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QUEO, I can, and NEQUEO, I cannot, are conjugated the same way as eo; only they want the imperative and the gerunds; and the participles are seldom used.
Feror, latus, ferri, To be brought.
Per. Latus sim, &c. latus fuerim, &c.
Per. Esse vel fuisse, latus, -a, -um.
Fut. Latum iri.
In like manner are conjugated the compounds of fero; as, affèro, attuli, allatum; aufero, abstuli, ablatum; diffèro, distuli, dilatum; confèro, contuli, collatum; infèro, intuli, illatum; offèro, obtuli, oblatum; effèro, extuli, elatum. So circum-, per-, trans-, de-, pro-, ante-, præ-fèro, In some writers we find, adfero, adtuli, adlatum; conlatum, inlatum; obfero, &c. for affero, &c.
OBS. 1. Most part of the above verbs are made irregular by contraction. Thus, nolo is contracted for non volo; malo for magis volo; fero, fers, fert, &c. for feris, ferit, &c. Feror, ferris, v. ferre fertur, for ferĕris, &c.
Ferre vel fertor, fertor; ferimini, feruntor.
fertur; ferimur, ferĭmini, feruntur.
-ebatur; -ebamur, -ebamini, -ebantur,
feretur; feremur, feremini, ferentur.
feratur ; feramur, feramini, ferantur
ferretur; ferremur, ferremini, ferrentur
OBS. 2. The imperatives of dico, duco, and facio, are contracted in the same manner with fer. thus we say, dic, duc, fac, instead of dice, dūce, face. But these often occur likewise in the regular
Plu. Factus eram, &c factus fueram, &c.
FIO, factus, fiĕri, To be made or done, to become.
Per. Factus sim, &c. factus fuerim, &c.
Per. Latus, -a, -um.
Per. Esse vel fuisse factus, -a, -um
Fut. Factum iri.
The compounds of facio which retain a, have also fio in the passive, and fac in the imperative active; as, calefacio, to warm, calefio, calefac: but those which change a into i, form the passive regularly, and have fice in the imperative; as, conficio, confice; conficior, confectus, confici. We find, however, confit, it is done, and confieri; defit, it is wanting; infit, he begins.
To irregular verbs may properly be subjoined what are commonly called Neuter Passive Verbs, which like fio, form the preterite tenses according to the passive voice, and the rest in the active. These are, soleo, solītus, solere, to use; audeo, ausus, audere, to dare; gaudeo, gavisus, gaudere, to rejoice; fido, fisus, fidere, to trust: So confido, to trust; and diffido, to distrust; which also have
confidi and diffidi. Some add mœreo, mœstus, mærere, to be sad; but mastus is generally reckoned an adjective. We likewise say jūratus sum and cœnatus sum, for juravi and cœnavi, but these may also be taken in a passive sense.
To these may be referred verbs, wholly active in their termination, and passive in their signification; as, vapulo, -avi, -atum, to be beaten or whipped; věneo, to be sold; exulo, to be banished, &c.
Verbs are called Defective, which are not used in certain tenses, and numbers and persons.
These three, ōdi, cœpi, and měmini, are only used in the preterite tenses; and therefore are called Preteritive Verbs; though they have sometimes likewise a present signfication; thus,
Odi, I hate, or have hated, oderam, oderim, odissem, odero, odisse. Participles, osus, osurus; exosus, perosus.
Capi, I begin, or have begun, cœperam, -erim, -issem, -ero, -isse. Supine, cœptu. Participles, cœptus, cæpturus.
Měmini, I remember, or have remembered, memineram, -erim, -issem, -ero, -isse. Imperative, memento, mementote.
Instead of odi, we sometimes say, osus sum; and always exosus, perosus sum, and not exodi, perodi. We say, opus cœpit fieri, or cœptum est.
To these some add novi, because it frequently has the signification of the present, I know, as well as, I have known, though it comes from nosco, which is complete.
Furo, to be mad, dor, to be given, and for, to speak, as also der, and fer, are not used in the first person singular; thus, we say, daris, datur; but never dor.
Of verbs which want many of their chief parts, the following most frequently occur: Aio, I say; inquam, I say; forem, I should be; ausim, contracted for ausus sim, I dare; faxim, I'll see to it, or I will do it; ave, and salve, save you, hail, good-morrow; cedo, tell thou, or give me; quæso, I pray.
ait: -ebat :
Ind. Pr. Aio,
Imperat. Inque, inquito.
or to be about to be, the same with esse futurus.
Note. Faxim and faxo are used instead of fecerim and fecero.
Salve v. salvēto ;
Most of the other Defective verbs are but single words, and rarely to be found but among the poets; as, infit, he begins; defil, it is wanting. Some are compounded of a verb and the conjunction si; as, sis for si vis, if thou wilt: sultis for si vultis; sodes for si audes: equivalent to quæso, I pray; capsis for cap si vis.
aiant. Particip. Pres. Aiens. -quitis,
3d Conj. Contingit, Contingebat,
Particip. Pres. Inquiens. foretis,
A verb is called Impersonal, which has only the terminations of the third person singular, but does not admit any person or nominative before it.
Impersonal verbs in English, have before them the neuter pronoun it, which is not considered as a person; thus, dēlectat, it delights; decet, it becomes; contingit, it happens; ēvěnit, it happens:
4th Conj. Evěnit, Eveniebat
Most Latin verbs may be used impersonally in the passive voice, especially Neuter and Intransitive verbs which otherwise have no passive; as, pugnātur, făvētur, curritur, věnītur; from pugno, to fight; faveo, to favour; curro, to run; venio, to
2. Some are usually of the second, and rarely of the third; as,
Ferveo, ferves, and fervo, fervis, to boil.
Fulgeo, fulges, and fulgo, fulgis, to shine.
Strideo, strides, and strido, stridis, to make a hissing noise, to creak
OBS. 1. Impersonal verbs are scarcely used in the imperative, but instead of it we take the sunjunctive; as, delectet, let it delight, &c. nor in the supines, participles, or gerunds, except a few; as, pænitens, -dum, dus, &c. Induci ad pudendum et pigendum, Cic. In the preterite tenses of the passive voice, the participle perfect is always put in the neuter gender.
OBS. 2. Grammarians reckon only ten real impersonal verbs, and all in the second conjugation: decet, it becomes; pænitet, it repents; oportet, it behoves; miseret, it pities; piget, it irketh; pudet, it shameth; licet, it is lawful; libet or lubet, it pleaseth; tædet, it wearieth; liquet, it appears. which the following have a double preterite; miseret, miseruit, or misertum est; piget, piguit, or pigitum est; pudet, puduit, or puditum est; licet, licuit, or licitum est; libet, libuit, or libitum est; tædet, tæduit, tæsum est, oftener pærtæsum est. But many other verbs are used impersonally in all the conjugations.
In the first, Juvat, spectat, văcat, stat, constat, præstat, restat, &c.
In the second, Appåret, attinet, pertinet, débet, dõlet, nõcet, lätet, liquet, pătet, plăcet, displicet, sĕdet, solet, &c.
In the third, Accidit, incipit, desinit, sufficit, &c.
In the fourth, Convěnit, expedit, &c.
Also irregular verbs, Est, obest, prodest, põtest, intĕrest,supĕrest; sit, prætĕrit, nequit and nequitur, subit, confert, refert, &c.
OBS. 3. Under impersonal verbs may be comprehended those which express the operations or appearances of nature; as, Fulgurat, fulminat, tõnat, grandinat, gělat, pluit, ningit, lucescit, adresperascit, &c.
OBS. 4. Impersonal verbs are applied to any persou or number, by putting that which stands before other verbs, after the impersonals, in the cases which they govern; as, placet mihi, tibi, illi, it pleases me, thee, him; or I please, thou pleasest, &c. pugnatur a me, a te, ab illo, I fight, thou fightest, he fighteth, &c. So Curritur, venitur, a me, a te, &c. I run, thou runnest, &c. Favetur tibi a me, Thou art favoured by me, or I favour thee, &c.
OBS. 5. Verbs are used personally or impersonally, according to the particular meaning which they express, or the different import of the words with which they are joined: thus, we can say, ego placeo tibi, I please you; but we cannot say, si places audire, if you please to hear, but si placet tibi audire. So we can say, multa homini contingunt, many things happen to a man: bnt instead of ego contigi esse domi, we must either say, me contigit esse domi, or mihi contigit esse domi, I happened to be at home. The proper and elegant use of Impersonal verbs can only be acquired by practice.
Those are called Redundant Verbs which have different forms to express the same sense: thus, assentio and assentior, to agree; fabrico and fabricor, to frame; mereo and mereor, to deserve, &c. These verbs, however, under the passive form have likewise a passive signification.
Several verbs are used in different conjugations.
1. Some are usually of the first conjugation, and rarely of the third; as, lavo, lavas, lavāre; and lavo, laris, lavere, to wash.
To these add tergeo, terges; and tergo, tergis, to wipe, which are equally common.
Potior, poteris, and potior, potiris, potīri, to enjoy.
There is likewise a verb, which is usually of the second conjugation, and more rarely of the fou namely, cio, cies, cière; and cio, cis, cire, to rouse; whence, accire, and accilus.
To these we may add the verb EDO, to eat, which though regularly formed, also agrees in several of its parts with sum; thus,
Ind. Pres. Edo, edis or es, edit or est;
Sub. Imperf. Ederem or essem, ederes or esses, &c.
Imp. Ede or es, edito or esto; edite or este, editote or estole.
Passive Ind. Pres. Editur or estur.
It may not be improper here to subjoin a list of those verbs which resemble one another in some of their parts, though they differ in signification. Of these some agree in the present, some in the preterite, and the others in the supine.
1. The following agree in the present, but are differently conjugated:
Aggero, -is, to bring together.
editis or estis
Of this class some have a different quantity; as,
Colo, -is, to till.
Dico, is, to say.
Colo, -as, to strain.
Lego, as, to send on an embassy.
2. The following Verbs agree in the Preterite :
Acuo, acui, to sharpen.
Aceo, acui, to be sour.
3. The following agree in the Supine:
Cresco, crétum, to grow.
Verro, versum, to sweep.
Cerno, cretum, to behold.
THE OBSOLETE CONJUGATION.
This chiefly occurs in old writers, and only in particular conjugations and tenses.
1. The ancient Latins made the imperfect of the indicative active of the fourth conjugation in IBAM, without the e; as, audibam, scibam, for audiēbam, sciēbam.
2. In the future of the indicative of the fourth conjugation, they used IBO in the active, and ibor in the passive voice; as, dormibo, dormibor, for dormiam, dormiar.
3. The present of the subjunctive anciently ended in IM; as, edim for edam, duim for dem.
4. The perfect of the subjunctive active sometimes occurs in SSIM, and the future in SSO; as, levassim, levasso, for levaverim, levavero; capsim, capso, for caperim, capero. Hence the future of the infinitive was formed in ASSERE; as, levassere, for levaturus esse.
5. In the second person of the present of the imperative passive, we find MINO in the singular, and minor in the plural; as, famino, for fare; and progrědiminor, for progrědimini.
6. The syllable ER was frequently added to the present of the infinitive passive ; as, farier for fari dicier, for dici.
7. The participles of the future time active, and perfect passive, when joined with the verb esse, were sometimes used as indeclinable; thus, credo inimicos dicturum esse, for dicturos, Cic Cohortes ad me missum facias, for missas, Cic. ad Attic. viii. 12.