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they commonly agree in number with the former; as, Dos est decem talenta, Her dowry is ten talents, Ter. Omnia pontus erant, Ovid. But sometimes with the latter; as, Amantium iræ amoris integratio est, The quarrels of lovers is a renewal of love, Ter. So when an adjective is applied to two substantives of different genders, it commonly agrees in gender with that substantive which is most the subject of discourse; as, Oppidum est appellatum Possidonia, Plin. Sometimes, however, the adjective agrees with the nearer substantive; as, Non omnis error stultitia est dicenda,
OBS. 4. When the infinitive of any verb, particularly the substantive verb esse, has the dative before it, governed by an Impersonal verb or any other word, it may have after it either the dative or the accusative; as, Licet mihi esse beato, I may be happy; or licet mihi esse beatum, me being understood; thus, licet mihi (me) esse beatum. The dative before esse is often to be supplied; as, Licet esse beatum, One may be happy, scil. alicui or homini.
OBS. 5. The poets use certain forms of expression, which are not to be imitated in prose; as, Rettulit Ajax Jovis esse proněpos, for Se esse pronepotem, Ovid's Met. xii. 141. Cum pateris sapiens emendatusque vocari, for sapientem, &c. Horat. Ep. 1. 16. 30. Acceptum refero versibus esse nocens, Ovid. Tulumque putavit jam bonus esse socer, Lucan.
4. Agreement of one Substantive with another.
VI. Substantives signifying the same person or thing, agree in case; as,
I. THE GOVERNMENT OF SUBSTANTIVES.
VII. One Substantive governs another signifying a different person or thing in the genitive; as,
Amor Dei, The love of God; Lex naturæ, The law of nature; Domus Casăris, The house of Cæsar, or Cæsar's house.
OBS. 1. When one substantive is governed by another in the genitive, it expresses in general the relation of property or possession, and therefore is often elegantly turned into a possessive adjective; as, Domus patris, or paterna, a father's house; Filius heri, or herilis, a master's son: and among the poets, Labor Herculeus, for Herculis; Ensis Evandrius, for Evandri.
OBS. 2. When the substantive noun in the genitive signifies a person, it may be taken either in an active or passive sense; thus, Amor Dei, The love of God, either means the love of God towards us, or our love towards him. So caritas patris, signifies either the affection of a father to his children, or theirs to him. But often the substantive can only be taken either in an active or in a passive sense; thus, Timor Dei, always implies Deus timetur; and Providentia Dei, Deus providet. So caritas ipsius soli, affection to the very soil, Liv. ii. 1.
OBS. 3. Both the former and latter substantive are sometimes to be understood; as, Hectoris Andromache, scil. uxor; Ventum est ad Vestæ, scil. ædem or templum; Ventum est tria millia, scil. passuum, three miles.
OBS. 4. We find the dative often used after a verb for the genitive particularly among the poets; as, Ei corpus porrigitur, His body is extended, Virg. Æn. vi. 596.
OBS. 5. Some substantives are joined with certain prepositions; as, Amicitia, inimicitia, pax cum aliquo; Amor in vel erga aliquem; Gaudium de re; Cura de aliquo; Mentio illius, vel de illo, Quies ab armis; Fumus ex incendiis; Prædator ex sociis, for sociorum, Sallust, &c.
OBS. 6. The genitive in Latin is often rendered in English by several other particles besides of; as, Descensus Averni, the descent to Avernus; Prudentia juris, skill in the law.
Substantive pronouns are governed in the genitive like substantive nouns; as, pars mei, a part of me.
So also adjective pronouns, when used as substantives, or having a noun understood; as, Liber ejus, illius, hujus, &c. The book of him, or his book, sc. hominis: The book of her, or her book, sc. feminæ. Libri eorum, v. earum, their books; Cujus liber, the book of whom, or whose book; Quorum libri, whose books, &c. But we always say, meus liber, not mei; pater noster, not nostri ; suum jus, not sui.
When a passive sense is expressed, we use mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri, nostrúm, vestrum; but we use their possessives when an active sense is expressed; as, Amor mei, The love of me, that is, The love wherewith I am loved; Amor meus, My-love that is, the love wherewith I love. We find, however, the possessives sometimes used passively, and their primitives taken actively; as, Odium tuum, Hatred of thee, Ter Phorm. v. 8. 27. Labor mei, My labour, Plaut.
The possessives meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester, have sometimes nouns, pronouns, and participles after them in the genitive; as, Pectus tuum hominis simplicis, Cic. Phil. ii. 43. Noster duorum eventus, Liv. Tuum ipsius studium, Cic. Mea scripta
timentis, &c. Hor. Solius meum peccatum corrigi non potest, Cic. Id maxime quemque decet, quod est cujusque suum maxime, Id.
The reciprocals SUI and SUUS are used when the action of the verb is reflected as it were, upon its nominative; as, Cato interfecit se. Miles defendit suam vitam. Dicit se scripturum esse. We find, however, is or ille sometimes used in examples of this kind; as, Deum agnoscimus ex operibus ejus, Cic. Persuadent Rauracis, ut und cum iis proficisscantur, for unà secum, Cæs.
VIII. If the latter of two Substantives have an Adjective of praise or dispraise, joined with it, it may be put either in the genitive or ablative; as, Vir summæ prudentiæ, or summâ prudentia, A man of great wisdom. Puer probe indolis, or probâ indole, A boy of a good disposition.
OBS. 1. The ablative here is not properly governed by the foregoing substantive, but by some preposition understood; as, cum, de, ex, in, &c. Thus, Vir summâ prudentiâ, is the same with Vir cum summa prudentia.
ОRS. 2. In some phrases the genitive is only used; as, Magni formica laboris, the laborious ant; Vir imi subsellii, homo minimi pretii, a person of the lowest rank. Homo nullius stipendii, a man of no experience in war, Sallust. Non multi cibi hospitem accipies, sed multi joci, Cic. Ager trium jugerum. In others only the ablative; as, Es bono animo, Be of good courage. Mira sum alacritate ad litigandum, Cic. Capite aperto est, His head is bare; obvoluto, covered. Capite et supercilio semper est rasus, Id. Mulier magna natu, Liv. Sometimes both are used in the same sentence; as, Adolescens eximia spe, summæ virtutis, Cic. The ablative more frequently occurs in prose than the genitive.
OBS. 3. Sometimes the adjective agrees in case with the former substantive, and then the latter substantive is put in the ablative; thus we say, either, Vir præstantis ingenii, or præstanti ingenio; or Vir præstans ingenio, and sometimes præstans ingenii. Among the poets, the latter substantive is frequently put in the accusative by a Greek construction, secundum or quod ad, being understood by the figure commonly called Synecdoche; as, Miles fractus membra, i. e. fractus, secundum or quod ad membra, or habens membra fracta, Horat. Os humerosque deo similis, Virg.
Adjectives taken as Substantives.
IX. An adjective in the neuter gender without a substantive, governs the genitive; as,
Multum pecuniæ, Much money.
Quid rei est? What is the matter?
OBS. 1. This manner of expression is more elegant than Multa pecunia, and therefore is much used by the best writers; as, Plus eloquentiæ, minus sapientiæ, tantum fidei, id negotii; quicquid erat patrum, reos diceres, Liv. Id loci; Ad hoc ætatis, Sallust.
OBS. 2. The adjectives which thus govern the genitive like substantives, generally signify quantity; as, multum, plus, plurimum, tantum, quantum, minus, minimum, &c. To which add, hoc, illud, istud, id, quid, aliquid, quidvis, quiddam, &c. Plus and quid almost always govern the genitive, and therefore by some are thought to be substantives.
OBS. 3. Nihil, and these neuter pronouns, quid, aliquid, &c. elegantly govern neuter adjectives of the first and second declension in the genitive; as, nihil sinceri, no sincerity; but seldom govern in this manner adjectives of the third declension, particularly those which end in is and e; as, Nequid hostile timerent, not hostilis· we find, however, quicquid civilis, Liv. v. 3.
ÓBS. 4. Plural adjectives of the neuter gender also govern the genitive, commonly the genitive plural; as, Angusta viarum, Opaca locorum, Telluris operta; loca being understood. So Amara curarum, acuta belli, sc. negotia, Horat. An adjective, indeed, of any gender, may have a genitive after it, with a substantive understood; as, Amicus Cæsaris, Patria Ulyssis, &c.
Opus and Usus.
X. Opus and Usus, signifying need, require the ablative; as,
OBS. 1. Opus and usus are substantive nouns, and do not govern the ablative of themselves, but by some preposition, as pro, or the like understood. They sometimes also, although more rarely, govern the genitive; as, Lectionis opus est, Quinct. Opera usus est, Liv.
OBS. 2. Opus is often construed like an indeclinable adjective; as, Dux nobis opus est, We need general, Cic. Dices nummos mihi opus esse, Id. Nobis exempla opus sunt, Id.
OBS. 3. Opus is elegantly joined with the perfect participle; as, Opus maturato, Need of haste, Opus consulto, Need of deliberation; Quid facto usus est? Ter. The participle has sometimes a substantive joined with it; as, Mihi opus fuit Hirtio convento, It behoved me to meet with Hirtius, Cic.
OBS. 4. Opus is sometimes joined with the infinitive, or the subjunctive with ut; as, Siquid forte sit, quod opus sit sciri, Cic. Nunc tibi opus est, ægram ut te adsimules, Plaut. Sive opus est imperitare equis, Horat. It is often placed absolutely, i. e. without depending on any other word; as, sic opus est; opus sit, &c.
II. GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES.
XI. Verbal adjectives, and such as signify an affection of the mind, govern the genitive; as,
Avidus gloria, Desirous of glory. Ignarus fraudis, Ignorant of fraud.
To this rule belong: I. Verbal adjectives in AX; as, capax, edax, ferax, tenax, pertinax, &c. and certain participial adjectives in NS and TUS; as, amans appetens, cupiens, insolens, sciens ; consultus, doctus, expertus, insuetus, insolitus, &c. II. Adjectives expressing various affections of the mind: 1. Desire; as, avarus, cupidus, studiosus, &c. 2. Knowledge, ignorance, and doubting; as, callidus, certus, certior,, conscius, gnarus, peritus, prudens, &c. Ignarus, incertus, inscius, imprudens, imperitus, imměmor, rudis; Ambiguus, dubius, suspensus, &c. 3. Care and diligence, and the contrary; as, Anxius, curiosus, solicitus, providus, diligens; Incuriosus, securus, negligens, &c. 4. Fear, and confidence; as, Formidolosus, pavidus, timidus, trepidus; Impavidus, interritus, intrepidus. 5. Guilt, and innocence; as, Noxius, reus, suspectas, compertus; Innoxius, innocens, insons.
To these add many adjectives of various significations; as, æger animi; ardens, audax, aversus, diversus, egregius, erectus, falsus, felix, fessus, furens, ingens, integer, lætus, præstans animi; modicus voti; integer vita; seri studiorum, Hor. But we say, æger pedibus, ardens in cupiditatibus, præstans doctrinâ, modicus cultu; Lætus negotio, de re, or propter rem, &c. and never æger pedum,
OBS. 1. Verbals in NS are used both as adjectives and participles; thus, patiens algoris, able to bear cold; and patiens algorem, actually bearing cold. So amans virtutis, and amans virtutem doctus grammaticæ, skilled in grammar; doctus grammaticam, one who has learned it.
OBS. 2. Many of these adjectives vary their construction; as, avidus in pecuniis, Cic. Avidior ad rem, Ter. Jure consultus et peritus, or juris, Cic. Rudis literarum, in jure civili, Cic. Rudis arte, ad mala, Ovid. Doctus Latine, Latinis literis, Cic. Assuetus labore, in omnia, Liv. Mensæ erili, Virg. Insuetus moribus Romanis, in the dative, Liv. Laboris, ad onera portanda, Cæs. Desuetus bello et triumphis, in the dative or ablative, rather the dative, Virg. Anxius, solicitus, securus, de re aliqua; diligens in, ad, de, Cic. Negligens in aliquem, in or de re; Reus de vi, criminibus, Cic. Certior factus de re, rather than rei, Cic.
OBS. 3. The genitive after these adjectives is thought to be governed by causâ, in re, or in negotio, or some such word understood; as, Cupidus laudis, i. e. causâ, or in re laudis, desirous of praise, that is, on account of, or in the matter of praise. But many of the adjectives themselves may be supposed to contain in their own signification the force of a substantive; thus, studiosus pecuniæ, fond of money, is the same with habens studium pecuniæ, having a fondness for money.
XII. Partitives, and words placed partitively, comparatives, superlatives,
The most learned of the Romans.
One of the muses.
The eighth of the wise men.
Quis nostrum ?
Adjectives are called Partitives, or are said to be placed partitively, when they signify a part of any number of persons or things, having after them, in English, of or among; as, alius, nullus, solus, &c. quis and qui, with their compounds: also Comparatives, Superlatives, and some Numerals: as, unus, duo, tres; primus, secundus, &c. To these add multi, pauci, plerique, medius.
OBS. 1. Partitives, &c. agree in gender with the substantive which they have after them in the genitive; but when there are two substantives of different genders, the partitive, &c. rather agrees with the former; as, Indus fluminum maximus, Cic. Rarely with the latter; as, Delphinus animalium velocissimum, Plin. The genitive here is governed by ex numero, or by the same substantive understood in the singular number; as, Nulla sororum, scil. søror, or ex numero
OBS. 2. Partitives, &c. are often otherwise construed with the prepositions de, e, ex, or in; as, Unus de fratribus; or by the poets, with ante or inter; as, Pulcherrimus ante omnes, for omnium, Virg. Primus inter omnes, Id.
OBS. 3. Partitives, &c. govern collective nouns in the genitive singular, and are of the same gender with the individuals of which the collective noun is composed; as, Vir fortissimus nostræ civitatis, Cic. Maximus stirpis, Liv. Ultimos orbis Britannos, Horat. Od. i. 35. 29.
OBS. 4. Comparatives are used when we speak of two; Superlatives, when we speak of more
than two; as, Major fratrum, the elder of the brothers, meaning two; Maximus fratrum, The eldest of the brothers, meaning more than two. In like manner, uter, alter, neuter, are applied with regard to two; quis, unus, alius, nullus, with regard to three or more; as, Uter vestrum, Whether or which of you two; Quis vestrum, Which of you three: but these are sometimes taken promiscuously, the one for the other.
2. Adjectives governing the Dative.
XIII. Adjectives signifying profit or disprofit, likeness or unlikeness, &c. govern the dative; as,
Or thus, Any adjective may govern the dative in Latin, which has the signs TO or FOR after it in English.
To this rule belong :
Profitable for war.
Hurtful to the commonwealth."
1. Adjectives of profit or disprofit; as, Benignus, bonus, commodus, felix, fructuosus, prosper, saluber. -Calamitosus, damnosus, dirus, exiliosus, funestus, incommodus, malus, noxius, perniciosus, pestifer.
2. Of pleasure or pain; as, Acceptus, dulcis, gratus, gratiosus, jucundus, lætus, suavis.Acerbus, amarus, insuavis, injucundus, ingratus, molestus, tristis.
3. Of friendship or hatred; as, Addictus, æquus, amicus, benevolus, blandus, carus, deditus, fidus, fidelis, lenis, mitis, propitius.Adversus, amulus, asper, crudelis, contrarius, infensus, infestus, infidus, immitis, inimicus, iniquus, invisus, invidus, iratus, odiosus, suspectus, trux.
4. Of clearness or obscurity; as, Apertus, certus, compertus, conspicuus, manifestus, notus, perspicuus.- —Ambiguus, dubius, ignotus, incertus, obscurus.
5. Of nearness; as, Finitimus, proprior, proximus, propinquus, socius, vicinus
6. Of fitness or unfitness; as, Aptus, appositus, accommodatus, habilis, idoneus, opportunus.—— Ineptus, inhabilis, importunus, inconveniens.
7. Of ease or difficulty; as, Facilis, levis, obvius, pervius.Difficilis, arduus, gravis, laboriosus, periculosus, invius. To these add such as signify propensity or readiness; as, Pronus, proclivis, propensus, promptus, paratus.
8. Of equality or inequality; as, Equalis, æquævus, par, compar, suppar. -Inequalis, impar, dispar, discors. Also of likeness or unlikeness; as, Similis, æmulus, geminus.- -Dissimilis, absonus, alienus, diversus, discolor.
9. Several adjectives compounded with CON; as, Cognatus, concolor, concors, confinis, congruus, consanguineus, consentaneus, consonus, conveniens, contiguus, continuus, continens, contiguous; as, Mari, aër continens, est, Cic.
To these add many other adjectives of various significations; as, Obnoxius, subjectus, supplex, credulus, absurdus, decorus, deformis, præsto, indecl. at hand, secundus, &c.—particularly.
Verbals in BILIS and DUS govern the dative; as,
Amandus vel amabilis omnibus,
To be loved by all men.
So Mors est terribilis malis; Optabilis omnibus pax; Adhibenda est nobis diligentia, Cic. Semel omnibus calcanda est via lethi, Hor. Also some participles of the perfect tense; as, Bella matribus detestata, hated by, Hor.
Verbals in DUS are often construed with the preposition a; as, Deus est venerandus & colendus a nobis, Cic. Perfect participles are usually so; as, Mors Crassi est a multis, defleta, rather than multis defleta, Cic. A te invitatus, rogatus, proditus, &c. hardly ever tibi.
OBS. 1. The dative is properly not governed by adjectives, nor by any other part of speech; but put after them, to express the object to which their signification refers.
The particle to in English is often to be supplied; as, Similis patri, Like his father, to being understood.
OBS. 2. Substantives have likewise sometimes a dative after them; as, Ille est pater, dux, vel filius mihi, He is father, leader, or son to me; so, Præsidium reis, decus amicis, &c. Hor. Exitium pecori, Virg. Virtutibus hostis, Cie.
OBS. 3. The following adjectives have sometimes the dative after them, and sometimes the genitive; Affinis, similis, communis, par, proprius, finitimus, fidus, conterminus, superstes, conscius, æqualis, contrarius, and adversus; as, Similis tibi, or tui; Superstes patri, or patris; Conscius facinori, or facinoris. Conscius and some others frequently govern both the genitive and dative; as, Mens sibi conscia recti. We say, Similes, dissimiles, pares, dispares, æquales, communes, inter se : Par et communis cum aliquo. Civitas secum ipsa discors; discordes ad alia, Liv.
OBS. 4. Adjectives signifying usefulness or fitness, and the contrary, have after them the dative or the accusative with a preposition; as,
Utilis, inutilis, aptus, ineptus, accommodatus, idoneus, habilis, inhabilis, opportunus, conveniens, &c. alicui rei, or ad aliquid. Many other adjectives governing the dative, are likewise construed with prepositions; as, Attentus quæsitis, Hor. Attentus ad rem, Ter.
OBS. 5. Of adjectives which denote friendship or hatred, or any other affection of the mind towards any one: I. Some are usually construed with the dative only; as, Affabilis arrogans, asper, carus, difficilis, fidelis, invisus, iratus, offensus, suspectus, ALICUI. II. Some with the prepo sition IN and the accusative; as, Acerbus, animatus, beneficus, gratiosus, injuriosus, liberalis,
meudax, misericors, officiosus, pius, impius, prolixus, severus,sordidus, torvus, vehemens, IN ALIQUEM, III. Some, either with the dative, or with the accusative and the preposition IN, ERGA, or ADVERSUS, going before; as, Contumax, criminosus, durus, exitiabilis, gravis, hospitalis, implacabilis, (and perhaps also inexorabilis and intolerabilis,)iniquus, sævus, ALICUI or IN ALIQUEM. Benevolus, benignus, molestus, ALICUI or ERGA ALIQUEM. Mitis, comis, IN or ERGA ALIQUEM and ALICUI. Pervicax ADVERSUS ALIQUEM. Crudelis IN ALIQUEM, seldom ALICUI. Amicus, amulus, infensus, infestus ALICUI, seldom IN ALIQUEM. Gratus ALICUI, or IN, ERGA, ADVERSUS ALIQUEM. We say alienus alicui or alicujus; but oftener ab aliquo, and sometimes aliquo without the preposition.
AUDIENS is construed with two datives; as, Regi dicto audiens erat, he was obedient to the king; not regis; Dicto audiens fuit jussis magistratuum, Nep. Nobis dicto audientes sunt, not dictis, Cic.
OBS. 6. Adjectives signifying motion or tendency to a thing, have usually after them the accusative with the preposition ad or in, seldom the dative; as,
Pronus, propensus, proclivis, celer, tardus, piger, &c. ad iram, or in iram.
OBS. 7. Proprior and Proximus, in imitation of their primitive prope, often govern the accusative; as, Propior montem, scil. ad, Sall. Proximus finem, Liv.
OBS, 8. IDEM sometimes has the dative, chiefly in the poets; as, Invitum qui servat, idem facit occidenti, Hor. Jupiter omnibus idem, Virg. Eadem illis censemus, Cic. But in prose we commonly find idem qui, et, ac, atque, and also ut, cum; as, Peripatetici quondam iidem erant qui Academiei, Cic. Est animus erga te idem ac fuit, Ter. Dianam et Lunam eandem esse putant, Cic. Idem faciunt, ut, &c. In eodem loco mecum, Cic. But it would be improper to say of the same person or thing under different names, idem cum ; as, Luna eadem est cum Diana. We likewise say, alius ac, alque or et; and so, sometimes, similis and par
3. Adjectives governing the Ablative.
XIV. These adjectives, dignus, indignus, præditus, and contentus; also, natus, satus, ortus, editus, and the like, govern the ablative.
Fretus viribus, Trusting to his strength.
Worthy of honour.
So generatus, creatus, crelus, prognatus, oriundus, procreatus regibus.
OBS. 1. The ablative after these adjectives, is governed by some preposition understood; as, Contentus parvo, scil. cum; Fretus viribus, scil. in, &c. Sometimes the preposition is expressed; as, Ortus ex concubina, Sallust. Editus de nympha, Ovid.
OBS. 2. Dignus, indignus, and contentus, have sometimes the genitive after them; as, dignus avorum, Virg. So Macte esto, or macti estote virtutis or virtute, Increase in virtue, or Go on and prosper; Juberem macte virtute esse, sc. te, Liv. ii. 12. In the last example macte seems to be used adverbially.
4. Adjectives governing the Genitive or Ablative.
Plenus iræ or irâ, Full of anger.
So Non inopes temporis, sed prodigi sumus, Sen. omnia, Cic. Maxima quæque domus servis est plena amor, Ovid. Amor et melle et felle est fœcundissimus, Lucan. Omnium consiliorum ejus particeps, Curt. Homo ratione particeps, Cic. Nihil insidiis vacuum, Id. Vacuas cædis habete manus, Óvid.
XV. Adjectives signifying plenty or want, govern the genitive or ablative; as,
Some of these adjectives are construed,
1. With the genitive only; as, Benignus, exsors, impos, impotens, irritus, liberalis, munificus, prælargus.
2. With the ablative only; Beatus, differtus, frugifer, mutilus, tentus, distentus, tumidus, turgidus. 3. With the genitive more frequently; Compos, consors, egenus, exhæres, expers, fertilis, indigus, parcus, pauper, prodigus, sterilis.
4. With the ablative more frequently; Abundans, cassus, extorris, fætus, frequens, gravis, gravidus, jejunus, liber, locuples, nudus, oneratus, onustus, orbus, pollens, solutus, truncus, viduus, and captus. 5. With both promiscuously; Copiosus, dives, fœcundus, ferax, immunis, inanis, inops, largus, modicus, immodicus, nimius, opulentus, plenus, potens, refertus, satur, vacuus, uber.
6. With a preposition; as, Copiosus, firmus, paratus, imparatus, inops, instructus, à re aliqua; for quod ad rem aliquam attinet, in or with respect to any thing. Extorris ab solo patrio, banished; Orba ab optimatibus concio, Liv. So pauper, tenuis, fœcundus, modicus, parcus, in re aliqua. Immunis, inanis, liber, nudus, solutus, vacuus, a re aliqua, Potens ad rem, and in re
GOVERNMENT OF THE VERB SUM.
1. VERBS governing only one Case.
XVI. Sum, when it signifies possession, property, or duty, governs the genitive; as,
Est regis, It belong to the king; It is the part or property of a king. So Insipientis est dicere, non putaram, It is the part or property of a fool, &c. Militum est suo