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OBS. 1. The personal pronouns, which in English are, for the most part, added to the verb, in Latin are commonly understood; because the several persons are sufficiently distinguished from one another by the different terminations of the verb, though the persons themselves be not expressed. The learner, however, at first may be accustomed to join them with the verb; thus, ego sum, I am ; tu es, thou art, or you are; ille est, he is; nos sumus, we are, &c. So, ego amo, I love; tu amas, thou lovest, or you love; ille amat, he loveth or loves; nos amamus, we love, &c.

OBS. 2. In the second person singular in English, we commonly use the plural form, except in solemn discourse; as, tu es, thou art, or much oftener, you are; tu eras, thou wast, or you were; tu sis, thou mayest be, or you may be, &c. So, tu amas, thou lovest, or you love; tu amabas, thou lovedst, or you loved, &c.

For examples of the variation of regular verbs in the different conjugations, see pages 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, & 98—113.

FORMATION OF VERBS.

There are four principal parts of a verb, from which all the rest are formed; namely, o of the present, i of the perfect, um of the supine, and re of the infinitive; according to the following rhyme :

1. From o are formed am and em.

2. From i; ram, rim, ro, sse, and ssem.

3. U, us, and rus, are form'd

om um.

4. All other parts from re do come; as, bam, bo, rem ; a, e, and i; ns and dus; dum, do, and di; as,

Am-o, -em; Am-avi, -eram, -erim, -issem, -ero, -isse; Amat-um, -u, -urus, -us; Am-are, -abam, -abo, -arem, -a, -ans, andum, di, do, -andus.

Doc-eo, -eam; Doc-ui, -ueram, &c. Doct-um, -u, -urus, -us; Doc-ere, -ebam, -ebo, -erem, -e, -ens, -endum, di, do, -endus.

Leg-o, -am; Leg-i, -eram, &c. Lect-um, -u, -urus, -us; Leg-ère, -ebam, erem, -e, -ens, -endum, &c. Aud-io, -iam; Aud-ivi, -iveram, &c. Audit-um, -u, -urus, -us; Aud-ire, iebam, -irem, -i, -iens, -iendum, di, do, -iendus.-So verbs of the third conjugation in io ; as, Cap-io, -iam; Cep-i, -eram, &c. Capt-um, -u, &c. Cap-ĕre, -iebam, -ěrem, -e, -iens, -iendum, di, do, -iendus. The passive voice is formed from the active, by adding r to o, or changing m into r.

But it is much more easy and natural to form all the parts of a verb from the present and perfect of the indicative, and from the supine; thus,

Am-o, -ābam, -ābo, -em, -ārem, -a or -ãto, -āre, -ans, -andum, di, do, &c. -andus:
Amav-i, -ĕram, -ĕrim, -issem, -ĕro, -isse: Amát-um, -us, -úrus.

So Doc-eo, -ébam, -ébo, -eam, -ērem, -e or -eto, -ére, -ens, -endum, di, &c. -endus; Docu-i, -ĕram, ĕrim, -issem, -ĕro, -isse: Doct-um, -us, -ūrus.

Lěg-o, -ebam, -am, -es, -et, &c. -am, -as, -at, &c. ěrem, -e or -îto, -ĕre, -ens, -endum, &c. endus : Leg-i, -ĕram, &c. Lect-um, -us, -urus :

Căp-io, -iebam, -iam, -ies, -iet, &c. -iam, -ias, &c. ěrem, -e or ĭto, -ère, -iens, -iendum, -iendus : Cép-i, -ěram, &c. Capt-um, -us, -ūrus.

Aud-io, iébam, &c. Audiv-i, -ĕram, &c.

A verb is commonly said to be conjugated, when only its principal parts are mentioned, because from them all the rest are derived.

The first person of the Present of the indicative is called the Theme or the Root of the verb, because from it the other three principal parts are formed.

The letters of a verb which always remain the same, are called Radical letters; as, am in am-o. The rest are called the Termination; as, abamus in am-abamus.

All the letters which come before -āre, -ēre, -ĕre, or -ire, of the infinitive, are radical letters. By putting these before the terminations, all the parts of any regular verb may be readily formed, except the compound tenses.

SIGNIFICATION OF THE TENSES IN THE VARIOUS MODES.

The tenses formed from the present of the indicative or infinitive signify in general the continuance of an action or passion, or represent them as present at some particular time: the other tenses express an action or passion completed; but not always so absolutely, as entirely to exclude the continuance of the same action or passion; thus, Amo, I love, do love, or am loving; amabam, I loved, did love, or was loving, &c.

Amavi, I loved, did love, or have loved, that is, have done with loving, &c.

In like manner in the passive voice; Amor, I am loved, I am in loving, or in being loved, &c. Past time in the passive voice is expressed several different ways, by means of the auxiliary verb sum, and the participle perfect; thus,

Indicative Mode.

Perfect.

Amatus sum, I am, or have been loved, or oftener, I was loved.
Amatus fui, I have been loved, or I was loved.
Plu-perfect. Amatus eram, I was, or had been loved.
Amatus fueram, I had been loved.

Subjunctive Mode.

Perfect.

Amatus sim, I may be, or may have been loved.
Amatus fuerim, I may have been loved.

Plu-perfect. Amatus essem, I might, could, would, or should be, or have been loved.

Amatus fuissem, I might, could, would, or should have been loved, or had been loved.
Amatus fuero, I shall have been loved.

Future.
The verb sum is also employed to express future time in the indicative mode, both active and
passive; thus,

Amaturus sum, I am about to love, I am to love, I am going to love, or I will love.

We chiefly use this form when some purpose or intention is signified. Amatus ero, I shall be loved.

OBS. 1. The participles amatus and amaturus are put before the auxiliary verb, because we commonly find them so placed in the classics.

OBS. 2. In these compound tenses the learner should be taught to vary the participle like an adjective noun, according to the gender and number of the different substantives to which it is applied; thus, amatus est, he is or was loved, when applied to a man; amata est, she was loved, when applied to a woman; amatum est, it was loved, when applied to a thing; amati sunt, they were loved, when applied to men, &c. The connecting of syntax, so far as is necessary, with the inflection of nouns and verbs, seems to be the most proper method of teaching both.

OBS. 3. The past time and participle perfect in English are taken in different meanings, according to the different tenses in Latin which they are used to express. Thus, "I loved," when put for amabam, is taken in a sense different from what it has when put for amavi; so amor, and amatus sum, I am loved; amabar and amatus eram, I was loved; amer and amatus sim, &c. In the one, loved is taken in a present, in the other in a past sense. This ambiguity arises from the defective nature of the English verb.

OBS. 4. The tenses of the subjunctive mode may be variously rendered, according to their connexion with the other parts of a sentence. They are often expressed in English as the same tenses of the indicative, and sometimes one tense apparently put for another.

Thus, Quasi intelligant, qualis sit, As if they understood, what kind of person he is, Cic. In facinus jurâsses putes, You would think, &c. Ov. Eloquar an sileam? Shall I speak out, or be silent? Nec vos arguerim, Teucri, for arguam, Virg. Si quid te fugerit, ego perierim, for peribo, Ter. Hunc ego si potui tantum sperare dolorem; Et preferre, soror, potero: for potuissem and possem, Virg. Singula quid referam? Why should I mention every thing? Id. Prædiceres mihi, You should have told me before hand, Ter. At tu dictis, Albane, maneres, Ought to have stood to your word, Virg. Citius crediderim, I should sooner believe, Juv. Hauserit ensis, The sword would have destroyed, Virg. Fuerint irati, Grant or suppose they were angry. Si id fecisset, If he did or should do that, Cic. The same promiscuous use of the tenses seems also to take place sometimes in the indicative and infinitive; and the indicative to be put for the subjunctive; as, Animus meminisse horret, luctuque refugit, for refugit, Virg. Fuerat melius, for fuisset, Id. Invidia dilapsa erat, for fuisset, Sall. Quamdiu in portum venis? for venisti, Plaut. Quàm mox navigo Ephesum, for navigabo, Id. Tu si hic sis, aliter sentias, Ter. for esses and sentires. Cato affirmat, se vivo, illum non triumphare, for triumphaturum esse, Cic. Persuadet Castico, ut occuparet, for occupet, Cæs.

OBS. 5. The future of the subjunctive, and also of the indicative, is often rendered by the present of the subjunctive in English; as, nisi hoc faciet, or fecerit, unless he do this, Ter.

OBS. 6. Instead of the imperative we often use the present of the subjunctive; as, valeas, farewell; huc venias, come hither, &c. And also the future both of the indicative and subjunctive; as, non occides, do not kill; ne feceris, do not do it; valebis, meque amabis, farewell, and love me, Cic.

The present time and the preter-imperfect of the infinitive are both expressed under the same form. All the varieties of past and future time are expressed by the other two tenses. But in order properly to exemplify the tenses of the infinitive mode, we must put an accusative, and some other verb, before each of them; thus,

Dicit me scribere; he says that I write, do write, or am writing.

Dixit me scribère; he said that I wrote, did write, or was writing.
Dicit me scripsisse; he says that I wrote, did write, or have written.
Dixit me scripsisse; he said that I had written.

Dicit me scripturum esse; he says that I will write.

Dixit nos scripturos esse; he said that we would write.

Dicit nos scripturos fuisse; he says that we would have written.

Dicit literas scribi; he says that letters are written, writing, a writing, or in writing.

Dixit literas scribi; he said that letters were writing, or written.
Dicit literas scriptas esse; he says that letters are, or were written.
Dicit literas scriptas fuisse; he says that letters have been written.
Dixit literas, scriptas fuisse; he said that letters had been written.
Dicit literas scriptum iri; he says that letters will be written.
Dixit literas scriptum iri; he said that letters would be written.

The future, scriptum iri, is made up of the former supine, and the infinitive passive of the verb eo, and therefore never admits of any variation.

The future of the infinitive is sometimes expressed by a periphrăsis or circumlocution; thus, scio fore vel futurum esse ut scribant,-ut literæ scribantur; I know that they will write,—that letters will be written. Scivi fore vel futurum esse ut scriberent,―ut literæ scriberentur; I knew that they

would write, &c. Scivi futurum fuisse, ut litera scriberentur; I knew that letters would have been written. This form is necessary in verbs which want the supine.

OBS. 7. The different tenses, when joined with any expediency or necessity, are thus expressed Scribendum est mihi, puero, nobis, &c. literas; I, the boy, we, &c. must write letters. Scribendum fuit mihi, puero, nobis, &c. I must have written, &c. Scribendum erit mihi; I shall be obliged to write.

Scio scribendum esse mihi literas; I know that I must write letters.

scribendum fuisse mihi ;

-that I must have written.

Dixit scribendum fore mihi; He said that I should be obliged to write.

Or with the participle in dus.

Literæ sunt scribendæ mihi, puero, hominibus, &c. or a me, puero, &c.; Letters are to be, or must be written by me, by the boy, by men, &c. So literæ scribenda erunt, fuerunt, erunt, &c. Si literæ scribendæ sint, essent, forent, &c. Scio literas scribendas esse; I know that letters are to be, or must be written. Scivi literas scribendas fuisse; I knew that letters ought to have been, or must have been written.

Note. Most of the simple tenses of a verb in Latin may be expressed, as in English by the participle and the auxiliary verb sum; as, Sum amans, for amo, I am loving; eram amans, for amābam, &c. Fui te carens, for carui, Plaut. Ut sis sciens, for ut scias, Ter. Only the tenses in the active which come from the preterite, and those in the passive which come from the present, cannot be properly expressed in this manner: because the Latins have no participle perfect active, nor participle present passive. This manner of expression, however, does not often occur.

FORMATION OF THE PRETERITE AND SUPINE,

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GENERAL RULES.

1. Compound and simple verbs form the preterite and supine in the same manner; as, Võco, võcāvi, vocatum, to call: so, rěvěco, revócāvi, revŏcālum, to recall.

Exc. 1. When the simple verb in the preterite doubles the first syllable of the present, the compounds lose the former syllable; as, pello, pěpůli, to beat; rěpello, rěpůli, never repepuli, to beat back. But the compounds of do, sto, disco, and posco, follow the general rule; thus, ēdisco, edidici, to get by heart; deposco, depoposci, to demand: so, præcurro, præcucurri; rěpungo, rěpupugi.

Exc. 2. Compounds which change a of the simple verb into i, have e in the supine; as, facio, feci, factum, to make; perficio, perfeci, perfectum, to perfect. But compound verbs ending in do and go; also the compounds of habeo, plăceo, săpio, sălio, and stătuo, observe the general rule.

2. Verbs which want the preterite, want likewise the supine.

SPECIAL RULES.

First Conjugation.

Verbs of the first conjugation have āvi in the preterite, and ātum in the supine; as, Creo, oreavi, creatum, to create; păro, părāvi, părătum, to prepare.

Exc. 1. Do, dědi, dătum, dăre, to give: so, venundo, to sell; circundo, to surround; pessundo, to overthrow; satisdo, to give surety; venundedi, venundătum, venundáre, &c. The other compounds of do are of the third conjugation.

Sto, stěti, statum, to stand. Its compounds have stiti, stītum, and oftener stātum ; as, præsto, præstiti, præstitum, or præstātum, to excel, to perform. So ad-, ante-, con-, ex-, in-, ob-, per, pro-, re-sto.

Exc. 2. Lăvo, lāvi, lōtum, lautum, lăvātum, to wash.

Poto, potavi, potum, or pōtātum, to drink.

Juvo, juvi, jutum, to help; fut. part. juvaturus. So adjuvo.
Exc. 3. Cubo, cubui, cubitum, to lie. So, ac-, ex-, oc-, rĕ-cubo.

The other com

pounds insert an m, and are of the third conjugation.

Domo, domui, domitum, to subdue. So e-, per-domo.

Sono, sonui, sonitum, to sound. So as-, circum-, con-, dis-, ex-, in-, per-, præ-, re-sono.

Tono, tonui, tonitum, to thunder. So at-, circum-, in-, superin-, rě-tono. Horace has intonatus.

Věto, větui, větĭtum, to forbid.

Crěpo, crěpui, crepitum, to make a noise. So con-, in-, per-, rě-crěpo: discrěpo has rather discrěpāvi.

Exc 4. Frico, fricui, frictum, to rub. So af-, circum-, con-, de-, ef-, in-, per-, re-frico. But some of these have also atum.

Sěco, secui, sectum, to cut. So circum-, con-, dē-, dis-, ex-, in-, inter-, per-, præ-, re-, sub-sěco.

Něco, něcui, or něcavi, něcātum, to kill. So inter-, é-něco: but these have oftener ectum; enectum, internectum.

Mico, micui, to glitter, to shine. So inter-, pro-mico. Emico, has ēmicui, ēmĭcātum; dimico, dimicavi, dimicatum, rarely dimicui, to fight. Exc. 5. These three want both preterite and supine; labo, to fall or faint; nexo, to bind; and plico, to fold.

Plico, compounded with a noun, or with the prepositions, re-, sub-, has āvi, ātum ; as, duplico, duplicavi, duplicatum, to double. So multi-, sup-, re-plico.

The other compounds of plico have either āvi and ātum, or ui and ĭtum; as, applico, applicui, applicitum, or -āvi, ātum, to apply. So im-, com-plico. Explico, to unfold, has commonly explicui, explicitum ; but when it signifies to explain or interpret, explicavi, explicatum.

Second Conjugation.

Verbs of the second conjugation have ui and itum; as, habeo, habui, habitum, to have. So,

Adhibeo, to admit, to use.
Cohibeo, inhibeo, to restrain.
Exhibeo, to show, to give.
Pěrhibeo, to say, to give out.
Prohibeo, to hinder.
Posthabeo, to value less.
Præbeo, to afford.

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Rědhibeo, to return, or take back
a thing that was sold for
some fault.
Debeo, to owe.
Měreo, to deserve: Com-, dè-,
e-, per-, pro-měreo, or me-

reor.

ui want the supine; as, āreo, ārui, to be dry. So,

Humeo, to be wet.

Immineo, to hang over.

Ranceo, to be mouldy.
Rigeo, to be stiff.
Rubeo, to be red.

Langueo, to languish.

Líqueo, licui, to melt to be clear. Squaleo, to be foul.

Măceo, to be lean.

Sordeo, to be nasty.
Studeo, to favour.
Stupco, to be amazed.
Splendeo, to shine.
Těpeo, to be warm.
Torpeo, to be benumbed.
Tumeo, to swell.
Vigeo, to be strong.
Vireo, to be green.

Mădeo, to be wet.
Marceo, to wither.
Múceo, to be mouldy.
Niteo, to shine.

Palleo, to be pale.
Patco, to be open.
Puteo, to stink.
Putreo, to rot.

Moneo, to admonish : Ad-, com-,
præ-moneo.

Terreo, to terrify: Abs-, con,
de-, ex-, per-terreo.
Diribeo, to count over, to distri
bute.

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But the neuter verbs which follow, together with their compounds, have the supine, and are regularly conjugated: Valeo, to be in health; and æqui-, con-, e-, in-, prœvaleo: Plăceo, to please; and com-, per-placeo: Displiceo, to displease: Căreo, to want: Pāreo, to appear, to obey; and ap-, com-pāreo: Jaceo, to lie; and ad-, circum-, inter-, ob-, præ-, sub-, super-jaceo: Caleo, to be warm; and con-, in-, ob-, per-, re-căleo: Noceo, to hurt; Doleo, to be grieved; and con-, de-, in-, per-doleo: Coaleo, to grow together; Liceo, which in the active signifies, to be lawful, to be valued; and what is singular, in the passive, to bid a price: Lăteo, to lurk, the compounds of which want the supine, deliteo, inter-, sub-lateo, as likewise do those of Tăceo, -cui, -citum, to be silent, con-, ob-, rě-tĭceo.

These three active verbs likewise want the supine: Timeo, -ui, to fear; Sileo, -ui, to conceal; Arceo, -cui, to drive away: But the compounds of arceo have the supine; as, exerceo, exercui, exercitum, to exercise. So coerceo, to restrain.

Exc. 1. The following verbs in BEO and CEO:

Jubeo, jussi, jussum, to order. So fide-jubeo, to bail, or be surety for.

Sorbeo, sorbui, sorptum, to sup. So ab-sorbeo, to suck in; ex-, re-sorbeo. We also find absorpsi, exsorpsi; Exsorptum, resorptum, are not in use.

Doceo, docui, doctum, to teach. So, ad-, con-, de-, e-, per-, sub-dŏceo.

Misceo, miscui, mistum, or mixtum, to mix. So ad-, com-, im-, inter-, per-, rě-misceo. Mulceo, mulsi, mulsum, to stroke, to soothe. So ad-, circum-, com-, de-, per-, rè

mulceo.

Luceo, luxi, to shine. So al-, circum-, col-, di-, e-, il, inter- per, or pel-, præ-, pro-, re-, sub-, trans-lūceo. Exc. 2. The following verbs in DEO:

Prandeo, prandi, pransum, to dine.

Video, vidi, visum, to see. So in-, per-, prœ-, pro-, rě-video.

Sědeo, sēdi, sessum, to sit. So as-, con-, de-, dis-, in-, ob-, per-, pos-, præ-, re-, sub-sideo: Circumsideo, or circumsědeo, supersedeo. But de-, dis-, per-, præ-, re-, sub-sideo, seem to want the supine.

Strideo, stridi, to make a noise.

Pendeo, pěpendi, pensum, to hang. So de-, im-, pro-, super-pendeo.
Mordeo, momordi, morsum, to bite. So ad-, com-, de-, ob-, præ-, re-mordeo.
Spondeo, spopondi, sponsum, to promise. So de-, re-spondeo.
Tondeo, totondi, tonsum, to clip. So at-, circum-, de-tondeo.

But the compounds of these verbs do not double the first syllable; thus, dependi, remordi, respondi, attondi, &c.

Rideo, risi, risum, to laugh. So ar-, de-, ir-, sub-rīdeo.
Suãdeo, suasi, suasum, to advise. So dis-, per-suädeo.
Ardeo, arsi, arsum, to burn. So ex-, in-, ob-ardeo.
Exc. 3. The following verbs in GEO:

Augeo, auxi, auctum, to increase. So ad-, ex-augeo.
Lugeo, luxi,
to mourn. So e-, pro-, sub-lugeo.
to be cold. So per-, re-frigeo.

Frigeo, frixi,
Tergeo, tersi, tersum, to wipe. So abs-, circum-, de-, ex-, per-tergeo.
Mulgeo, mulsi, mulsum, or mulctum, to milk. So e-, im-mulgeo.
Indulgeo, indulsi, indultum, to grant, to indulge.

Urgeo, ursi, - to press.

So ad-, ex-, in-, per-, sub-, super-urgeo.

Fulgeo, fulsi, to shine. So af-, circum-, con-, ef-, inter-, præ-, re-, super-fulgeo.
Turgeo, tursi, to swell. Algeo, alsi, to be cold.
Exc. 4. The following verbs in IEO and LEO:

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.

Vieo, vievi, vietum, to bind with twigs, to hoop a vessel.

Cieo, (civi) citum, to stir up, to rouse. So ac-, con-, ex-, in-, per-cieo. Civi comes from cio of the fourth conjugation.

Fleo, flēvi, flētum, to weep. So af-,

de-fleo.

Compleo, complevi, completum, to fill. So the other compounds of pleo; de-, ex-, im-, adim-, op‐, re-, sup-pleo.

Deleo, dēlēvi, dēlētum, to destroy, to blot out.

Oleo, to smell, has ŏlui, ŏlitum. So likewise its compounds, which have a similar signification; ob-, per-, red-, sub-ŏleo. But such of the compounds as have a different signification make evi and ētum; thus, exoleo, exõlēvi, exŏlētum, to fade. So insoleo, -ēvi, -ětum, or -itum, to grow into use; obsŏleo, -ēvi, -ětum, to grow out of use. Abŏleo, to abolish, has ǎbõlēvi, abõlĭtum; and adoleo, to grow up, to burn, adõlēvi, adultum. Exc. 5. Several verbs in NEO, QUEO, REO, and SEO.

Maneo, mansi, mansum, to stay. So per-, re-măneo.

Neo, nēvi, nētum, to spin. So per-neo.

Těneo, tenui, tentum, to hold. So con-, de-, dis-, ob-, re-, sus-tineo. But attineo, pertineo, are not used in the supine; and seldom abstineo.

Torqueo, torsi, tortum, to throw, to whirl, to twist. Thus, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, ob-, re-torqueo.

Hæreo, hasi, hæsum, to stick. Torreo, torrui, tostum, to roast. Censeo, censui, censum, to judge. be angry.

Exc. 6. Verbs in VEO have vi, tum; as, moveo, mōvi, mōtum, to move; Foveo, fovi, fötum, to cherish. So con-, re-foveo. So voveo, to vow or wish, and devoveo. Faveo, to favour; has fāvi, fautum; and căveo, to beware of; cāvi, cautum. So præ-căveo.

Thus, ad-, con-, in-, ob-, sub-hæreo.
So extorreo.

So ac-, per-, re-censeo, to review; succenseo, to

Neuter verbs in veo want the supine; as, păveo, pāvi, to be afraid.
Ferveo, to boil, to be hot, makes ferbui. So de-, ef-, in-, per-, re-fervea.

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