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Juv. 8. 331, 'Quid, Catilina, tuis natalibus atque Cethegi | inveniet quisquam sublimius.' The family of Catiline was distinguished from other branches of the Sergii by the epithet Silus ('naso susum versus repando,' Festus).

1. 16. magna vi..corporis. Transferred by Aurelius Victor to his description of Mithridates (Vir. III. 79), as the 'ingenio malo pravoque' is borrowed by Sulpicins Severus (Hist. Sac. 3. 45), thus showing how familiar passages of Sallust clung to the memory of later writers.

1. 17. pravo. Cf. Hor. Sat. 3. 2, 55, 'si te alio pravum detorseris.' His character was not merely bad by nature (malo) but had a vicious bias from babit.

1. 19. ibi for 'in quibus,' as 'unde' for 'a quo' (Jug. 14. 23), and •ubi' for 'apud quos' (Cat. 30. 8).

exercuit, as an agent in the proscription of Sulla, by the murder of several knights, and especially of Marius Gratidianus an eminent connexion of Marius and Cicero.

pations inediae. Cf. the like description of Hannibal in Livy a1.4, 5, 'caloris ac frigoris patientia par ... vigiliarum somnique nec die nec nocte discriminata tempora.'

1. 31. simulator. A rare use of a substantive in an adjectival sense. Cf. Jug. 64. 1, 'contemptor animus;' 13. 5,'mulieris ancillae;' for the meaning, cf. Servius ad Verg. Aen. 1.516, dissimulamus nota, simulamus ignota, ut Sallustius,' etc.

L 32. alieni adpetens, s. p. Cf. two like contrasts of Tacitrs, probably suggested by this: Germ. 31. 5. prodigi alieni contemptores sui,' and of Galba, Hist. 1. 49, 5. 'pecuniae alienae non appetens, suae parcus.'

1. 33. eloquentiae. We read in Aul. Gell. 1. 15, 18, that the gram. marian Valerius Probus used to urge that Sallust wrote 'loquentiae,' and made the correction in his own copy, 'quod loquentia novatori verborum Sallustio maxime congrueret, eloquentia cum insipientia minime conveniret.'

vastas. A bold use for ‘restless, 'insatiable;' cf. use of • vastabat,' 15. 5.

1. 35. dominationem. The dictatorship of Sulla was practically an autocracy, and a tempting example for military adventurers. Cf. Vell. Paterc. 3. 28, 3, 'imperio quo priores ad vindicandam maximis periculis populi libertatem usi erant, eo immodicae crudelitatis licentia usus est.'

1. 37. quioquam pensi. Cf. Jug. 41. 9, nihil pensi neque sancia babere;' the phrase, often used by Plautus, recalls the times when value was only determined by weight of bronze; cf. note on ‘acstumo,' a. 8.

L 28. inopia rei familiaris, straightened means.'

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I. 39. quae utraque, neut. plur. referring to two fem. singulars, as 20. 2, ‘ni virtus fidesque vostra spectata forent.'

1. 32. res ipsa. The digression can scarcely be said to be required by the subject in hand; it was more probably suggested by the example of Thucydides 1. 88-118, but with far less propriety and proportion.

hortari, coupled with the infin., as 'dehortari,' Jug. 34. 4. 'mo. pere,' Jug. 19. 2, instead of 'ut,''ne' with subj. Tacitus especially followed this example, which is very rare in Cicero; cf. pro Sest. 3. 7.

1. 33. supra repetere, 'to begin with earlier times,' as Tac. Ann. 16. 18, 1, •De C. Petronio pauca supra repetenda sunt.'

P. 52, l. 1. maiorum. This supplies by prolepsis a subject to the following verbs, ‘habuerint,' etc.; cf. Jug. 55. I.

1. 2. ex puloherrima. Dietsch supplies here .atque optima' from inferior MSS. and Aug. de Civ, a. 18, to preserve the balance of the sentence, but it seems needless.

1. 4. disserero, more frequently used with 'de,' though not in Cic. de N. D. 3. 40, 95. Cf. Tac. Hist. 4. 69, 1, 'vim Romanam pacisque bona dissertans,'

1. 5. 6. 6. Urbem Romam, seems imitated by Tac. Ann. 1. I, I, urbem Romam a principio reges habuere.'

sicuti ego accepi. As at least 25 different versions of the foundation legend of Rome have come down to us (Sir G. Lewis's Credibility of Early Roman History, 1. 401), 'accepi' may imply something like *I have heard on good authority,' es Sallust must have heard other traditions. His account agrees better with the origin of Alba, as described by Fabius Pictor and Vergil, than with that of Rome, but this may be due to the vague brevity of his language.

1.7. cumque. It is rare to find 'que' combined in prose with a preposition before the time of Livy, except when the same prepos. is repeated.

1. 8. sine legibus, as in the golden age of fable, Ovid, Metaph. 1. 59, ‘Aurea prima sata est aetas, quae vindice nullo | sponte sua sine lege fidem rectumque colebat.' Sallust gives a like conjectural account of the early inhabitants of Northern Africa. Jug. 18. a, 'neque lege aut imperio . . . regebantur.'

1. 1o. alii alio. The usage of Sallust seems to require 'alius' here as the best MSS. read, not ‘alii ;' cf. 23. 2, "alius alii tanti facinoris conscii;' 52. 28. ‘alius alium expectantes;' Jug. 13. 3. 'reguli... alius alio concessere.' Cf. Gründel, Quaestiones Sallustianae, p. 6.

1. II. coaluerint. After this an inferior MS. inserts •ita brevi mul. titudo diversa atque vaga concordia civitas facta erat,' which occurs also as a quotation. 'apud eos (gentiles)'in Angustin. Ep. 138. 4. If this


belongs to another author, it is strange that it should have been introduced into the text by a copyist, and it may be genuine. Cf. Jordan in Hermes 1. 246.

1. 14. habentur points probably to the condition of the tenure of earthly goods, and is not equivalent merely to `sese habent.'

1. 15. regos populique, i. e. the kings of the Etrurian towns, and the federal leagues of Aequian, Volscian, and Sabellian tribes. Rome was not however quite the innocent object of aggression which she is here represented.

temptare. This seems to have been certainly the accepted spell. ing of the Roman writers, though there is no reason for the insertion of the p etymologically (“tendere, tentus'), nor for euphony as where m of the root and i of the termination come together, as in 'contemptus.' With other frequentatives it is much used by Sallust, and in different shades of meaning.

panoi ex amicis. Rome however generally secured allies who did good service and often bore the brunt of the fighting, as the Latins were chiefly exposed to the forays of the Aequians and Volscians. In later days the allied contingents exceeded the Roman legions in effective strength.

1. 17. festinare, connected with 'manifestus,'. confestim,''infestus,' offendere.' Cf. Corssen 1. 149.

1. 20. magis dandis, etc. Copied from Thucyd. 2. 40, 6, ou gdp τάσχοντες εύ αλλά δρώντες, κτώμεθα τους φίλους.

1. 32. quibus corpus, etc. Cf. Arist. Polit. 4. 9, A His Búvajus év νεωτέροις, η δε φρόνησις εν πρεσβυτέρους εστίν.

1. 24. patres. Livy 1. 8, 6, .patres certe ab honore, patriciique progenies eorum appellati.' More probably the term “patres,' as equivalent to 'patres familias,' implies that they were heads of families, while 'senatus' denotes their age, the older men being selected for the purpose. Cf. Florus 1, 1, 15, 'consilium reipublicae penes senes esset qui ex auctoritate patres, ob aetatem senatus vocabantur.' Cf.Willems, Senat, 1.p.9.

L. 35. rogium imperium. It was an elective monarchy held for life, not hereditary.

conservandae. Cl. a like use of the gen. of the gerundive to ex. press an aim or purpose, 46. a, Jug. 88. 4. It is especially frequent in Tacitus.

1. 36. in superbiam, as in the traditional accounts of the haughty oppression of Tarquinius Superbus, which provoked the abolition of monarchy.

1. 28. imporatoros. An archaic use of the word for ordinary rulers. Ct. Jag. 1. 3. 'dux et imperator vitae mortalium animus est.' The two consuls however retained the fall .imperium 'both in peace and war.

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1. 29. insolescere occurs in this sense chiefly in Livy and Tacitus.

1. 30. c. 7. tempestate. Of very frequent occurrence in Sallust, as afterwards in Tacitus in the sense of time.'

1. 32. formidulosa. This spelling is better attested in older MSS. generally than • formidolosa,' as also sanguinulentus,' • vinulentus,' though the o afterwards gained ground. •Formido' is ‘stiffening' or

settled ' fear from the same root as 'forma,'. fortis,'. forum,''furca,' like Sansk. 'dhar,' stiff.' Corssen 1. 476.

1. 33. adopta. So Jug. 101. 9. 'adeptam libertatem.' Other de ponents are used in a passive sense : 'ulcisci,' Jug. 31. 8; interpretari,' Jug. 17. 7: •enisus,' Jug. 25. 2; 'frustratus,' Jug. 58. 3. These are thought to be partly due to the influence of more archaic styles.

P. 53, 1. 1. quantum brevi creverit. This may remind us of Hdt. 5. 66, 1, Αθήναι ... απαλλαχθείσαι τυράννων, εγίνοντο μεζονεs. The history of Rome however for some time after the expulsion of the Tar. quins shows decline rather than progress, if we may accept the account in Livy.

1. 3. usum militias. Cf. Caesar, B. G. 6. 40, 6, 'usu rei militaris percepto.'

1. 5. habebant, coupled with 'discebat' after 'iuventus.' For like cases of singular and plural verbs combined, cf. 23. 6; 17.6.

labor. Some editors read •labos' on the authority of Servius, who writes ad Verg. Aen. I. 253, 'Sallustius poene ubique labos posuit, quem nulla necessitas coegit.' Yet nearly all the MSS. have •labor.'

1. 8. se quisque. The 'se' appears a pleonasm like the 'sese student' of 1. 1. Gründel suggests •si quisque,' and would move .properabat' to before the conspici.'

hostem forire. An unusual expression for occidere,' which occurs also in Ennius, Ann. 8. 40, hostem qui feriet mi erit Cartba. giniensis.' Cf. 60. 4; Jug. 50. 4.

1. 9. faoinus facere. Sallust is especially fond of the jingling phrase, 11. 4; 19. 5; 51.6, etc. So Catullus, 'at nescis quod facinus facias' (81, 6).

1. 11. pecuniae liberales. Yet we hear much in early days of the distress of the small farmers, and of the rigorous demands, of the wealthier classes who put in force the stringent conditions of ancient law against the debtors. The Roman nobles were little scrupulous as to divitiae honestae.'

1. 14. parva manu. The illustrations of this would be drawn chiefly from the Eastern wars of Rome. Her successes in the West cost more time and men.

1 15. ea res. For this seeming pleonasm, cf. Jug. 84 3.

1. 17. e. 8. ex lubidine, 'at its caprice.' Cf. Jug. 43. 4. 'victoria nobilitas ex lubidine sua usa..'

magis. Some editors, following good MSS., omit the 'magis' here as in 9. 5 and 48. 5. Tacitus furnishes an example of such omis. sion in Ann. 4.61, .claris maioribus quam vetustis.'

1. 19. aliquanto minores. Cf. Thuc. I. 11, 6, aútá ge 8) tallra ονομαστότατα των τριών γενόμενα δηλούται τοις έργοις υποδεέστερα όντα tñs priums. Juv. 10. 174, .quicquid Graecia mendax | audet in historia.'

L 30. provenere. As of a crop or natural produce; cf. Pliny Ep. 1. 13, 1, 'magnum proventum poetarum annus hic attulit.'

scriptorum ingenia. A poetic inversion of 'writers of talent,' like the Homeric Πριάμοιο βίη, or is Τηλεμάχοιo, or the Κροίσου φιλόφρων åperd of Pindar.

1. 23. virtus tanta habetur. It is supposed that this idea was taken from Cato (Jordan, p. 19), cf. Vopiscus Prob. 1, .Certum est quod Sallustius, quodque M. Cato et Agellius historici sententiae modo in litteras rettulerunt, omnes omnium virtutes tantas esse, quantas videri voluerint eorum ingenia qui uniuscumque facta descripserant.' But the passage of Cato is not very similar, and only contrasts the fortune of Leonidas and an obscure military tribune whose self-devotion was as great.

1. 34. numquam ea copia, i.e. 'scriptorum.' Cicero says 'abest historia litteris nostris,' and gives a very disparaging criticism of the earlier writers on the subject (de Leg. 1, 3, 5).

1. 26. optumus quisque facere quam dicere ... malebat. Yet the earliest Roman historian Fabius Pictor took part in the Gallic war of 225 B.C., Cincius Alimentus in the Second Punic War, and Cato in most of the stirring actions of his time. Other early annalists were *men of the bighest social position, who had been engaged in public life, and themselves billed some of the principal offices in the state.' Lewis's Credibility of Roman Hist. 1. 43.

1. 37. benefacta. An archaic expression. Cf. Cato in passage referred to just above; 'at idem benefactum quo in loco ponas nimium interest' (., p. 19).

1. 28. o. 9. ooncordia maxume. The repeated secessions of the plebs to the Mons Sacer or the Aventine tell a very different tale, though it is true that the long struggle of the commons to wrest from the patricians fuller political rights was carried on by the use of constitutional weapons, unlike the horrors of the later Civil Wars.

L 30. jurgia. The old form of .iurgare' seems to have been jurigare' (fr. ‘ias ), like 'gnari.gare' of 'darrare,' and 'puri-gare' of .purgare.' Corssen 3. 583.

1 3a. suppliotis Deorum. Cf. Varro de R. R. 5. 'ad Deorum ser.

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