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C. SALLUSTII CRISPI
1. OMNES1 homines, qui sese student' praestare ceteris animalibus, summa ope niti decet, ne vitam silentio transeant veluti pecora, quae natura prona' atque ventri obedientia finxit. Sed nostra omnis vis in animo et corpore sita est; animi imperio, corporis servitio magis utimur; alterum nobis cum dis, alterum cum beluis commune est. Quo mihi rectius videtur ingenii quam virium opibus gloriam quaerere et, quoniam vita ipsa qua fruimur brevis est, memoriam nostri quam maxime longam efficere. Nam divitiarum et formae
1 Omnes. Other editions have omnis or omneis. The accusative plural of words of the third declension making their genitive plural in ium, varied in early Latin, sometimes ending in is, and sometimes in eis or es. This fluctuation, however, afterwards ceased; and even in the best age of the Latin language it became generally customary to make the accusative plural like the nominative in es. The same was the case with some other obsolete forms, as volt for vult, divorsus for diversus, quoique for cuique, maxumus for maximus, quom for quum, or cum, which are retained in many editions, but have been avoided in the present, in accordance with the orthography generally adopted during the best period of the Latin language.
2 Studeo, when the verb following has the same subject, may be construed in three ways-with the infinitive alone, as studeo praestare; with the accusative and infinitive, studeo me praestare, as in the present case; or with ut, as studeo ut praestem.
Summa ope, with the greatest exertion,' equivalent to summo pere, summopere; as magno opere, or magnopere, signifies with great exertion,' or 'greatly. The nominative ops is not in use, and the plural opes generally signifies the means' or 'power of doing something.'
4 Prona, bent forward,' 'bent down to the ground,' in opposition to the erect gait of man.
5 Dis for diis. See Zumpt, § 51, n. 5.
Beluis; another, but less correct mode of spelling, is bellua. belluis.
Instead of memoriam nostri, Sallust might have said memoriam nostram; but the genitive nostri sets forth the object of remembrance with greater force. See Zumpt, § 423.
8 Quam maxime longam; that is, quam longissimam, 'lasting as long as possible.' Zumpt, § 108.
gloria fluxa atque fragilis est, virtus clara aeternaque habetu Sed diu magnum inter mortales certamen fuit,' vine corporis an virtute animi res militaris magis procederet. Nam et prius quam incipias consulto, et ubi consulueris mature facto opus est. Ita utrumque per se indigens, alterum alterius auxilio eget.
2. Igitur initio reges (nam in terris nomen imperii id primum fuit), diversi pars ingenium, alii corpus exercebant; etiamtum vita hominum sine cupiditate agitabatur, sua cuique satis placebant. Postea vero quam in Asia Cyrus, in Graecia Lacedaemonii et Athenienses coepere urbes atque nationes subigere, libidinem dominandi causam belli habere, maximam gloriam in maximo imperio putare, tum demum periculo atque negotiis compertum est in bello plurimum ingenium posse. Quodsi regum atque imperatorum animi virtus' in pace ita ut in bello valeret, aequabilius atque constantius sese res humanae haberent, neque aliud alio ferri, neque mutari ac
1 The author here makes a digression, to remove the objection that in war bodily strength is of greater importance than mental superiority. He admits that in the earlier times it may have been so, but maintains that in more recent times, when the art of war had become rather complicate, the superiority of mind has become manifest. Vine corporis an; that is, utrum vi corporis an. Zumpt, § 554.
2 That is, before undertaking anything, reflect well; but when you have reflected, then carry your design into execution without delay.' The past participles consulto and facto here supply the place of verbal substantives.
Respecting the frequent position of igitur at the beginning of a sentence in Sallust, see Zumpt, § 357.
Pars, instead of alii, probably to avoid the repetition of alii, and to produce variety.
Postea vero quam, for postquam vero. The author means to say, that after the formation of great empires by extensive conquests, the truth became manifest that even in war mind was superior to mere bodily strength. He mentions Cyrus, king of Persia, the Lacedaemonians and Athenians, because the earlier empires of the Egyptians and Assyrians did not yet belong to accredited history.
Sallust here introduces, by quodsi (and if, or yes, if), an illustration connected with the preceding remarks. Respecting this connecting power of quodsi, as distinguished from the simple si, see Zumpt, 807. This illustration, which ends with the word transfertur, was suggested to Sallust especially by the consideration of the recent disturbances in the Roman republic under Pompey, Caesar, and Mark Antony, three men who, in times of peace, saw their glory, previously acquired in war, fade away.
Animi virtus; these two words are here united to express a single idea, mental greatness.'
Aliud alio ferri, that one thing is drawn in one direction, and
misceri omnia cerneres. Nam imperium facile his artibus retinetur, quibus initio partum est. Verum ubi pro labore desidia, pro continentia et aequitate libido atque superbia invasere, fortuna simul cum moribus immutatur. Ita imperium semper ad optimum quemque1 a minus bono transfertur. Quae homines arant, navigant, aedificant, virtuti omnia parent. Sed multi mortales dediti ventri atque somno, indocti incultique vitam sicuti peregrinantes transiere ; quibus profecto contra naturam corpus voluptati, anima oneri fuit. Eorum ego vitam mortemque juxta aestimo, quoniam de utraque siletur. Verum enimvero is demum mihi vivere atque frui anima videtur, qui aliquo negotio intentus praeclari facinoris aut artis bonae famam quaerit. Sed in magna copia rerum aliud alii natura iter ostendit.
3. Pulcrum est bene facere rei publicae ; etiam bene dicere haud absurdum est ; vel pace vel bello clarum fieri licet; et qui fecere et qui facta aliorum scripsere, multi laudantur. Ac mihi quidem, tametsi haudquaquam par gloria sequitur scriptorem et actorem rerum, tamen in primis arduum videtur res gestas scribere; primum quod facta dictis exaequanda sunt,
the other in another.' For aliud ulio, see Zumpt, § 714; and for cerneres, in which the second person singular of the subjunctive answers to the English 'you,' when not referring to any definite person, 381.
1 Optimum quemque, to every one in proportion as he is better than others.' Respecting this relative meaning of quisque, see Zumpt, 710. 'Every one,' absolutely, is unusquisque, and adjectively omnis.
They have passed through life like strangers or travellers;' that is, as if they had no concern with their own life, although it is clear that human life is of value only when men are conscious of themselves, and exert themselves to cultivate their mental powers, and apply them to practical purposes.
I set an equal value upon their life and their death;' that is, an equally low value, juxta being equivalent to aeque or pariter. 4 Verum enimvero; these conjunctions are intended strongly to draw the attention of the reader to the conclusion from a preceding argument.
Intent upon some occupation.' Intentus is commonly construed with the dative, or the preposition in or ad with the accusative; but as a person may be intent upon something, so he also may be intent by, or in consequence of, something, so that the ablative is perfectly consistent.
• Haud absurdum est, is not unbecoming;' that is, 'is worthy of man.'
Quidem here, like the Greek pèv in poi pèv, without a dè following, introduces one opinion in contradistinction from others, though the latter are not mentioned, but merely suggested by quidem. for my part think so, but what others think I do not know, or care.'
dehinc quia plerique, quae delicta reprehenderis, malivolentia et invidia dicta putant;' ubi de magna virtute atque gloria bonorum memores, quae sibi quisque facilia factu putat, aequo animo accipit, supra ea' veluti ficta pro falsis ducit.
Sed ego adolescentulus initio sicuti plerique studio ad rem publicam latus sum, ibique mihi multa adversa fuere. Nam pro pudore, pro abstinentia, pro virtute, audacia, largitio, avaritia vigebant. Quae tametsi animus aspernabatur, insolens malarum artium, tamen inter tanta vitia imbecilla aetas ambitione corrupta tenebatur: ac me, quum ab reliquorum malis moribus dissentirem, nihilo minus honoris cupido eâdem qua ceteros famâ atque invidiâ vexabat."
4. Igitur ubi animus ex multis miseriis atque periculis requievit et mihi reliquam aetatem a re publica procul habendam decrevi, non fuit consilium socordia atque desidia bonum otium conterere; neque vero agrum colendo aut venando, servilibus officiis, intentum aetatem agere; sed a quo incepto studioque me ambitio mala detinuerat, eodem regressus statui res gestas populi Romani carptim,3 ut quae
'If you censure any things as faults or delinquencies, your censure is considered to have arisen from malevolence or ill-will.' * Supra ea, 'whatever is beyond that;' that is, whatever is beyond the capacity of the reader.
The author now passes over to his own experience, telling us that after having devoted himself at first to the career of a public man, and finding that he was not understood, and ill-used by his opponents, he formed the determination to give himself up to a literary life.
Insolens malarum artium, 'unacquainted with base artifices or intrigues; for artes may be malae as well as bonae, according as they consist in the skill of doing bad or good things.
5 Imbecilla aetas, my weak age;' that is, my mind, which had not yet arrived at mature independence, was corrupted by ambition, and was kept under the influence of such bad circumstances.' Sallust means to say that if his mind had arrived at manly independence, he would have immediately withdrawn from the vicious atmosphere of public life.
My ambition caused me to be equally ill spoken of and envied, and thus to be dragged down to a level with the rest, and to be equally harassed and persecuted as they were.
7 Conterere-that is, consumere, to waste my fair leisure.' Sallust here calls agriculture and the chase occupations of men in a servile condition, although the majority of the ancients considered the former especially as the most honourable occupation of free citizens. But he seems to think that in comparison with the important business of writing the history of his country, agriculture and the chase are not suitable occupations for a man who has at one time taken an active part in political affairs.
Carptim, in detached parts.'