapters, I find several fragments varying from two to ten or and twenty lines, written in every possible mood-grave gayfrom an epitaph to a pun, but with no traces of a revising pen. One of the epitaphs, apparently untouched, is the following:

*Had Campbell ever revised this "Merrie Conceit"-lopt off a few excrescencies softened some of the expressions-and bestowed a little more point and polish on others, the story might have been unique. But it remains, as he first threw it off-and, with an exuberance of laughable description, shows an under current of satire, that conveys a clear and not uninstructive moral.

"MARRYAT,* farewell! thy outward traits express'd
A manliness of nature, that combin'd

The thinking head and honorable breast.
In thee thy country lost a leading mind;
Yet they, who saw not private life draw forth
Thy heart's affections, knew but half thy worth-
A worth that soothes ev'n friendship's bitterest sigh,
To lose thee; for thy virtues sprung from Faith,
And that high trust in Immortality

Which reason hinteth, and religion saith
Shall best enable man, when he has trod

Life's path, to meet the mercy of his GOD.”—T. C.

The punning epistle, sent from Algiers to his friend, Horace Smith, is, perhaps, the best specimen yet discovered of the Poet's ingenuity in that species of wit. But it is only one of a hundred; his letters abound in punning allusions; but their merit, as it depended on the circumstances under which they were uttered, is now less obvious. A taste for charades appears to have usurped for a time the place of puns.

In a lively note to a friend, he says: "I have been so busy composing extempore charades, that I have not had time to acknowledge your very flattering poetical compliment. I should gladly send you some of those spontaneous effusions, but they are not yet finished! Meanwhile, try the following-perhaps more pun than charade:

"What do the stricken-blind and wise

In common? They philosophize! (feel-loss-of-eyes 1)"

The following songs, in the Poet's own hand, and written, probably, for some musical collection, are dated Sydenham, Jan. 23, 1809 :

"My mind is my kingdom! but if thou wilt deign
A queen there to sway without measure;

Then come o'er my wishes and homage to reign,

And make it an empire of pleasure.

Then of thoughts and emotions, each mutinous crowd
That rebelled at stern reason and duty,

Returning, shall yield all their loyalty proud

To the halcyon dominion of Beauty!

* Joseph Marryat, Esq., M. P., whose friendship has been already no


This propensity was very strong during his social hours at St. Leonards, where, as Dr. Madden observed, his conversation was often a string of puns. But this profusion, as his letters clearly show, arose neither from levity or exuberance of animal spirits-but rather from a strong effort to disguise his own private sorrows and disappointments.

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