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duci parere, It is the part, or duty of soldiers, &c. Laudare se vani; vituperare stulti est, Sen. Hominis est errare; Arrogantis est negligere quid de se quisque sentiat, Cic. Pecus est Melibai, Virg. Hæc sunt hominis, Ter. Pauperis est numerare pecus, Ôvid. Temeritas est florentis ætatis, prudentia senectutis, Cic.

¶ Meum, tuum, suum, nostrum, vestrum, are excepted; as,

Tuum est, It is your duty.

OBS. 1. These possessive pronouns are used in the neuter gender instead of their substantives, mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri. Other possessives are also construed in this manner; as, Est regium, est humanum, the same with est regis, est hominis. Et facere et pati fortia, Romanum est, Liv. ii. 12. OBS. 2. Here some substantive must be understood; as, officium, munus, res, negotium, opus, &c. which are sometimes expressed; as, Munus est principum ; Tuum est hoc munus, Cic. Neutiquam officium liberi esse hominis puto, Ter. In some cases, the preceding substantive may be repeated; as, Hic liber est (liber) fratris. In like manner, some substantive must be supplied in such expressions as these; Ea sunt modo gloriosa, neque patrandi belli, scil. causâ or facta, Sall. Nihil tam æquandæ libertatis est, for ad æquandam libertatem pertinet, Liv.

OBS. 3. We say, Hoc est tuum munus, or tui muneris: So mos est vel fuit, or moris, or in more, Cic.

Scio tuum esse, I know that it is your duty.

XVII. Sum, taken for habeo, (to have,) governs the dative of a person; as,

A book is to me,
that is, I have a book.
Books are to me, i. e. I have books.

I say that I have books.

Est mihi liber,

Sunt mihi libri,

Dico libros esse mihi,

This is more frequently used than habeo librum; habeo libros. In like manner DEEST instead of careo; as, Liber deest mihi, I want a book; Libri desunt mihi; Scio libros deesse mihi, &c.

XVIII. Sum, taken for affero, (to bring,) governs two datives; the one of a person, and the other of a thing; as,

Est mihi voluptati.

It is, or brings, a pleasure to me.

Two datives are also put after habeo, do, verto, relinquo, tribuo, fore, duco, and some others; as,

Ducitur honori tibi, It is reckoned an honour to you. Id vertitur mihi vitio, I am blamed for that. So Misit mihi muneri; Dedit mihi dono; Habet sibi laudi; Venire occurrere auxilio alicui, Liv.

OBS. 1. Instead of the dative, we often use the nominative, or the accusative; as, Est exitium pecori, for exitio ; Dare aliquid alicui donum, or dono; Dare filiam ei nuptam, or nuptui. When dare, and other active verbs have two datives after them, they likewise govern an accusative either expressed or understood; as, Dare crimini ei, sc. id.

OBS. 2. The dative of the person is often to be supplied; as, Est exemplo, indicio, præsidio, usui, &c. scil. mihi, alicui, hominibus, or some such word. So, ponere, opponere, pignori, sc. alicui, to pledge. Canere receptui, sc. suis militibus, to sound a retreat; Habere curæ, quæstui, odio, voluptati, religioni, studio, ludibrio, despicatui, &c. sc. sibi.

OBS. 3. To this rule belong forms of naming; as, Est mihi nomen Alexandro, my name is Alexander; or with the nominative, Est mihi nomen Alexander; or more rarely with the genitive, Est mihi nomen Alexandri.

XIX. The compounds of Sum, except Possum, govern the dative; as,

He commanded the army.

He was present at prayers.

THE CONSTRUCTION OF COMPARATIVES

XX. Words of the comparative degree govern the ablative when quam is omitted in Latin; as,

Præfuit exercitui,
Adfuit precibus,

Dulcior melle, Sweeter than honey.

Præstantior auro, Better than gold.

OBS. 1. The sign of the ablative in English is than. The positive with the adverb magis, likewise governs the ablative; as, Magis dilecta luce, Virg..

The ablative is here governed by the preposition præ understood, which is sometimes expressed ; as, Fortior præ cæteris. We find the comparative also construed with other prepositions; as, immanior ante omnes, Virg.

OBS. 2. The comparative degree may likewise be construed with the conjunction quàm; and then, instead of the ablative, the noun is to be put in whatever case the sense requires; as,

Dulcior quàm mel, scil. est. Amo te magis quàm illum, I love you more than him, that is, quàm amo illum, than I love him. Amo te magis quam ille, I love you more than he, i. e. quàm ille amat, than he loves Plus datur a me quàm illo, sc. ab.

OBS. 3. The conjunction quàm is often elegantly suppressed after amplius and plus; as, Vulnerantur amplius sexcenti, Cæs. scil. quàm. Plus quingentos colaphos infregit mihi, He has Jaid on me more than five hundred blows, Ter. Castra ab urbe haud plus quinque millia passuum locant, sc. quàm, Liv.

Quàm is sometimes elegantly placed between two comparatives; as,

Triumphus clarior quàm gratior, Liv. Or the preposition pro is added; as, Prælium atrocius, quàm pro numero pugnantium editur, Liv.

The comparative is sometimes joined with these ablatives, opinione, spe, æquo, justo, dicto; as, Credibili opinione major, Cic. Credibili fortior, Ovid. Fast. iii. 618. Gravius æquo, Sall. Dicto citius, Virg. Majora credibili tulimus, Liv. They are often understood; as, Liberius vivebat, sc justo, too freely, Nepos.

Nihil is sometimes elegantly used for nemo or nulli; as,

Nihil vidi quidquam latius, for neminem, Ter. Crasso nihil perfectius, Cic. Asperius nihil est humili, cùm surgit in altum. So quid nobis laboriosius, for quis, &c. Cic. We say, inferior patre nulla re, or quàm pater. The comparative is sometimes repeated or joined with an adverb; as, Magis magisque, plus plusque, minus minusque, carior cariorque; Quotidie plus, indies magis, semper candidior candidiorque, &c.

OBS. 4. The relation of equality or sameness is likewise expressed in English by conjunctions; as, Est tam doctus quàm ego, He is as learned as I. Animus erga te idem est ac fuit. Ac and atque are sometimes, though more rarely, used after comparatives; as, Nihil est magis verum atque hoc, Ter.

OBS. 5. The excess or defect of measure is put in the ablative after comparatives; and the sign in English is by, expressed or understood; (or more shortly, the difference of measure is put in the ablative;) as,

Est decem digitis altior quàm frater, He is ten inches taller than his brother, or by ten inches. Altero tanto major est fratre, i. e. duplo major, he is as big again as his brother, or twice as big. Sesquipede minor, a foot and a half less; Allero tanto, aut sesquimajor, as big again, or a half bigger, Cic. Ter tanto pejor est; Bis tanto amici sunt inter se, quàm prius, Plaut. Quinquies tanto amplius, quàm quantum licitum sit civitatibus imperavit, five times more, Cic. To this may be added many other ablatives, which are joined with the comparative to increase its force; as, Tanto, quanto, quo, eo, hoc, multo, paulo, nimio, &c. thus, Quo plus habent, eo plus cupiunt, The more they have, the more they desire. Quanto melior, tanto felicior, The better, the happier. Quoque minor spes est, hoc magis ille cupit, Ovid. Fast. ii. 766. We frequently find multo, tanto, quanto, also joined with superlatives; Multo pulcherrimam eam haberemus, Sal. Multoque id maximum fuit, Liv.

THE CONSTRUCTION OF INDECLINABLE WORDS.

1. THE CONSTRUCTION OF ADVERBS.

XXI. Adverbs qualify verbs, participles, adjectives, and other adverbs; as,
Fortiter pugnans, Fighting bravely.
Servus egregiè fidelis, A slave remarkably faithful. Satis bene, Well enough.
OBS. 1. Adverbs are sometimes likewise joined to substantives; as,

Bene scribit, He writes well.

Homerus plane orator; planè noster, verè Metellus, Cic. So Hodie mane; oras mane, heri mane, hodie vesperi, &c. tam mane, tam vespere.

OBS. 2. The adverb for the most part is placed near to the word which it modifies or affects. OBS. 3. Two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative; as,

Nec non senserunt, Nor did they not perceive, i. e. Et senserunt, And they did perceive; Non poteram non exanimari metu, Cic. Examples, however, of the contrary of this sometimes occur in good authors, both in English and Latin. Thus two or three negative participles are placed before the subjunctive mode, to express a stronger negation. Neque tu haud dicas tibi non prædictum, And do not say that you were not forewarned, Ter.

But what chiefly deserves attention in adverbs, is the degree of comparison and the mode with which they are joined:

1. Apprimè, admodum, vehementer, maximè, perquam, valdè, oppidò, &c. and per in composition, are usually joined to the positive; as, Utrique nostrum gratum admodum feceris, You will do what is very agreeable to both of us, Cic. perquam puerile, very childish; oppido pauci, very few; perfacile est, &c. In like manner, Parum, multum, nimium, tantum, quantum, aliquantum; as, In rebus apertissimis nimium longi sumus; parum firmus, multum bonus, Cic. Adverbs in um are sometimes also joined to comparatives; as, Forma viri aliquantùm amplior humanâ, Liv.

QUAM is joined to the positive or superlative in different senses; as, Quam difficile est! How difficult it is! Quam crudelis, or Ut crudelis est! How cruel he is! Flens quam familiariter, very familiarly, Ter. So quam severe, very severely, Cic. Quam latè, very widely, Čas. Tum multa, quam, &c. as many things as, &c. Quam maximas potest copias armat, as great as possible, Sall. Quam maximas gratias agit, agam primum quam sæpissime, Cic. Quam quisque pessimè fecit, tam maximè tutus est, Sall.

FACILE, for haud dubiè, undoubtedly, clearly, is joined to the superlatives or words of a similar meaning; as, Facilè doctissimus, facilè princeps, v. præcipuus. LONGE to comparatives or superlatives, rarely to the positive; as, Longè eloquentissimus Plato, Cic. Pedibus longè melior Lycus, Virg.

2. CUM, when, is construed with the indicative or subjunctive, oftener with the latter; DUM, whilst, or how long, with the indicative; as, Dum hæc aguntur; Ægroto, dum anima est, spes esse,

dicitur, Cic. Donec eris felix, multos numerabis amicos, Ovid. DUM and DONEC, for usquedum, until, sometimes with the indicative and sometimes with the subjunctive; as, Operior, dum ista cognosco, Cic. Haud desinam, donec perfecero, Ter. So QUOAD, for quamdiu, quantum, quatenus as long, as much, as far as; thus, Quoad Catilina fuit in urbe. Quoad tibi æquum videbitur quoad possem et liceret; quoad progredi potuerit amentia, Cic. But QUOAD, until, oftener with the subjunctive; as, Thessalonica esse statueram, quoad aliquid ad me scriberes, Cic. but not always; Non faciam finem regendi, quoad nunciatum erit te fecisse, Cic. The pronoun ejus, with facere or fieri, is elegantly added to quoad; as, Quoad ejus facere poteris; Quoad ejus fieri, possit, Cic. Ejus is thought to be here governed by aliquid or some such word understood. Quoad corpus, quoad animam, for secundum, or quoad attinet ad corpus vel animam, as to the body or soul, is esteemed by the best grammarians not to be good Latin.

3. POSTQUAM or POSTEAQUAM, after, is usually joined with the indicative. ANTEQUAM, PRIUSQUAM, before; SIMUL, SIMUL AC, SIMUL ATQUE, SIMUL UT, as soon as; UBI, when, sometimes with the indicative, and sometimes with the subjunctive; as, Antequam dico or dicam, Cic. Simul ac persensit, Virg. Simul ut videro Curionem, Cic. Hæc ubi dicta dedit, Liv. Ubi semel quis perjeraverit, ei credi postea non oportet, Cic. So NÆ, truly; as, Na ego homo sum infelix, Ter. Na tu, si id fecisses, melius famæ consuluisses, Cic. But NË, not, with the imperative, or more elegantly with the subjunctive; as, Ne jura, Plaut. Ne post conferas culpam in me, Ter. Ne tot annorum felicitatem in unius horæ dederis discrimen, Liv.

4. QUASI, CEU, TANQUAM, PERINDE, when they denote resemblance, are joined with the indicative; Fuit olim quasi ego sum, senex, Plaut. Adversi rupto ceu quondam turbine venti, confligunt, Virg. Hæc omnia perinde sunt, ut aguntur. But when used ironically, they have the subjunctive; as, Quasi de verbo, non de re laboretur, Cic.

5. UTINAM, O SI, UT for utinam, I wish, take the subjunctive; as, Utinam ea res ei voluptatı sil, Cic. O mihi præteritos referat si Jupiter annos, Virg. Ut illum dii deæque perdant, Ter.

6. UT, when, or after, takes the indicative; as, Ut discessit, venit, &c. ¶ Also for quam or quomodo, how! as, Ut valet! Ut falsus animi est! Ut sæpe summa ingenia in occulto latent! Plaut.

Or when it simply denotes resemblance; as, Ut tule es, ita omnes censes esse, Plaut. ¶ In this sense it sometimes has the subjunctive; as, Ut sementem feceris, ita metes, Cic.

7. QUIN for CUR NON, takes the indicative; as, Quin continetis vocem indicem stultitia vestræ ? Cic. For IMO, nay or but, the indicative or imperative; as, Quin est paratum argentum ; quin tu hoc audi, Ter. ¶ For UT, NON, QUI, QUÆ, QUOD NON, or QUO MINUS, the subjunctive; as, Nulla tam facilis res, quin difficilis fiet quum invitus facias, Ter Nemo est, quin malet; Facere non possum, quin ad te mittam, I cannot help sending'; Nihil abest, quin sim miserrimus, Cic.

1. THE GOVERNMENT OF ADVERBS.

XXII. Some adverbs of time, place, and quantity, govern the genitive; as,

Pridie ejus diei,
Ubique gentium,
Satis est verborum,

The day before that day.
Every where.

There is enough of words.

1. Adverbs of time, governing the genitive are, Interea, postea, inde, tunc; as Interea loci, in the meantime; postea loci, afterwards; inde loci, then; tunc temporis, at that time. 2. Of place, Ubi and quo, with their compounds ubique, ubicunque, ubivis, ubi-ubi, &c. Also Eo, huc, huccine, unde, usquam, nusquam, longe, ibidem; as, Ubi, quò, quovis, &c. also usquam, nusquam, unde terrarum, vel gentium; longè gentium; ibidem loci, eo audaciæ, vecordiæ, miseriarum, &c. to that pitch of boldness, madness, misery, &c. 3. Of quantity, Abunde, affatim, largiter, nimis, satis, parum, minimè; as, Abunde gloriæ,affătim divitiarum, largiter auri, satis loquentiæ, sapientiæ parum est illi vel habet. He has enough of glory, riches, &c. Minimè gentium, by no means.

Some add ergo and instar; as, Ergo virtulis, for the sake of virtue, Cic. Instar montis, like a mountain, Virg. But these are properly nouns.

OBS. 1. These adverbs are thought to govern the genitive, because they imply in themselves the force of a substantive; as, Potentiæ gloriæque abundè adeptus, the same with abundantiam gloriæ; or res, locus, or negolium and a preposition, may be understood; as, Interea loci, i. e. inter ea negotia loci; Ubi terrarum, for in quo loco terrarum.

OBS. 2. We usually say, pridie, postridie, ejus diei, seldom diem; but pridie, postridie Kalendas, Nonas, Idus, ludos Apollinares, natalem ejus, absolutionem ejus, &c. rarely Kalendarum, &c.

OBS. 3. En and ecce are construed either with the nominative or accusative; as,

En hostis, or hostem; Ecce miserum hominem, Cic. Sometimes a dative is added; as, Ecce tibi Strato, Ter. Ecce duas (scil. aras) tibi, Daphni, Virg. In like manner is construed hem put for ecce; as, Hem tibi Davum, Ter. But in all these examples some verb must be understood. OBS. 4. Some derivative adverbs govern the case of their primitives; as,

Omnium optimè loquitur,
Convenienter naturæ,
Venit obviam ei,
Proximè castris or castra,

2. THE CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS.

1. Prepositions governing the Accusative.

XXIII. The prepositions ad, apud, ante, &c. govern the accusative.

AD astra, to the stars; rèligari ad asserem, to be bound to a plank; ad diem veniam, solvam,

He speaks the best of all.
Agreeably to nature.

He came to meet him.
Next the camp.

&c. at or on; ad portam, ostium, fores, at, before; ad urbem Tiberim, near, at; ad tem

pla supplicatio, in; ad summum, at most, or to the top; ad summam, on the whole; Cic. ad ultimum, extremum, at last, finally; ad v. in speciem, to appearance; mentis ad omnia capacitas; annus fatalis ad interitum ; lenius ad severitatem, for, with respect to, Cic. ad vivum, sc. corpus, to the quick; ad judicem agere, before; nihil ad Cæsarem, in comparison of; numero ad duodecim, to the number of; omnes ad unum, to a man; ad hoc, besides; ad vulgi opinionem, according to; homo ad unguem factus, an accomplished man; herbæ ad lunam messæ, by the light of, Virg. ad tempus venit, at; ira brevis est & ad tempus, for, ad tempus consilium capiam, according to, Cic. ad decem annos, after; annos ad quinquaginta natus, about, Cic. nebula erat ad multum diei, for a great part of the day, Liv. ad pedes, jacere, provolvi, procumbere, & ad genua ; ad manus esse, at; ad manus venire, to come to a close engagement; ad libellam deberi, to a farthing, no more and no less; ad amussim, exactly; ad hæc visa auditaque, upon seeing and hearing these things, Liv. AD seems sometimes to be taken adverbially ; as, Ad duo millia cæsa sunt; ad mille hominum amissum est; ad ducenti perierunt, about, Liv. APUD forum, at; apud me cœnabis, at my house; apud senatum, judices, v. aliquem dicere, before; apud majores nostros, among; apud Xenophontem, in the book of; Est mihi fides, vel valeo apud illum, I have credit with him ; facio te apud illum deum, Ter. ANTE diem, focum, &c. before. ADVERSUS, V. -um; CONTRA hostes, against; adversus infimos justitia est servanda, toward; adversum hunc loqui, to, Ter. Lerina adversum Antipolim, over against, Plin.

Cis vel CITRA flumen, on this side; citra necessitatem, without; Ede citra cruditatem, bibe citra ebrietatem, Senec. CIRCUM & CIRCA regem, about; Varia circa hæc opinio, Plin.

ERGA amicos, towards. EXTRA muros; Extra jocum, periculum, noxiam, sortem, without; nemo extra te, besides; extra conjurationem, not concerned in, Sall.

during, in the time of; inter hæc parata, during these preparations, Sall. Inter tot annos, in, Cic. Inter diem, whence; interdiu, in the day time; inter se amant, they love one another; Quasi non norimus nos inter nos, Ter. INTRA privatos parietes, intra paucos annos, within; intra famam est, less than report, Quinct.

A patre, ab omnibus, abs te, by or from; a puero, vel pueris, a pueritia, in cunabulis, / teneris unguibus, &c. from a child, ever since childhood; ab ovo usque ad mala, from the beginning to the end of supper; a manu, sc. fervus, an amanuensis or clerk; ad manum, ɑ waiting man; a pedibus, a footman; a latere principis, an attendant. So a secretis, rationibus, consiliis, cyathis, &c. a secretary, accountant, &c. fores a nobis, for nostræ. Injuria ab illo, for illius. Ter. a coena, after; secundus, tertius a Romulo; ictus ab latere, on or in; a senatu stare, for, in defence of; ab oculis doleo, Plaut. ab ingenio improbus, a pecunia et militibus imparatus, as to, with respect to, Cic. Est calor a sole; omissiores ab re, too careless about money; a villa mercenarium vidi, Ter. ABSQUE causa, without; absque te esset, recte ego mihi vidissem i. e. si tu non esses, nisi ta

JUXTA macellum, near the shambles. Oв lucrum, for gain; ob oculos, before; ob industriam for de industria, on purpose, Plaut. PENES quem, or quem penes, in the power of; Penes te es ? you in your senses? Hor. PER agros, through; per vim, per scelus, by; per anni tempus, per ætatem licet, for, by reason of.

PONE caput, behind.

Post hoc tempus, after; post tergum, behind; post homines natos, post hominum memoriam, since the world began.

PRÆTER te nemo, nobody besides, or except; præter casam fugere, beyond; præter legem, morem æquum et bonum, spem, opinionem, &c. contrary to, against, beyond; præter cæteros excellere, lamentari, above; præter ripam ire, along, near; præter oculos, before, Cic. PROPTER virtutem, for, on account of; propter aquæ rivum, near, hard by, Virg. SECUNDUM facta et virtutes tuas, according to, Ter. secundum littus, secundum aurem vulneratus est, near to; in actione secundum vocem, vultus plurimum valet; secundum patrem tu es proximus, after, next to; Prætor secundum me decrevit, sententiam dedit, for, in my favour, Cic. SECUS viam, by, along. SUPRA terram, above. TRANS mare, over, beyond. ULTRA Occanum, beyond.

To prepositions governing the accusative are commonly added CIRCITER, PROPE, USQUE, and VERSUS; as, Circiter meridiem, about mid day; prope muros, near the walls; usque Puteolos, Tharsum usque, as far as ; Orientem versus, towards the east. But in these ad is understood, which we find sometimes ex pressed; as, Prope ad annum, Nep. Ab ovo usque ad mala, Hor. Ad oceanum versus, Cas. In Italiam versus, Cic.

INFRA tectum, below the roof.

INTER fratres, among; inter & super cœnam,
2. Prepositions governing the Ablative.

XXIV. The prepositions a, ab, abs, &c. govern the ablative.

esses, but for you, had it not been for you, Ter. Absque is chiefly used by comic writers; sine, by orators.

CLAM patre and patrem, without the knowledge of. CORAM omnibus, before, in presence of. Cum exercitu, with; testis mecum est annulus, in my possession, Ter. cum prima luce, at break of day; cum imperio esse, in; cum primis, in primis, in the first place; cum metu dicere, cum lætitia vivere, cum cura, &c. Cic. We say, mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, vobis cum; rarely cum me, cum te, &c. and quocum or cum quo, quibuscum or cum quibus. DE lana caprina rixantur, about, concerning; de tanto patrimonio nihil relictum est, of; de loco superiore, from; de die, by day; de nocte, by night; de integro, anew, afresh; de, v. ex improviso, unexpectedly; de, v. ex industria, on purpose; de meo, at my expense; id de lucro

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putato esse, clear gain, Ter. de, v. ex com-
pacto agere, by agreement; de transverso,
cross-wise, athwart ; de, v. ex ejus sententia, con-
silio, according to ; qua, v. hac de causa, for;
homo de plebe; templum de marmore, of; de
scripto dicere, to read a speech; de filio emit,
from, Cic. De servis fidelissimus; de ipsius
exercitu non amplius hominum mille cecidit,
Nep. Robur de exercitu, Liv. Adolescens de
summo loco, Plaut. De procul aspicere, Id.
E foro, ex ædibus, from, out of; e contrario, v.
contraria parte, on the contrary; e regione,
over against; e republica, e re alicujus, for the
good of; statim e somno, ex fuga, ex tanta
properantia, aliud ex alio malum, from, after;
e vestigio, out of hand, immediately; poculum
ex auro; ex equo pugnare, on horseback ;
facere pugnam ex commodo, on advantageous
ground, Sall. diem ex die expectare, from day
to day, day after day; ex ordine, in order;
magna ex parte, for the most part; ex super
vacuo, superfluously; ex tua dignitate, v. virtute,
ex decreto senatûs, e natura, according to; so
vulgus ex veritate pauca, ex opinione multa
æstimat; ex, v. de more, ad v. in morem alicu-
jus: Ex animo, from the heart; Insolentia ex
prosperis rebus, e via languere, ex doctrina
nobilis, on account of; ex usu est tibi, of ad-
vantage; ex eo die, since; ex amicis certis
certissimus, of, or among; ex pedibus laborare,
to be ill of the gout, Cic. E re nata, as the
matter stands, Ter. Commenta mater est, esse
ex alio viro, nescio quo, puerum natum, by, Id.
PRO gloria certare, for; Rati noctem pro se,
favourable to them, Sall. Hoc est pro me, Cic.
pro templo, tribunali, concione, rostris, castris,
foribus, before; pro sua dignitate, sapientia,
&c. pro potestate cogere, pro tempore, re, loco,
suo jure, according to; est pro prætore, pro te

molam, comes facundus pro vehiculo est, for, instead of; pro viribus, pro parte virili, pro sua quisque parte, v. facultate, to one's ability or power; Parum tibi pro eo, quod a te habeo, reddidi, in comparison of, considering, Cic. pro ut, pro eo ac, pro eo ut mereor, as I deserve; pro se quisque, uterque, &c. for his own part; pro rata parte, pro portione, in proportion; pro cive se gerit; agere pro victoribus; pro suo uti; pro rupto fœdus habet, for, as, so; pro certo, infecto, comperto, nihilo, concesso, &c. habeo, duco. Pro occiso, relictus est, Cic.

PRÆ se pugionem tulit, before; speciem præ se boni viri fert, pretends to be, Ter. præ lacrymis non possum scribere, for, because, of; illum, præ me contempsi, in comparison of: So the adverb præut; as, præut hujus rabies quæ dabit, Ter.

IN urbem ire, into; amor in patriam, in te be-
nignus, towards; in lucem, until day; in eam
sententiam, to that purpose, on that head; in
rem tuam est, for your advantage; in utramque
partem disputare, on both sides, for and
against; litura in nomen, on, Cic. potestas in
filium, over; in aliquem dicere, against; mirum
in modum, after; in pedes stare, in aurem
dormire, on; in os laudare, to, before; in, v.
inter patres lectus, into the number of; in vul-
gus probari, spargere, &c. among; crescit in
dies, in singulos dies, omnes in dies, every
day; in diem posterum, proximum, decimum,
against; in diem vivere, to live from hand to
mouth, not to think of to-morrow; Est in diem,
will happen sometime after, Ter. Induciæ in
duos menses datæ, in hunc diem, annum, &c.
for; Ternis assibus in pedem, v. in singulos
pedes, transegit, He bargained for three shil-
lings a foot, or for every foot; So in jugerum,
militem, capita, naves, &c. In medimna sin-
gula, H. S. quinos denos dedisti, Cic.
IN portu navigo, in tempore, in; esse in potestate,

PALAM populo, omnibus, before, with the know-
ledge of.

SINE labore, without; sine ulla causa, pompa,
molestia, querela, impensa, &c. homo sine re,
fide, spe, fortunis, sedes, &c. Cic.
Capulo TENUS, up to the hilt. Tenus is construed
with the genitive plural, when the word wants
the singular; as, Cumarum tenus, as far as
Cuma: or when we speak of things, of which
we have by nature only two; as, Oculorum,
aurium, narium, labrorum, lumborum, crurum
tenus, up to. We also find Corcyræ tenus, et
ostiis tenus, Liv. Colchis tenus, Flor. Pec-
toribus tenus, Ovid.

To prepositions governing the ablative is commonly added PROCUL; as, Procul domo, far from home; but here a is understood, which is also often expressed; as, Procul a patria, Virg. Procul ab ostentatione, Quinct. Culpa est procul a me, Ter.

3. Prepositions governing the Accusative or Ablative.

XXV. The prepositions in, sub, super, and subter, govern the accusative, when motion to a place is signified; but when motion or rest in a place is signified, in and sub, govern the ablative; super and subter either the accusative or ablative.

IN when it signifies into, governs the accusative; when it signifies in or among, it governs the ablative; as,

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