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ORATIONS OF CICERO
WITH INTRODUCTION, NOTES, AND
ALBERT HARKNESS, PH.D., LL.D.
PROFESSOR EMERITUS IN BROWN UNIVERSITY
JOHN C. KIRTLAND, JR., A.M.
PROFESSOR IN THE PHILLIPS EXETER ACADEMY
GEORGE A. WILLIAMS, PH.D.
PROFESSOR IN KALAMAZOO COLLEGE; LATE INSTRUCTOR IN
NEW YORK.:. CINCINNATI .:. CHICAGO
717.2660 σ H
24 July, 1907.
ft of the Publishers,
HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY
June 12, 1927
COPYRIGHT, 1906, BY
ORATIONS OF CICERO,
W. P. I
THE volume now offered to the public is intended to be emphatically a student's edition of the orations most frequently read in a Latin course preparatory for college. The orations which it contains are all fine specimens of Roman eloquence, and they illustrate the forensic, senatorial, and judicial departments of Roman oratory. They are arranged in the order in which, it is thought, they can be studied to best advantage. Before the text of each oration is placed a special introduction, intended to furnish the pupil with such information in regard to the occasion and the subject as the orator assumes to be already in the possession of his hearers. The principal rhetorical divisions of the orations are designated by the technical Latin terms usually employed by the ancient rhetoricians.
The text is that of C. F. W. Mueller, Leipzig, 1895 and 1896. Long vowels are marked in the first five orations only, as it is deemed important for the student of Cicero to have some practice in reading Latin without such aid.
The notes are intended to aid and guide the efforts of the student who has already had some experience in the reading of a Latin classic and is now just beginning the study of Roman oratory, a subject intimately connected with the public life of the Romans, and one which the student ought to find not only highly instructive, but deeply interesting. They aim, therefore, to give him the key to all really difficult passages, and at the same time to furnish him such collateral information upon Roman manners and customs, upon Roman history and life, as will enable him to understand, appreciate, and enjoy these
masterpieces of Roman oratory. Care has, however, been taken not to interfere with that special course of direct instruction and illustration which belongs exclusively to the teacher.
In the notes questions are inserted at intervals to aid the student in adding to his stock of knowledge in a definite form such grammatical and historical information as his author places within his reach or such as he may readily find elsewhere. This feature of the work, it is hoped, may also prove helpful to the teacher in the difficult task of keeping the subject-matter of the orations steadily before the minds of his pupils, and may thus enable him greatly to enrich his class-room work and to throw around it an interest which would otherwise be absolutely impossible.
The volume is supplied with the needed maps and plans and with various pictorial illustrations inserted in the introduction and text, not for ornament, but for use. The learner will doubtless find them helpful in his attempts to appreciate Roman life.
In the vocabulary the editors have aimed to give the primary meanings of words with such other meanings as the student will need in translating the orations. They have also endeavored to treat the important subject of etymology in a simple and practical way, and thus to give the learner the advantage of seeing the significant elements which unite in forming compound and derivative words.
The general introduction to this edition contains an outline of the life of Cicero, a brief history of Roman oratory, a chronological table of contemporaneous Roman history, and a short treatise on Roman public life, giving an account of the divisions of the people, the powers and duties of the magistrates, of the senate, of the popular assemblies, and of the courts of justice. This large amount of introductory matter seemed to be demanded to meet the special needs of the student of Roman oratory, and it will doubtless be welcomed by teachers in view`
of the interest now taken in historical and political questions both in school and in college.
The notes and the vocabulary are the product of the joint labors of the three editors whose names stand on the title-page. For the introductions and the illustrations the senior editor alone is responsible.
My thanks are due to Harper & Company for permission to use the illustration of the Tumulus of Achilles from the "Ilios" of Dr. Schliemann, and to Houghton, Mifflin & Company and The Macmillan Company for the use of illustrations from Lanciani's "Ancient Rome" and Kelsey's edition of Mau's "Pompeii," and to E. Becchetti of Rome for the use of his valuable drawings of the Restoration of the Forum and its Surroundings.
My thanks are also due to Professor J. H. Dickason of Wooster, Ohio, for his kindness in reading the proof and in making valuable suggestions.
In conclusion I desire once more to convey my sincere thanks to the classical teachers of the country, who by their fidelity and skill in the use of my previous books have contributed so largely to their success. To their hands this volume is now respectfully and gratefully committed.