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Conniveo, to wink, has connivi and connixi.

Exc. 7. The following verbs want both preterite and supine: Lacteo, to suck milk; liveo, to be black and blue; scăteo, to abound; renideo, to shine; mareo, to be sorrowful; ǎveo, to desire; polleo, to be able; flaveo, to be yellow; denseo, to grow thick; glabreo, to be smooth or bare. To these add calveo, to be bald; cěveo, to wag the tail, as dogs do when they fawn on one; hebeo, to be dull; uveo, to be moist; and some others.

Third Conjugation.

Verbs of the third conjugation form their preterite and supine variously, according to the termination of the present.


1. Făcio, feci, factum, to do, to make. So the compounds which retain a lucri-, magni-, ărě-, călě-, mădě-, těpě-, běně-, mălě-, satis-făcio, &c. But those which change a into i have ectum; as, afficio, affeci, affectum. So con-, de-, ef-, in-, inter-, of-, per-, præ-, pro-, re-, suf-ficio. Note; FACIO, compounded with a noun, verb, or adverb, retains a; but when compounded with a preposition, it changes a into i.

Some compounds of facio are of the first conjugation; as, Amplifico, sacrifico, terrifico, magnifico; gratificor, to gratify, or do a good turn, to give up; ludificor, to mock.

Jăcio, jeci, jactum, to throw. So ab-, ad-, circum-, con-, de-, dis-, e-, in-, inter-, ob-, pro-, re-, sub-, super-, superin-, tra-jicio; in the supine, -ectum.

The compounds of specio and lacio, which themselves are not used, have exi, and ectum; as, aspicio, aspexi, aspectum, to behold. So circum-, con-, de-, dis-, in-, intro-, per-, pro-, re-, retro-, su-psicio.

Allicio, allexi, allectum, to allure. So il, pel-licio; but elício, to draw out, has elicui, elicitum.

2. Fŏdio, fōdi, fossum, to dig, to delve. So ad-, circum-, con-, ef-, in-, inter-, per-, præ-, re-, suf-, trans-fodio.

Fugio, fugi, fugitum, to fly. So au-, (for ab-,) con-, de-, dif-, ef-, per-, pro-, re-, suf-, subter-, trans-fugio.

3. Capio, cepi, captum, to take. So ac-, con-, de-, ex-, in-, inter-, oc-, per-, præ-, re-, sus-cipio, (in the supine -ceptum ;) and ante-căpio.

Rapio, răpui, raptum, to pull or snatch. So ab-, ar-, cor-, de-, di-, e-, prœ-, pro-, sur-ripio, -ripui, -reptum.

Săpio, săpui, to favour, to be wise. So consipio, to be well in one's wits; desipio, to be foolish; resipio, to come to one's wits.

Cupio, cupivi, cupitum, to desire. So con-, dis-, per-cupio.

4. Părio, pěpěri, paritum, or partum, to bring forth a child, to get. Its compounds are of the fourth conjugation.

Quatio, quassi, quassum, to shake; but quassi is hardly used. Its compounds have cussi, cussum; as, concutio, concussi, concussum. So de-, dis-, ex-, in-, per-, re-,

reper-, suc-cutio.

UO has ui, ūtum; as,

Arguo, argui, argutum, to show, to prove, or argue, to reprove. So co-, red-arguo, to confute. So,

Acuo, Exăcuo, to sharpen.

Batuo, vel battuo, to beat, to fight, to fence with


Induo, to put on clothes.
Exuo, lo put off clothes.

Imbuo, to wet or imbue, to season or instruct.
Minuo, to lessen : Com-, de-, di-, im-minuo.
Spuo, to spit: Con-, de-, ex-, in-spuo.

Stǎtuo, to set or place, to ordain.

Con-, de-, in-, præ-, pro-, re-, sub-stĭtuo. Sternuo, to sneeze.

Suo, to sew or stitch, to tack together: As-, circum-, con-, dis-, præ-, rě-, suo.

Tribuo, to give, to divide: At-, con-, dis-, retribuo.

Exc. 1. Fluo, fluxi, fluxum, to flow. So af-, circum-, con-, de-, dif-, ef-, in-, inter-,. per-, præter-, pro-, re-, subter-, super-, trans-fluo.

Struo, struxi, structum, to put in order, to build. So ad-, circum-, con-, de-, ex-, in-, ob-, præ-, sub-, super-struo.

Exc. 2. Luo, lui, luitum, to pay, to wash away, to suffer punishment. Its com

pounds have útum; as, abluo, -ui, -utum, to wash away, to purify. So al-, circum-, col-, de-, di-, e-, inter-, per-, pol-, pro-, sub-luo.

Ruo, rui, ruitum, to rush, to fall. Its compounds have ŭtum; as, diruo, dirui, dirutum, to overthrow. So é, ob-, pró-, sub-ruo. Corruo and irruo, want the supine ; as likewise do mětuo, to fear; pluo, to rain; ingruo, to assail; congruo, to agree; respuo, to reject, to slight; annuo, to assent; and the other compounds of the obsolete verb nuo; abnuo, to refuse; innuo, to nod, or beckon with the hand; rěnuo, to deny; all of which have ui in the preterite.

BO has bi, bitum; as,

Bíbo, bibi, bibitum, to drink. So ad-, com-, e-, im-, per-, præ-bibo.

Exc. 1. Scribo, scripsi, scriptum, to write. So ad-, circum-, con-, de-, ex-, in-, inter-, per-, post-, præ-, pro-, re-, sub-, super-, supra-, trans-scribo.

Nubo, nupsi, nuptum, to veil, to be married. So de-, e-, in-, ob-nūbo. Instead of nupsi, we often find nupta sum.

Exc. 2. The compounds of cubo in this conjugation insert an m before the last syllable; as, accumbo, accubui, accubitum, to recline at table. So con-, de-, dis-, in-, oc-, pro-, re-, suc-, superin-cumbo, -cubui, -cubitum.

These two verbs want the supine; scabo, scābi, to scratch; lambo, lambi, to lick. So ad-, circum-, de-, præ-lambo.

Glubo and deglubo, to strip, to flay, want both preterite and supine.


1. Dico, dixi, dictum, to say. So ab-, ad-, con-, contra-, e-, in-, inter-, præ-, pro-dico.

Duco, duxi, ductum, to lead. So ab-, ad-, circum-, con-, de-, di-, e-, in-, intro-, ob-, per-, præ-, pro-, re-, se-, sub-, tra-, or trans-duco.

2. Vinco, vici, victum, to overcome. So con-, de-, e-, per-, rě-vinco.

Parco, peperci, parsum, seldom parsi, parsitum, to spare. So comparco, or comperco, which is seldom used.

Ico, ici, ictum, to strike.

SCO has vi, tum; as,

Nosco, novi, nōtum, to know; future participle, nosciturus. So, Dignosco, to distinguish: igħosco, to pardon; also inter-, per-, præ-nosco. Cresco, -ěvi, -étum, to grow: Con-, de-, ex-, re-, and without the supine, ac-, in-, per-, pro-, suc-, super-cresco. Quiesco, -évi, -étum, to rest: Ac-, con-, inter-, re-quiesco.

Scisco, -ivi, itum, to ordain; ad-, or ascisco,
to take, to associate; concisco, to vote, to
commit; also præ-, re-scisco; descisco, to

Suesco, to be accustomed; as-, con-, de-, in-suesco,
-ēvi, -étum.

Exc. 1. Agnosco, agnōvi, agnitum, to own; cognosco, cognovi, cognitum, to know So recognosco, to review.

Pasco, pāvi, pastum, to feed. So com-, de-pasco.

Exc. 2. The following verbs want the supine:

Disco, didici, to learn. So ad-, con-, de-, e-, per-, præ-disco, -didici.

Posco, poposci, to demand. So ap-, de-, ex-, re-posco.

Compesco, compescui, to stop, to restrain. So dispesco, dispescui, to separate. Exc. 3. Glisco, to grow; fatisco, to be weary; and likewise inceptive verbs want both preterite and supine: as, aresco, to become dry. But these verbs borrow the preterite and supine from their primitives; as, ardesco, to grow hot, arsi, arsum, from ardeo.

Ascendo, to mount.
Descendo, to go down.

Con-, e-, ex-, in-, tran-scendo.
Accendo, to kindle: In-, suc-


DO has di, sum; as,

Scando, scandi, scansum, to climb; ědo, edi, esum, to eat.

Cudo, to forge, to stamp, or coin:
Ex-, in-, per-, pro-, re-cúdo.
Defendo, to defend.
Offendo, to strike against, to
offend, to find.


Mando, to chew: Præ-, re-

Prehendo, to take hold of : Ap-,
com-, de-prehendo.

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Exc. 1. Divido, divisi, divisum, to divide.

Rādo, rāsi, rāsum, to shave. So ab-, circum-, cor-, de-, e-, inter-, præ-, subrado.

Claudo, clausi, clausum, to close. So circum-, con-, dis-, ex-, in-, inter-, præ-, re-, se-clūdo.

Plaudo, plausi, plausum, to clap hands for joy. So ap-, circum-plaudo: also com-, dis-, ex-, sup-plodo, -plosi, -plosum.

Ludo, lusi, lusum, to play. So ab-, al-, col-, de-, e-, il-, inter-, ob-, præ-, pro-, re-lūdo.

Trūdo, trūsi, trūsum, to thrust. So abs-, con-, de-, ex-, in-, ob-, pro-, re-trūdo.
Lado, lasi, læsum, to hurt. So al-, col-, e-, il-lido-, -lisi, -lisum.

Rōdo, rōsi, rōsum, to gnaw. So ab-, ar-, circum-, cor-, de-, e-, ob-, per-, præ-rodo. Vado, to go, wants both preterite and supine; but its compounds have si, sum; as, invado, invasi, invāsum, to invade, or fall upon. So circum-, e-, super-vādo.

Cēdo, cessi, cessum, to yield. So abs-, ac-, antě-, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, inter-, præ-, pro-, rě-, retro-, se-, suc-cēdo.

Exc. 2. Pando, pandi, passum, and sometimes pansum, to open, to spread. So dis-, ex-, op-, præ-, re-pando.

Comedo, comēdi, comēsum or comestum, to eat. But ĕdo itself, and the rest of its compounds, have always esum; as, ad-, amb-, ex-, per-, sub-, super-ědo, -ēdi,


Fundo, fudi, fusum, to pour forth. So af-, circum-, con-, de-, dif-, ef-, in-, inter-, of-, per-, pro-, re-, suf-, super-, superin-, trans-fundo.

Scindo, scidi, scissum, to cut. So as-, circum-, con-, ex-, inter-, per-, præ-, pro-, re-, tran-scindo.

Findo, fidi, fissum, to cleave. So con-, dif-, in-findo.

Exc. 3. Tundo, tutŭdi, tunsum, and sometimes tūsum, to beat. have tudi, tusum; as, contundo, contudi, contusum, to bruise. re-tundo.

The compounds

So ex-, ob-, per-,

Cado, cecidi, căsum, to fall. The compounds want the supine; as, ac-, con-, de-, ex-, inter-, pro-, suc-cido, -cidi: except, incido, incidi, incasum, to fall in; recido, recidi, recāsum, to fall back; and occido, occidi, occasum, to fall down.

Cado, cecidi, cæsum, to cut, to kill. The compounds change a into i long; as, accido, accidi, accisum, to cut about. So abs-, con-, circum-, de-, ex-, in-, inter-, oc-, per-, præ-, rě-, suc-cido.

Tendo, tětendi, tensum or tentum, to stretch out. So at-, con-, de-, dis, ex-, ob-, præ-, prō-tendo-, -tendi, -tensum, or tentum. But the compounds have rather tentum, except ostendo, to show; which has commonly ostensum.

Pēdo, pěpēdi, peditum, to break wind backward. So op-pēdo.

Pendo, pependi, pensum, to weigh. So ap-, de-, dis-, ex-, im-, per-, re-, sus-pendo, -pendi, -pensum.

Exc. 4. The compounds of do have didi, and ditum; as, abdo, abdidi, abditum, to hide. So ad-, con-, de-, di-, ē-, ob-, per-, pro-, red-, sub-, tra-do: also, decon-, re-condo and coad-, superad-do; and deper-, disper-do. To these add credo, credidi, creditum, to believe; vendo, vendidi, venditum, to sell. Abscondo, to hide, has abscondi, absconditum, rarely abscondidi.


Exc. 5. These three want the supine: strido, strīdi, to creak; rudo, rūdi, to bray like an ass; and sido, sidi, to sink down. The compounds of sido borrow the preterite and supine from sedeo; as, consido, consēdi, consessum, to sit down. So as-, circum-, de-, in-, ob-, per-, rè-, sub-sido.

Note. Several compounds of verbs in do and deo, in some respects resemble one another, and therefore should be carefully distinguished; as, concido, concedo, concido; consido and consideo; conscindo, conscendo, &c.

GO, GUO, has xi, ctum; as,

Rego, rexi, rectum, to rule, to govern; dirigo, -exi, -ectum, to direct; arigo and ērigo, -exi, -ectum, to raise up; corrigo, to correct; porrigo, to stretch out; subrigo, to raise up. So,

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Cingo, cinxi, cinctum, to gird, to surround: Ac-,
dis-, circum-, in-, præ-, re-, suc-cingo.
Fligo, to dash, or beat upon: Af-, con-, in-fligo;
also pro-fligo, to rout, of the first conjugation.
Jungo, to join: abjungo, to separate: Ad-, con-,
de-, dis-, in-, inter-, se-, sub-jungo.
Lingo, to lick: de-, é-lingo; and pollingo, to
anoint a dead body.

Mungo, to wipe, or clean the nose.

Exc. 1. Surgo, to rise, has surrexi, surrectum. So as-, circum-, con-, de-, ex-, in-, re-surgo.

Pergo, porrexi, perrectum, to go forward.

Stringo, strinxi, strictum, to bind, to strain, to lop. So ad-, con-, de-, dis-, ob-, per-, præ-, re-, sub-stringo.

Fingo, finxi, fictum, to feign. So af-, con-, ef-, re-fingo.

Pingo, pinxi, pictum, to paint. So ap-, de-pingo.

Exc. 2. Frango, fregi, fractum, to break. So con-, de-, dif-, ef-, in-, per-, præ-, re-, suf-fringo, -fregi, -fractum.

Ago, égi, actum, to do, to drive. So ab-, ad-, ex-, red-, sub-, trans-, transad-go, and circum-, per-ago: cōgo, for coăgo, coēgi, coactum, to bring together, to force.

Emungo, to wipe, to cheat.
Plango, to beat, to lament.
Stingo, or Stinguo, to dash oul, to extinguish ·
→ Di-, ex-, in-, inter-, præ-, re-stinguo.
Tego, to cover: Circum-, con-, de-, in-, ob-, per-,
præ-, pro-, re-, sub-, super-těgo.

Tingo, or Tinguo, to dip, or dye: Con-, in-tingo.
Ungo, or Unguo, lo anoint: Ex-, in-, per-, super-

These three compounds of ago want the supine: sătǎgo, satēgi, to be busy about a thing; prodigo, prodegi, to lavish, or spend riotously; dego, for deago; degi, to live or dwell. Ambigo, to doubt, to dispute, also wants the preterite.

Lego, legi, lectum, to gather, to read. So al-, per-, præ, re-, sub-lego: also, col-, de-, e-, recol-, se-ligo, which change i into ē.

Diligo, to love, has dilexi, dilectum. So negligo, to neglect; and intelligo, to understand; but negligo has sometimes neglēgi, Sall. Jug. 40.

Exc. 3. Tango, tětīgi, tactum, to touch. So at-, con-, ob-, per-tingo; thus attingo, attig, attactum, &c.

Pungo, pupugi, punctum, to prick, or sting. The compounds have punxi; as, compungo, compunxi, compunctum. So dis-, ex-, inter-pungo; but repungo has repunxi, or repupugi.

Pango, panxi, pactum, to fix, to drive in, to compose: or pegigi, which comes from the obsolete verb pago, to bargain, for which we use paciscor. The compounds of pango have pēgi; as, compingo, compegi, compactum, to put together. So im-, ob-, sup-pingo.

Exc. 4. Spargo, sparsi, sparsum, to spread. So ad-, circum-, con-, di-, in-, inter-, per-, pro-, re-spergo.

Mergo, mersi, mersum, to dip, or plunge. So de-, e-, im-, sub-mergo.

Tergo, tersi, tersum, to wipe, or clean. So abs-, de-, ex-, per-tergo.

Figo, fixi, fixum, to fix, or fasten. So af-, con-, de-, in-, of-, per-, præ-, re-, suf-, trans-figo.

Frigo, frixi, frixum or frictum, to fry.

Exc. 5. These three want the supine: clango, clanxi, to sound a trumpet; ningo, or ninguo, ninxi, to snow; ango, anxi, to vex. Vergo, to incline, or lie outwards, wants both preterite and supine. So e-, de-, in-vergo.


1. Traho, traxi, tractum, to draw. So abs-, at-, circum-, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, per-, pro-, re-, sub-trăho.

Veho, vexi, vectum, to carry. So a-, ad-, circum-, con-, di-, e-, in-, per-, præ-, præter-, pro-, re-, sub-, super-, trans-věho.

2. Mejo, or mingo, minxi, mictum, to make water.

So immejo.


1. Colo, colui, cultum, to adorn, to inhabit, to honour, to till. So ac-, circum-, ex-, in-, per-, præ-, re-colo: and likewise occulo, occului, occultum, to hide.


Consulo, consului, consultum, to advise or consult.
Alo, ălui, alitum, or contracted, altum, to nourish.

Molo, molui, molitum, to grind. So com-, e-, per-molo. The compounds of cello, which itself is not in use, want the supine; as, ante-, ex-, præ-cello, -cellui, to excel. Percello, to strike, to astonish, has perculi, perculsum.

Pello, pepuli, pulsum, to thrust. So ap-, as-, com-, de-, dis-, ex-, im-, per-, pro-, re-pello; appuli, appulsum, &c.

Fallo, fefelli, falsum, to deceive. But refello, refelli, to confute, wants the supine. 3. Vello, velli or vulsi, vulsum, to pull, or pinch. So a-, con-, e-, inter-, præ-, re-vello. But de-, di-, per-vello, have rather velli.

Sallo, salli, salsum, to salt. Psallo, psalli,, to play on a musical instrument, wants the supine.

Tollo, to lift up, to take away, in a manner peculiar to itself, makes sustuli, and sublātum; extollo, extuli, elātum; but attollo, to take up, has neither preterite nor supine.

MO has ui, itum; as,

Gemo, gemui, gemitum, to groan. So ad-, or ag-, circum-, con-, in-, re-gěmo. Fremo, fremui, fremitum, to rage or roar, to make a great noise. So af-, circum-, con-, in-, per-fremo.

Võmo, ēvŏmo, -ui, -itum, to vomit or spew, to cast up.
Exc. 1. Dēmo, dempsi, demptum, to take away.
Promo, prompsi, promptum, to bring out.

Sumo, sumpsi, sumptum, to take. So ab-, as-, con-, de-, in-, præ-, re-, tran-súmo.
Como, compsi, comptum, to deck or dress.

These verbs are also used without the p; as, demsi, demtum; sumsi, sumtum, &c Exc. 2. Emo, ēmi, emptum or emtum, to buy. So ad-, dir-, ex-, inter-, per-, redimo and co-ěmo, -emi, -emptum or emtum.

Premo, pressi, pressum, to press. So ap-, com-, de-, ex-, im-, op-, per-, re-, supprimo.

Trěmo, trěmui, to tremble, to quake for fear, wants the supine. So at-, circum-, con-, in-tremo.

So de-, ex-promo.


1. Pōno, posui, positum, to put, or place. So ap-, ante-, circum-, com-, de-, dis-, ex-, im-, inter-, ob-, post-, præ-, pro-, re-, se-, sup-, super-, superim-, trans-pōno.

Gigno, genui, genitum, to beget. So con-, e-, in-, per-, pro-, re-gigno.

Căno, cecini, cantum, to sing. But the compounds have cinui and centum ; as, accino, accinui, accentum, to sing in concert. So con-, in-, præ-, suc-cino; oc-cìno, and oc-căno; re-cino, and re-căno. But occanui, recanui, are not in use.

Temno, to despise, wants both preterite and supine; but its compound contemno, to despise, to scorn, has contempsi, contemptum; or without the p, contemsi,


2. Sperno, sprēvi, sprētum, to disdain or slight. So desperno.

Sterno, strāvi, strātum, to lay flat, to strow. So ad-, con-, in-, præ-, pro-, substerno.

Sino, sīvi or sii, situm, to permit. So desino, desīvi, oftener desii, desitum, tơ leave off.

Lino, livi, or levi, litum, to anoint or daub. So al-, circum-, col-, de-, il-, inter-, ob-, per-, præ-, re-, sub-, subter-, super-, superil-lìno.

Cerno, crēvi, seldom crētum, to see, to decree, to enter upon an inheritance. So de-, dis-, ex-, in-, se-cerno.


Verbs in po have psi and ptum; as, Carpo, carpsi, carptum, to pluck or pull, to crop, to blame. So con-, de-, dis-, ex-, præ-cerpo, -cerpsi, cerptum.

Clěpo, -psi, -ptum, to steal.
Repo, to creep: Ad-, v. ar-, cor-, de-, di-, e-,
ir-, intro-, ob-, per-, pro-, sub-repo, -psi,

Scalpo, to scratch or engrave: So circum-, ex-

Sculpo, to grave or carve. So ex-, in-sculpo.
Serpo, to creep as a serpent.

Exc. 1. Strěpo, strěpui, strěpitum, to make a noise. So ad-, circum-, in-, inter-,

ob-, per-strepo.

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