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OBS. 1. Potior often governs the genitive; as, Potiri urbis, Sall. And we always say, Poliri rerúm, to possess the chief command, never rebus; imperio being understood.
OBS. 2. Potior, fungor, vestor, epulor, and pascor, sometimes have an accusative; as, Potiri urbem, Cic. Officia fungi, Ter. Munera fungi, Tacit. Pascuntur silvas, Virg. And in ancient writers, utor, abutor, and fruor; as, Uti consilium, Plaut. Operam abutitur, Ter. Depasco and depascoT, always take an accusative; as, Depascitur artus, Virg.
XL. A verb compounded with a preposition, often governs the case of that preposition; as,
Adeamus scholam, Let us go to the school.
OBS. 1. The preposition with which the word is compounded, is often repeated; as, Adire ad scholam; Exire ex schola; Aggredi aliquid, or ad aliquid; ingredi orationem, or in orationem; inducere animum, and in animum; evadere undis and ex undis; decedere de suo jure, decedere vid or de via; expellere, ejicere, exterminare, extrudere, exturbare urbe, and ex urbe. Some do not repeat the preposition; as, Affari, alloqui, allatrare aliquem, not ad aliquem. So Alluere urbem, accolere flumen; circumvenire aliquem; præterire injuriam; abdicare se magistratu, (also abdicare magistratum ;) transducere exercitum fluvium, &c. Others are only construed with the preposition; as, Accurrere ad aliquem, adhortari ad aliquid, incidere in morbum, avocare a studiis, avertere ab incepto, &c.
Some admit other prepositions: as, Abire, demigrare loco; and a, de, ex loco; abstrahere aliquem a, de, vel e conspectu; Desistere sententiâ, a vel de sententia; Excidere manibus, de, vel e manibus, &c. OBS. 2. Some verbs compounded with e or ex govern either the ablative or accusative; as, Egredi urbe or urbem, sc. extra; egredi extra vallum, Nep. Evadere insidiis, or insidias. Patrios excedere muros, Lucan. Sceleratâ excedere terrâ, Virg. Elabi ex manibus; pugnam, vincula, Tac. OBS. 3. This rule does not take place, unless when the preposition may be disjoined from the verb, and put before the noun by itself; as, Alloquor patrem, or loquor ad patrem.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE INFINITIVE.
XLI. The infinitive mood may be governed by a verb, participle, adjective,
or noun; as,
Cupio discere, I desire to learn.
OBS. 1. The infinitive is often governed by adjectives; as, Horatius est dignus legi, Quinctil. And sometimes depends on a substantive; as, Tempus, equum fumantia solvere colla, Virg.
OBS. 2. The word governing the infinitive is sometimes understood; as, Mene incepto desistere victam, scil. decet, or par est, Virg. Videre est, one may see. Dicere non est, scil. copia, or facultas, Horat. And sometimes the infinitive itself is to be supplied; as, Socratem fidibus docuit, scil. canere, Cic. So Discere, scire, fidibus.
OBS. 3. The infinitive was not improperly called by the ancients Nomen verbi, the name or noun of the verb; because it is.both joined with an adjective like a substantive; as, Velle suum cuique est, Every one has a will of his own; and likewise supplies the place of a noun, not only in the nominative, but also in all the oblique cases; as, 1. In the nominative, Latrocinari, fraudare, turpe est, Cic. Didicisse fideliter artes emollit mores, Ovid. 2. In the genitive, Peritus cantare for cantandi, or cantûs, Virg. 3. In the dative, Paratus servire, for servituti, Sall. 4. In the accusative, Da mihi fallere, for artem fallendi, Horat. Quod faciam superest, præter amare, nihil, Ovid. 5. In the vocative. O vivere nostrum, ut non sentientibus effluis! for vita nostra. 6. In the ablative, Dignus amari, for amore, or qui ametur, Virg.
OBS. 4. Instead of the infinitive, a different construction is often used after verbs of doubting, willing, ordering, fearing, hoping; in short, after any verb which has a relation to futurity; as, Dubitat ita facere, or more frequently, an, num, or utrum ita facturus sit; Dubitavit an faceret necne, Non dubito quin fecerit. Vis me facere, or ut faciam. Metuit tangi, or ne tangatur. Spero te venturum esse, or fore ut venias. Nunquam putavi fore ut ad te supplex venirem, Cic. Existimabant futurum fuisse ut oppidum amitteretur, Cæs.
OBS. 5. To, which in English is the sign of the infinitive, is omitted after bid, dare, need, make, see, hear, feel, and some others; as, I bid him do it; and in Latin may often be rendered otherwise than by the infinitive; as, I am sent to complain, Mittor questum, or ut querar, &c. Ready to hear, Promptus ad audiendum; Time to read, Tempus legendi; Fit to swim, Aptus natando; Easy to say, Facile dictu; I am to write, Scripturus sum; A house to let, or more properly, to be let, Domus locanda; He was left to guard the city, Relictus est ut tueretur urbem.
Accusative before the Infinitive.
XLII. When quod, quin, ut, or ne, is omitted in Latin, the word, which would otherwise be in the nominative, is put in the accusative, and the verb in the infinitive mood; as,
Gaudeo te valere, I am glad that you are well.
OBS. 1. The particle that in English, is the sign of the accusative before the infinitive in Latin, when it comes between two verbs without expressing intention or design. Sometimes the particle is omitted; as, Aiunt regem adventare, They say the king is coming, that being understood.
OBS. 2. The accusative before the infinitive always depends upon some other verb, commonly on a neuter or substantive verb; but seldom on a verb taken in an active sense.
OBS. 3. The infinitive, with the accusative before it, seems sometimes to supply the place of a nominative; as, Turpe est mililem fugere, That a soldier should fly is a shameful thing.
OBS. 4. The infinitive esse or fuisse, must frequently be supplied; especially after participles; as, Hostium exercitum cæsum fusumque cognovi, Cic. Sometimes both the accusative and infinitive are understood; as, Pollicitus suscepturum, scil. me esse, Ter.
OBS. 5. The infinitive may frequently be otherwise rendered by the conjunctions, quod, ut, ne, or quin; as, Gaudeo le valere, i. e. quod valeas, or propter tuam bonam valetudinem; Jubeo 'ros bene sperare, or ut bene speretis; Prohibeo eum exire, or ne exeat; non dubito eum fecisse, or much better, quin fecerit. Scio quod filius met, Plaut. for filium amare. Miror si potuil, for eum potuisse, Cic. Nemo dubitat, ut populus Romanus omnes virtule superârit, for populum Romanum superasse, Nep. Ex animi sententia juro, ut ego rempublicam non deseram, for me non deserturum esse, Liv. xxii. 53.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICIPLES, GERUNDS, AND SUPINES.
XLIII. Participles, gerunds, supines, and adverbs, govern the same case as the words from which they are derived; as,
Amans virtutem, Loving virtue. Carens fraude, Wanting guile.
OBS. 1. Passive participles often govern the dative, particularly when they are used as adjectives; as,
Suspectus mihi, Suspected by me; Suspectiores regibus, Sall. Invisus mihi, hated by me, or hateful to me; Indies invisior, Suet. Occulla, et maribus non invisa solum, sed etiam inaudita sacra, unseen, Cic.
EXOSUS, PEROSUS, and often also PERTÆSUS, govern the accusative; as, Tadas exosa jugales, Ovid. Plebs consulum nomen haud secus quam regum perosa erat, Liv. Pertæsus ignaviam suam; semet ipse, displeased with, Suet. vilam, weary of, Justin. levitatis, Cic..
Verbals in BUNDUS govern the case of their own verbs; as, Gratulabundus patriæ, Just. Vitabundus castra hostium, Liv. So sometimes also nouns; as, Justitia est obtemperatio scriptis legibus, Cic. Insidia consuli, Sall. Domum reditionis spe sublatâ, Cæs. Spectatio ludos, Plaut.
OBS. 2. These verbs do, reddo, volo, curo, facio, habeo, comperio, with the perfect participle, form a periphrasis similar to what we use in English; as, Compertum habeo, for comperi, I have found, Sall. Effectum dabo, for efficiam; Inventum tibi curabo, et adductum tuum Pamphilum, i. e. inve niam et adducam, Ter. Sometimes the gerund is used with ad; as, Tradere ei gentes diripiendas, or ad diripiendum, Cic. Rogo, accipio, do aliquid utendum; or ad utendum; or Misit mihi librum legendum, or ad legendum, &c.
OBS. 3. These verbs, curo, habeo, mando, loco, conduco, do, tribuo, milto, &c. are elegantly construed with the participle in dus instead of the infinitive; as, Funus. faciendum curari, for fieri, or ul fieret; Columnas ædificandas locavit, Cic.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF GERUNDS.
OBS. Gerunds are construed like substantive nouns; as,
Fit for studying.
Studendum est mihi, I must study. Tempus studendi, Time of study. Scio studendum esse mihi, I know that I must study. XLIV. The gerund in dum, of the nominative, with the verb est, governs the dative; as,
Legendum est mihi, I must read. Moriendum est omnibus, All must die. So Scio legendum est mihi; moriendum esse omnibus, &c.
OBS. 1. This gerund always imports obligation or necessity; and may be resolved into oportet, necesse est, or the like, and the infinitive or the subjunctive, with the conjunction ul; as, Omnibus est moriendum, or Omnibus necesse est mori, or ut moriantur; or Necesse est ut omnes moriantur. Consulendum est tibi a me, I must consult for your good; for Oportet ut consulam tibi, Cic.
OBS. 2. The dative is often understood; as, Õrandum est, ut sil mens sana in corpore sano, sc. tibi, Juv. Hic vincendum, aut moriendum, milites, est, sc. vobis, Liv. Deliberandum est diu, quod statuendum est semel, sc. tibi vel alicui, P. Syr.
XLV. The gerund in di, of the genitive, is governed by nouns, or adjectives; as,
Tempus legendi, Time of reading. Cupidus discendi, Desirous of learning.
OBS. This gerund is sometimes construed with the genitive plural; as, Facultas agrorum con· donandi, for agros, Cic. Copia spectandi comœdiarum, for comedias, Ter. But chiefly with pronouns; as, In castra venerunt sui purgandi causâ, Cæs. Vestri adhortandi causa, Liv. Ejus videndi cupidus, sc. fœminæ, Ter. The gerund here is supposed to govern the genitive like a substantive
XLVI. The gerund in do, of the dative, is governed by adjectives signifying usefulness, or fitness, &e.; as,
Charla utilis scribendo, Paper useful for writing.
OBS. 1. Sometimes the adjective is understood; as, Non est solvendo, scil. par, or habilis, He is not able to pay. Is finis censendo factus est, Liv.
OBS. 2. This gerund is sometimes governed also by verbs; as, Adesse scribendo, Cic. Aptat habendo ensem, for wearing, Virg.
XLVII. The gerund in dum, of the accusative, is governed by the prepositions ad, ob, inter, ante, propter; as,
Promptus ad audiendum,
Ready to hear.
Attentive in time of teaching.
OBS. This gerund is also governed by some other prepositions; as, Circa movendum, Quinctil. Or it depends on some verb going before, and then with the verb esse governs the dative case; as, Scio moriendum esse omnibus, I know that all must die. Esse is often understood.
XLVIII. The gerund in do, of the ablative, is governed by the prepositions a, ab, de, e, ex, in; or without a preposition, as the ablative of cause, means, or manner; as,
Pana a peccando absterret,
OBS. The gerund in its nature very much resembles the infinitive. Hence the one is frequently put for the other; as, Est tempus legendi, or legere: only the gerund is never joined with an adjec tive, and is sometimes taken in a passive sense; as, Cum Tisidum vocaretur ad imperandum, i. e. ut ipsi imperetur, to receive orders, Sall. Nunc ades ad imperandum, vel ad parendum potius, Sic enim antiqui loquebantur, Cic. i. e. ut tibi imperetur. Urit videndo, i. e. dum videtur, Virg.
By the Gerund.
Punishment frightens from sinning.
The memory is improved by exercising it.
Gerunds turned into participles in dus.
OBS. 1. Gerunds governing the accusative are elegantly turned into participles in dus, which, like adjectives, agree with their substantives in gender, number, and case; as,
By the Participle or Gerundive.
participle and the substantive are always
OBS. 2. In changing gerunds into participles in dus, the to be put in the same case in which the gerund was; as,
Genitive. Inita sunt consilia urbis delendæ, civium trucidandorum, nominis Romani extinguendi, Cie.
Dative. Perpeliendo labori idoneus, Colum. Capessendæ reipublicæ habilis, Tac. Area firma templis ac porticibus sustinendis, Liv. Oneri ferendo est, sc. aptus v. habilis, Ovid. Natus miseriis ferendis, Ter. Literis dandis vigilare, Cic. Locum oppido condendo capere, Liv.
Acc. and Ablative. Ad defendendam Romam ab oppugnanda Capua duces Romanos abstrahere, Liv. Orationem Latinam legendis nostris efficies pleniorem, Cic.
OBS. 3. The gerunds of verbs which do not govern the accusative, are never changed into the participle, except those of medeor, utor, abutor, fruor, fungor, and potior; as, Spes potiundi urbe, or poliundæ urbis ; but we always say, Cupidus subveniendi tibi, and never tui.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF SUPINES.
1. The Supine in um.
XLIX. The supine in um, is put after a verb of motion; as,
So Ducere cohortes prædatum, Liv. Nunc venis irrisum dominum? Quod in rem tuam optimum factu arbitror, te id admonitum venio, Plaut.
OBS. 1. The supine in um is elegantly joined with the verb eo, to express the signification of any verb more strongly; as, It se perditum, the same with id agit, or operam dat, ut se perdat, He is bent on his own destruction, Ter. This supine with iri taken impersonally, supplies the place of the infinitive passive; as, An credebas illam sine tua opera iri deductum domum? Which may be thus resolved, An credebas iri (a te vel ab aliquo) deductum (i. e. ad deducendum) illam, domum, Ter. OBS. 2. The supine in um is put after other verbs besides verbs of motion; as, Dedit filiam nuptum; Cantatum provocemus, Ter. Revocatus defensum patriam ; Divisit copias hiematum, Nep.
OBS. 3. The meaning of this supine may be expressed by several other parts of the verb; as, Venit oratum opem or 1. Venit opem orandi causâ, or opis oranda. 2. Venit ad orandum opem, or ad orandam opem. 3. Venit opi oranda. 4. Venit opem oraturus. 5. Venit qui, or ut opem oret 6. Venit opem orare. But the third and the last of these are seldom used.
2. The Supine in u.
L. The suping in u, is put after an adjective; as,
So Nihil dictu fædum, visuque hæc limina tangat; intra quæ puer est, Jur. Difficilis res est inventu verus amicus; Fas v. nefas est dictu; Opus est scitu, Cic.
OBS. 1. The supine in u being used in a passive sense, hardly ever governs any case. It is some. times, especially in old writers, put after verbs of motion; as, Nunc obsonatu redeo, from getting provisions, Plaut. Primus cubitu surgat, (villicus) from bed, postremus cubitum eat, Cato.
OBS. 2. This supine may be rendered by the infinitive, or gerund with the preposition ad; as, Difficile cognitu, cognosci, or ad cognoscendum; Res facilis ad credendum, Cic.
OBS. 3. The supines being nothing else but verbal nouns of the fourth declension, used only in the accusative and ablative singular, are governed in these cases by prepositions understood; the supine in um by the preposition ad, and the supine in u by the preposition in.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCUMSTANCES.
The circumstances, which in Latin are expressed in different cases, are, 1. The Price of a thing. 2. The Cause, Manner, and Instrument. 3. Measure and Distance. 4. Time.
LI. Nouns, signifying the price of a thing, are put in the ablative; as,
Emi librum duobus assibus, I bought a book for two shillings.
So Asse carum est; vile viginti minis; auro venale, &c. Nocet empta dolore voluptas, Hor. Spem pretio non emam, Ter. Plurimi auro veneunt honores, Ovid.
These genitives, tanti, quanti, pluris, minoris, are excepted; as,
Quanti constitit, How much cost it? Asse et pluris, A shilling and more.
OBS. 1. When the substantive is added, they are put in the ablative; as, părvo pretio, impenso pretio vendere, Cic.
OBS. 2. Magno, permagno, parvo, paululo, minimo, plurimo, are often used without the substantive; as, Permagno constitit, scil. pretio, Cic. Heu quanto regnis nox stetit una tuis? Ovid. Fast ii. 812. We also say, Emi carè, carius, carissimè; bene, meliùs, optimè; malè, pejùs, viliùs, vilissimè Valde carè æstimas: Emit domum prope dimidio cariùs, quàm æstimabat, Cic.
OBS. 3. The ablative of price is properly governed by the preposition pro understood, which is likewise sometimes expressed; as, Dum pro argenteis decem aureus unus valeret, Liv.
2. MANNER AND CAUSE.
LII. Nouns, signifying the instrument, cause, means, or manner, are put in the ablative; as,
I am pale for fear.
So Ardet dolore; pallescere culpâ; æstuare dubitatione; gestire voluptate vel sccundis rebus: Confectus morbo; affectus beneficiis, gravíssimo_supplicio; insignis pietate; deterior licentiâ : Pietate filius, consiliis pater, amore frater; hence Rex Dei gratia. Paritur pax bello, Nep. Procedere lento gradu; Acceptus regio apparatu: Nullo sono convertitur annus, Juv. Jam veniet tacito curva senecta pede, Ovid. Percutere securi, defendere saxis, configere sagittis, &c.
OBS. 1. The ablative is here governed by some prepositions understood. Before the manner and cause, the preposition is sometimes expressed; as, De more matrum locuta est, Virg. Magno cum metu; Hac de causa; Præ merore, formidine, &c. But hardly ever before the instrument; as, Vulnerare aliquem gladio, not cum gladio: unless among the poets, who sometimes add a or ab; as, Trajectus ab ense, Ovid.
OBS. 2. When any thing is said to be in company with another, it is called the ablative of Concomitancy, and has the preposition cum usually added; as, Obsedit curiam cum gladiis; Ingressus est cum gladio, Cic.
OBS. 3. Under this rule are comprehended several other circumstances; as the matter of which any thing is made, and what is called by grammarians the ADJUNCT, that is, a noun in the ablative joined to a verb or adjective, to express the character or quality of the person or thing spoken of; as, Capitolium saxo quadrato constructum, Liv. Floruit acumine ingenii, Cic. Pollet opibus, valet armis, viget memoriâ, famâ nobilis, &c. Eger pedibus. When we express the matter of which any thing is made, the preposition is usually added; as, Templum de marmore, seldom marmoris ; Poculum ex auro factum, Cie.
3. MEASURE AND DISTANCE.
LIII. Nouns, signifying measure, or distance, are put in the accusative sometimes in the ablative; as,
The wall is ten feet high.
The city is thirty miles distant.
OBS. 1. The accusative or ablative of measure is put after adjectives and verbs of dimension, as, Longus, latus, crassus, profundus, and ultus: Patet, porrigitur, eminet, &c. The names of measure
Murus est decem pedes altus,
Urbs distat triginta millia, or triginta }
Iter, or itinere unius diei,
are pes, cubitus, ulna, passus, digitus, an inch; palmus, a span, a hand-breadth, &c. The accusative or ablative of distance is used only after verbs which express motion or distance; as, Eo, curro, absum, disto, &c. The accusative is governed by ad or per understood, and the ablative by a or ab.
OBS. 2. When we express the measure of more things than one, we commonly use the distributive number; as, Muri sunt denos pedes alti, and sometimes denûm pedum, for denorum, in the genitive, ad mensuram being understood. But the genitive is only used to express the measure of things in the plural number.
OBS. 3. When we express the distance of a place where any thing is done, we commonly use the ablative; or the accusative with the preposition ad; as, Sex millibus passuum ab urbe consedit, or ad sex millia passuum, Cæs. Ad quantum milliarium, v. milliare consedit, Cic. Ad quintum lapidem, Nep.
put in the ablative; as,
OBS. 4. The excess or difference of measure and distance is Hoo lignum excedit illud digito. Toto vertice supra est, Virg. Britanniæ longitudo ejus latitudinem ducentis quadraginta milliaribus superat.
LIV. Nouns, signifying the time when, are put in the ablative; those, how long, in the accusative-sometimes in the ablative; as,
Venit horâ tertiâ, He came at three o'clock.
¶ When the question is made by Quamdiu? How long? time is put in the accusative or ablative, but oftener in the accusative; as,
He staid a few days.
Mansit paucos dies, Sex mensibus abfuit, He was away six months. * Or thus, Time when is put in the ablative; time how long is put in the accusative. OBS. 1. When we speak of any precise time, it is put in the ablative; but when continuance of time is expressed, it is put, for the most part, in the accusative.
OBS. 2. All the circumstances of time are often expressed with a preposition; as, In præsentia, or in præsenti, scil. tempore; in vel ad præsens; Per decem annos; Surgunt de nocte, ad horam destinatam ; Intra annum; Per idem tempus, ad Kalendas soluturos ait, Suet. The preposition ad or circa is sometimes suppressed, as in these expressions, hoc, illud, id, isthuc ætatis, temporis, horæ, &c. for hac atale, hoc tempore, &c. And ante or some other word; as, Annos natus unum & viginti, sc. Siculi quotannis tributa conferunt sc. tot annis, quot vel quotquot sunt, Cic. Prope diem, sc. ad, soon; Oppidum paucis diebus, quibus eò ventum est, expugnatum, sc. post eos dies, Cæs. Ante diem tertium Kalendas Maias accepi tuas literas, for die tertio ante, Cic. Qui dies futurus esset in ante diém octavum Kalendas Novembris, Id. Ex ante diem quintum Kal. Octob. Liv. Lacedæmonii septingentos jam annos amplius unis moribus et nunquam mutatis legibus vivunt, sc. quam per, Cic. We find, Primum stipendium meruit annorum decem septemque, sc. Atticus; for septemdecim annos natus, seventeen years old, Nep.
OBS. 3. The adverb ABHINC, which is commonly used with respect to past time, is joined with the accusative or ablative without a preposition; as, factum est abhinc biennio or biennium. It was done two years ago. So likewise are post and ante; as, Paucos post annos: but here, ea, or id, may be understood.
1. Verbs governing the Accusative and the Genitive.
LV. Verbs of accusing, condemning, admonishing, and acquitting, govern the accusative of a person with the genitive of a thing; as,
Arguit me furti,
He accuses me of theft.
Verbs of accusing are, Accuso, ago, appello, arcesso, inquiro, arguo, defero, insimulo, postulo, alligo, astringo; of condemning, Damno, condemno, infamo, noto; of acquitting, Absolvo, libero, purgo; of admonishing, Moneo, admoneo, commonefacio.
OBS. 1. Verbs of accusing and admonishing, instead of the genitive, frequently have after them an ablative with the preposition le; as, Monere aliquem officii, or de officio; Accusare aliquem furtı, or de furto. De vi condemnati sunt, Cic.
OBS. 2. Crimen and caput are put either in the genitive or ablative; but in the ablative usually without a preposition; as, Damnare, postulare, absolvere eum criminis, v. capitis; and crimine, v. capite; also Absolvo me peccato, Liv. And we always say, Plectere, punire aliquem capite, and not capitis, to punish one capitally, or with death.
OBS. 3. Many verbs of accusing, &c. are not construed with the accusative of a person, and the genitive of a thing, but the contrary; thus we say, culpo, reprehendo, taxo, traduco, vitupero, calumnior, criminor, excuso, &c. avaritiam alicujus, and not aliquem avaritia. We sometimes also find accuso, incuso, &c. construed in this manner; as, Accusare, inertiam adolescentium, for adolescentes inertia, Cic. Culpam argue, Liv. We say, Agere cum aliquo furti, rather than aliquem, to accuse one of theft, Cic.
OBS. 4. Verbs of accusing and admonishing sometimes govern two accusatives, when joined with hoc, illud, istud, id, unum, multa, &c. as, Moneo, accuso te illud. We seldom find, however, Errorem le moneo, but erroris or de errore; except in old writers, as Plautus.