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Exc. 2. Rumpo, rupi, ruptum, to break. So ab-, cor-, di-, e-, inter-, intro-, ir-, ob-, per-, præ-, pro-rumpo.

There are only two simple verbs ending in QUO, viz.

Coquo, coxi, coctum, to boil. So con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, per-, re-coquo. Linquo, liqui, -, to leave. The compounds have lictum; as, relinquo, reliqui, relictum, to forsake. So de-, and dērě-linquo.


1. Quæro, makes quæsivi, quæsitum, to seek. So ac-, an-, con-, dis-, ex-, în-, per-, re-quiro, -quisivi, -quisitum."

Tero, trivi, tritum, to wear, to bruise. So at-, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, ob-, per-, pro-, sub-tĕro.

Verro, verri, versum, to sweep, brush, or make clean. So ā-, con-, dē-, ē-, prœ-,


Ūro, ussi, ustum, to burn. So ăd-, amb-, comb-, de-, ex-, în-, pĕr-, sub-ūro.

Gero, gessi, gestum, to carry. So ag-, con-, di-, in-, prō-, re-, sug-gĕro.

2. Curro, cucurri, cursum, to run. So ac-, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, oc-, per-, prœ-, pro-curro, which sometimes doubles the first syllable, and sometimes not; as, accurri, or accucurri, &c. Circum-, rě-, suc-, trans-curro, hardly ever redouble the first syllable.

3. Sĕro, sēvi, sătum, to sow. The compounds which signify planting or sowing, have sēvi, situm; as, consĕro, consēvi, consitum, to plant together. So as-, circum-, dē-, dis-, in-, inter-, ob-, pro-, re-, sub-, tran-sĕro.

Sero,, to knit, had anciently serui, sertum, which its compounds still retain ; as, assèro, asserui, assertum, to claim. So con-, circum-, dē-, dis-, ēdis-, ex-, in-, inter-sĕro.

4. Furo, to be mad, wants both preterite and supine.

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SO has sīvi, sītum; as,

Arcesso, arcessivi, arcessitum, to call, or send for. So căpesso, to take; facesso, to do, to go away; lacesso, to provoke.

Exc. 1. Viso, visi,, to go to see, to visit. So in-, re-viso. Incesso, incessi,

to attack, to seize.

Exc. 2. Depso, depsui, depstum, to knead. So con-, per-depso.
Pinso, pinsui or pinsi, pinsum, pistum or pinsitum, to bake.


1. Flecto, has flexi, flectum, to bow. So circum-, de-, in-, re-, retro-flecto. Plecto, plexi and plexui, plexum, to plait. So implecto.

Necto, nexi and nexui, nexum, to tie, or knit. So ad-, vel an-, con-, circum-, in-, sub-necto.

Pecto, pexi and pexui, pexum, to dress, or comb. So de-, ex-, re-pecto.


2. Měto, messui, messum, to reap, mow, or cut down. So de-, e-, præ-měto.

3. Pěto, pětivi, pětītum, to seek, to pursue. So ap-, com-, ex-, im-, op‐, re-, sup-pěto.

Mitto, misi, missum, to send. So a-, ad-, com-, circum-, dē-, di-, ē-, im-, inter-, intro-, ō-, per-, præ, præter, prō-, rě-, sub-, super-, trans-mitto. Verto, verti, versum, to turn. So a-, ad-, animad-, ante-, circum-, con-, dé-, di-, en-, in-, inter-, ob-, per-, præ-, præter-, re-, sub-, trans-verto.

Sterto, stertui,

to snore. So de-sterto.


4. Sisto, an active verb, to stop, has stiti, stătum; but sisto, a neuter verb, to stand still, has stěti, stătum, like sto. The compounds have stiti, and stitum; as, assisto, astiti, astitum, to stand by. So ab-, circum-, con-, de-, ex-, in-, inter-, ob-, per-, re-, sub-sisto. But the compounds are seldom used in the supine.

vo, XO.

There are three verbs in yo, which are thus conjugated :

1. Vivo, vixi, victum, to live. So ad-, con-, per-, pro-, re-, super-vivo.

Solvo, solvi, sõlūtum, to loose. Volvo, volvi, volutum, to roll. rě-, sub-volvo.

2. Texo, to weave, (the only verb of this conjugation ending in xo,) has texui, So at-, circum-, con-, de-, in-, inter-, ob-, per-, præ-, pro-, re-, sub-texo.


So absolvo, to acquit, dis-, ex-, per-, -soivo.
So ad-, circum-, con-, de-, é-, in-, ob-, per-, prō-,

Fourth Conjugation.

Verbs of the fourth conjugation make the preterite in ivi, and the supine in itum ; as, Mūnio, mūnīvi, mūnītum, to fortify.

Exc. 1. Singultio, singultīvi, singultum, to sob.

So ad-, ante-, circum-, con-, contra-, de-, e-, in-, inter-, intro-, ob-, per-, post-, præ-, sub-, super-věnio.

Sēpělio, sepělivi, sepultum, to bury.
Věnio, vēni, ventum, to come.

Vēneo, věnii,

to be sold.

Salio, sălui, and sălii, saltum, to leap. The compounds have commonly silui, sometimes silii, or silivi and sultum; as, transilio, transilui, transilii and transilivi, transultum, to leap over. So ab-, as-, circum-, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, re-, sub-, super-silio.

Exc. 2. Amicio, has amicui, amictum, seldom amixi, to cover or clothe.
Vincio, vinxi, vinctum, to tie. So circum-, de-, e-, re-vincio.

Sancio, sanxi, sanctum; and sancivi, sancitum, to establish or ratify.
Exc. 3. Cambio, campsi, campsum, to change money.

Sepio, sepsi, septum, to hedge or enclose. So circum-, dis-, inter-, ob-, præ-sēpio. Haurio, hausi, haustum, rarely hausum, to draw out, to empty, to drink. So de-, ex-haurio.

Sentio, sensi, sensum, to feel, to perceive, to think. So as-, con-, dis-, per-, præ-, sub-sentio.

Raucio, rausi, rausum, to be hoarse.

Exc. 4. Sarcio, sarsi, sartum, to mend or repair. So ex-, re-sarcio.

Farcio, farsi, fartum, to cram. So con-fercio; ef-fercio, or ef-farcio; in-fercio, or in-farcio; re-fercio.

Fulcio, fulsi, fultum, to prop or uphold. So con-, ef-, in-, per-, suf-fulcio. Exc. 5. The compounds of pario have perui, pertum; as, apĕrio, aperui, apertum, to open. So opěrio, to shut, to cover. But comperio has compĕri, compertum, to know a thing for certain. Repĕrio, repĕri, repertum, to find.

Exc. 6. The following verbs want the supine. Cœcutio, cæcutivi, to be dim-sighted. Gestio, gestivi, to show one's joy by the gesture of his body. Glocio, glocivi, to cluck or cackle as a hen. Dementio, dementivi, to be mad. Ineptio, ineptivi, to play the fool. Prosilio, prosilui, to leap forth. Ferocio, ferocivi, to be fierce.

Ferio, to strike, wants both preterite and supine. So referio, to strike again.


A deponent verb is that which, under a passive form, has an active or neuter signification; as, Loquor, I speak; mŏrior, I die.

A common verb, under a passive form, has either an active or passive signification; as, Criminor, I accuse, or I am accused.

Most deponent verbs of old, were the same with common verbs. They are called Deponent, because they have laid aside the passive sense.

Deponent and common verbs form the participle perfect in the same manner as if they had the active voice; thus, Lætor, lætātus, lætāri, to rejoice; věreor, veritus, věrēri, to fear; fangor, functus, fungi, to discharge an office; potior, potītus, potīri, to enjoy, to be master of.

The learner should be taught to go through all the parts of deponent and common verbs, by proper examples in the several conjugations; thus, lætor, of the first conjugation, like amor

Indicative Mode.

Present. Lætor, I rejoice; lætāris, vel -āre, thou rejoicest, &c.
Imperfect. Lætabar, I rejoiced, or did rejoice; lætabaris, &c.

Perfect. Lætatus sum vel fui,* I have rejoiced, &c.
Plu-perf. Lætatus eram vel fueram, I had rejoiced, &c.

Lætabor, I shall or will rejoice; lætabĕris, or -abère, &c.
Lætaturus sum, I am about to rejoice, or I am to rejoice, &c
Subjunctive Mode.
Present. Later, I may rejoice; lætēris, or -ère, &c.
Imperfect. Lætarer, I might rejoice; lætārēris, or -rēre, &c.
Perfect. Lætatus sim vel fuerim, I may have rejoiced, &c.
Plu-perf. Lætatus essem vel fuissem, I might have rejoiced, &c.
Future. Lætatus fuero, I shall have rejoiced, &c.


Present. Latare vel -ātor, rejoice thou: lætator, let him rejoice, &c.



Lætari, to rejoice.

Lætatus esse vel fuisse, to have rejoiced.
Lætaturus esse, to be about to rejoice.

Lætaturus fuisse, to have been about to rejoice.


Present. Lætans, rejoicing.


Lætatus, having rejoiced.
Lætaturus, about to rejoice.
Lætandus, to be rejoiced at.

In like manner conjugate in the First
Gratulor, to rejoice, to wish one
Grăvor, to grudge.
Hăriòlor, to conjecture.
Helluor, to guttle or gormandize,

to waste.

Abominor, to abhor.
Adulor, to flatter.
Emulor, to vie with, to envy.
Altercor, to dispute, to make a


Apricor, to bask in the sun.
Arbritror, to think.

Aspernor, to despise.

Aversor, to dislike.

Auctionor, to sell by auction.
Aucupor, and -o, to hunt after.
Augŭror, and -o, to forebode, or
presage by augury.
Auspicor, to take an omen, to

Auxilior, to assist.
Bacchor, to rage, to revel, to riot.
Calumnior, to accuse falsely.
Căvillor, to scoff.
Cauponor, to huckster, to retail.
Causor, to plead in excuse, to

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Hortor, to encourage.
Hallucinor, to speak at random,

to err.
Imaginor, to conceive.
Imitor, to imitate.
Indignor, to disdain.
Inficior, to deny.

Insector, to pursue, to inveigh

Insidior, to lie in wait.
Interprětor, to explain.
Jăcălor, to dart.
Jocor, to jest.
Lamentor, to bewail.
Lucror, to gain.
Luctor, to wrestle.
Machinor, to contrive.
Mědicor, to cure.

Měditor, to muse, or ponder
Mercor, to purchase.
Mětor, to measure.
Minor, to threaten.
Miror, to wonder.
Misĕror, to pity.
Moděror, to rule.
Modulor, to play a tune.
Morigěror, to humour.
Moror, to delay.
Mūnĕror, to present.
Mutuor, to borrow.
Nugor, to trifle.
Obtestor, to beseech.
ödöror, to smell.
Opěror, to work.
opinor, to think.
Ŏpitulor, to help.
Oscălor, to kiss.
Otior, to be at leisure.

Palor, to stroll or straggle.

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* Fui, fueram, &c. are seldom joined to the participles of deponent verbs ; and not so often to those of passive verbs, as, sum, eram, &c.

Měreor, měrĭtus, to deserve.
Tueor, tuitus, or tutus, to defend.

In the Second Conjugation,

Polliceor, pollicitus, to promise.
Liceor, licitus, to bid at an auction.
In the Third Conjugation,

Amplector, amplexus; and complector, complexus, to embrace.
Revertor, reversus, to return.

In the Fourth Conjugation,
Partion, to divide.

Blandior, to soothe, to flatter.
Mentior, to lie.

Mōlior, to attempt something difficult.

Sortior, to draw or cast lots.
Largior, to give liberally.

Participle Perfect, Blanditus, mentitus, molītus, partītus, sortitus, largitus.
There are no exceptions in the First Conjugation.


Reor, ratus, to think.

Misereor, misertus, or not contracted, miseritus, to pity.

Fateor, fassus, to confess. The compounds of fateor have fessus; as, profiteor, professus, to profess. So confiteor, to confess, to own or acknowledge.


Labor, lapsus, to slide. So al-, col-, de-, di-, e-, il-, inter-, per-, præter-, pro-, re-, sub-, subter-, super-, trans-lābor.

Úlciscor, ultus, to revenge.

Utor, ūsus, to use. So ab-, de-útor.

Loquor, loquutus, or locutus, to speak. So al-, col-, circum-, e-, inter-, ob-, præ-, pro-loquor.

Sequor, sequutus, or secutus, to follow. So as-, con-, ex-, in-, ob-, per-, pro-, re-, sub-sequor.

Queror, questus, to complain. So con-, inter-, præ-queror.
Nitor, nisus, or nixus, to endeavour, to lean upon.

Fruor, fruitus or fructus, to enjoy. So per fruor.

Obliviscor, oblitus, to forget.

ob-, re-, sub-nitor: but the compounds have oftener nixus.

Păciscor, pactus, to bargain. So de-peciscor.

Grădior, gressus, to go. So ag-, ante-, circum-, con-, de-, di-, e-, in-, intro-, præ-, prætĕr-, pro-, re-, retro-, sug-, super-, trans-gredior. Proficiscor, profectus, to go a journey.

Nanciscor, nactus, to get.

Patior, passus, to suffer. So per-pětior.

Apiscor, aptus, to get. So adipiscor, adeptus; and indipiscor, indeptus.
Comminiscor, commentus, to devise or invent.

Vescor, vesci, to feed.
Liquor, liqui, to melt or be dissolved.
Mědeor, mederi, to heal.


So ad-, vel an-, con-, e-, in-,

Expergiscor, experrectus, to awake.

Morior, mortuus, to die. So com-, de-, e-, im-, inter-, præ-mŏrior.

Nascor, natus, to be born. So ad-, circum-, de-, e-, in-, inter-, re-, sub-nascor.
Orior, ortus, orīri, to rise. So ab-, ad-, co-, ex-, ob-, sub-ōrior.

The three last form the future participle in itūrus; thus, mõrĭtūrus, nascitūrus, ōrĭtūrus.


Mētior, mensus, to measure. So ad-, com-, di-, e-, præ-, re-mētior.
Ordior, orsus, to begin. So ex-, red-ordior.
Expĕrior, expertus, to try.

Oppěrior, oppertus, to wait or tarry for one.
The following verbs want the participle perfect:

Ringor, ringi, to grin like a dog.

Prævertor, præverti, to get before, to outrun.
Diffiteor, Diffiteri, to deny.

Rěminscor, reminisci, to remember.
Irascor, irasci, to be angry.

The verbs which do not fall under any of the foregoing rules are called Irregular.


Divertor, diverti, to turn aside, to take lodging.
Défětiscor, defětisci, to be weary or faint.

The irregular verbs are commonly reckoned eight: sum, eo, queo, volo, nõlo, málo, fero, and fio, with their compounds.

But properly there are only six: nolo and malo being compounds of volo.

SUM has already been conjugated. After the same manner are formed its compounds, ad-, ab-, de-, inter-, præ-, ob-, sub-, super-sum, and in-sum, which wants the preterite; thus, adsum, adfui, adesse, &c.

PROSUM, to do good, has a d where sum begins with e; as,

pro-sùmus, &c.
prod-eramus, &c.

Ind. Pr. Pró-sum,
Im. Prōd-ĕram,


Sub. Im. Prod-essem,


Imperat. Prod-esto,


In the other parts it is like sum: Pro-sim, -sis, &c.

POSSUM is compounded of põtis, able, and sum; and is thus conjugated:

Possum, potui, posse, To be able.

Indicative Mode.

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prod-est ;
prod-erat ;


Subjunctive Mode.




The rest wanting.

EO, ivi, itum, ire, To go.

Indicative Mode.







Infinit. Pres. Prod-esse.

Pro-fui, fueram, &c.






Subjunctive Mode.








Pres. Ire.










Eundo, &c.

ītis, ibatis,







Perf. Ivisse,

Fut. Esse iturus, -a, -um.

Fuisse iturus.


Supines. 1. Itum.

2. Itu.













iverunt, ivere iverant.







The compounds of Eo are conjugated after the same manner; ăd-, ăb-, ex-, òb-, rèd-, sŭb-, pĕr-, cò-, în-, præ-, ante-, prod-eo: only in the perfect, and the tenses formed from it, they are usually contracted; thus, adeo, adii, seldom adivi, aditum, adire, to go to; perfect, adii, adiisti, or adisti, &c. adiěram, adierim, &c. So likewise veneo, venii, to be sold, (compounded of venum and eo.) But ambio, -īvi, -itum, -ire, to surround, is a regular verb of the fourth conjugation.

Eo, like other neuter verbs, is often rendered in English under a passive form; thus, it, he is going; wit, he is gone; iverat, he was gone; iverit, he may be gone, or shall be gone. So věnit, he is coming; venit, he is come; vēnĕrat, he was come, &c. In the passive voice these verbs, for the most part, are only used impersonally; as, itur ab illo, he is going; ventum est ab illis, they are come. We find some of the compounds of eo, however, used personally; as, pericula adeuntur, are undergone, Cic. Libri Sibyllini inaditi sunt, were looked into, Liv. Flumen pedibus transiri potest, Inimicitia subeantur, Cic.


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