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LVI. Verbs of esteeming, govern the accusative of the person, or thing esteemed, and the genitive of the value; as,
Estimo te magni, I value you much.
Verbs of valuing are, Estimo, existimo, duco, facio, habeo, pendo, puto, taxo. They govern several other genitives; as, tanti, quanti, pluris, majoris, minoris, minimi, plurimi, maximi, nauci, pili, assis, nihili, teruncii, hujus.
OBS. 1. Estimo sometimes governs the ablative; as, Estimo te magno, permagno, parvo, scil. pretio and also nihilo. We likewise say, Pro nihilo, habeo, puto, duco.
OBS. 2. qui and boni are put in the genitive after facio and consulo; as, Hoc consulo boni, aqui bonique facio, I take this in good part.
OBS. 3. The genitive after all these verbs governed by some substantive understood; as, Arguere aliquem furti, scil. de crimine furti; Estimo rem magni, scil. pretii, or pro re magni pretii; Consulo bono, i. e. statuo or censeo esse factum, or manus boni viri, or animi; Monere aliquem officii, ì. e. officii causâ, or de re or negotio officii.
2. Verbs governing the Accusative and the Dative.
LVII. Verbs of comparing, giving, declaring, and taking away, govern the accusative and dative; as,
Comparo Virgilium Homero,
I compare Virgil to Homer.
You tell a story to a deaf man.
Or rather,-ANY ACTIVE VERB MAY GOVERN THE ACCUSATIVE AND THE DATIVE, (when together with the object of the action, we express the person or thing with relation to which it is exerted,) as,
Legam lectionem tibi, I will read the lesson to you. Emit librum mihi, He bought a book for Sic vos non vobis fertis aratra boves, Virg. Paupertas sæpe suadet mala hominibus, advises men to do bad things, Plaut. Imperare pecuniam, frumentum, naves, arma aliquibus, to order them to furnish, Cæs.
OBS. 1. Verbs of comparing and taking away, together with some others, are often construed with a preposition; as, Comparare unam rem cum alia, and ad aliam, or comparare res inter se · Eripuit me morti, morte, a or ex morte: Mittere epistolam alicui, or ad aliquem; Intendere telum alicui, or in aliquem: Incidere æri, in æs, or in are; and so in many others.
OBS. 2. Several verbs governing the dative and accusative, are construed differently; as,
Impertire salutem alicui, or aliquem salute, to salute onc.
Interdixit Galliam Romanis, or Romanos Galliâ, he debarred the Romans from Gaul.
Induere, exuere vestem sibi, or se veste, to put on, to put off one's clothes.
Levare dolorem alicui; dolorem alicujus; aliquem dolore, to ease one's distress.
Minari aliquid alicui, or sometimes, alicui aliquo, Cic. to threaten one with any thing; Cæsari gladio, Sall.
Gratulor tibi hanc rem, hac re, in, pro, and de, hac re, I congratulate you on this. Metrus Tullo devictos hostes gratulatur, Liv.
Restituere alicui sanitatem, or aliquem sanitati, to restore to health.
Aspergere labem alicui, or aliquem labe, to put an affront on one; aram sanguine, litare Deum sacris, and sacra Deo, to sacrifice.
Excusare se alicui and apud aliquem, de re; valetudinem ei.
Exprobare vitium ei v. in eo, to upbraid.
Occupare pecuniam alicui and apud aliquem, i. e. pecuniam fœnori locare, to place at interest, Cic. Opponere se morti, and ad mortem; Renunciare id ei, and ad eum, to tell.
OBS. 3. Verbs signifying motion or tendency to a thing, instead of the dative, have an accusative after them, with the preposition ad; as,
Porto, fero, lego, as, præcipito, tollo, traho, duco, verto, incito, suscito; also hortor and invito, voco, provoco, animo, stimulo, conformo, lacesso; thus, Ad laudem milites hortatur; Ad prætorem hominem traxit, Cic. But after several of these verbs, we also find the dative; as, Inferre Deos Latio, for in Latium, Virg. Invitare aliquem hospitio, or in hospitium, Cic.
OBS. 4. The accusative is sometimes understood; as, Nubere alicui, scil. se; Cedere alicui, scil. locum; Detrahere alicui, scil. laudem, Ignoscere alicui, scil. culpam. And in English the particle to is often omitted; as, Dedit mihi librum, He gave me a book, for to me.
3. Verbs governing to Accusatives.
LVIII. Verbs of asking, and teaching, govern two accusatives; the one of a person, and the other of a thing; as,
Poscimus te pacem,
We beg peace of thee.
Verbs of asking which govern two accusatives are, Rogo, oro, exoro, obsecro, precor, posco, reposco, flagito, &c. Of teaching, Doceo, edoceo, dedoceo, erudio.
OBS. 1. Celo likewise governs two accusatives; as, Celavit me hanc rem, He concealed this matter from me; or otherwise, celavil hanc rem mihi, or celavit me de hac re.
OBS. 2. Verbs of asking and teaching are often construed with a preposition; as, Rogare rem ab aliquo; Dacere aliquem de re, to inform; but we do not say, docere aliquem de grammatica, but grammaticam, to teach. And we always say, with a preposition, Peto, exigo, a v. abs te, Percontor, scitor, sciscitor ex or a te, or te without the preposition: Interrogo, consulto te de re; Ut facias te obsecro; Exoral pacem divûm, for divos, Virg. Instruo, instituo, formo, informo aliquem artibus, in the ablative, without a preposition. Imbuo eum artibus, in v. ab artibus. Also instruo ad rem, v. in re, ignorantiam alicujus. Erudire aliquem artes, de v. in re, ad rem. Formare ad studium, mentem sludus, studia ejus.
OBS. 3. The accusative of the thing is not properly governed by the verb, but by quod ad or secundum understood.
4. Verbs governing the Accusative and the Ablative.
LIX. Verbs of loading, binding, clothing, depriving, and some others, govern the accusative and the ablative; as,
Onerat naves auro, He loads the ships with gold.
Verbs of loading are, onĕro, cumûlo, premo, opprimo, obrue. Of unloading, levo, exonero, &c. Of binding, astringo, ligo, alligo, devincio, impedio, irretio, illaqueo, &c. Of loosing, solvo, exsolvo, libero, laxo, expedio, &c. Of depriving, privo, nudo, orbo, spolio, fraudo, emungo. Of clothing, vestio, amicio, induo, cingo, tego, velo, corono, and calceo. Of unclothing, exuo, discingo, &c.
OBS. 1. The preposition by which the ablative is governed after these verbs, is sometimes expressed; as, Solvere aliquem ex catenis, Cic. Sometimes the ablative is to be supplied; as, Complet naves, sc. viris, mans the ships, Virg.
OBS. 2. Several of these verbs likewise govern the genitive; as, Adolescentem suæ temeritatis implet, Liv. And also vary their construction; as, Induit, exuit se vestibus, or vestes sibi.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF PASSIVE VERBS.
LX. When a verb in the active voice governs two cases, in the passive it retains the latter case; as,
So Scio homines accusatum iri furti ;-Eos ereptum iri morti, morte, a vel ex morte ;- -pueros doctum iri grammaticam ;rem celatum iri mihi vel me; me celatum iri de re, &c. Sometimes the active has three cases, and then the passive has the two last cases; as, Habetur ludibrio iis.
OBS. 1. Passive verbs are commonly construed with the ablative and the preposition a; as, Tu laudaris a me, which is equavalent to Ego laudo te. Virtus diligitur a nobis; Nos diligimus virtutem; Gaudeo meum factum probari a te, or te probare meum factum. And so almost all active verbs. Neuter and deponent verbs also admit this preposition; as, Mare a sole collucet, Cic. Phalaris non a paucis interiit, Id. So cadere ab hoste; Cessare a preliis; Mori ab ense; Pati, furari, aliquid ab aliquo, &c. Also Venire ab hostibus, to be sold; Vapulare ab aliquo, Exulare ab urbe. Thus likewise many active verbs; as, Sumere, petere, tollere, pellere, expectare, emere, &c. ab aliquo.
The preposition is sometimes understood after passive verbs; as, Deseror conjuge, Ovid. Desertus suis, sc. a, Tacit. Tabula distinguitur undâ, qui navigat, sc. ab unda, Is kept from the water by a plank, Juvenal.
The preposition PER is also used in the same sense with A; as, Per me defensa est respublica, or a me; Per me restitutus; Per me v. a me factum est, Cic. But PER commonly marks the instrument, and A the principal efficient cause; as, Res agitur per creditores, a rege, sc. a rege vel a legato ejus, Cic. Fam. i. 1.
OBS. 2. Passive verbs sometimes govern the dative, especially among the poets; as,
Neque cernitur ulli, for ab ullo, Virg. Vix audior ulli, Ovid. Scriberis Vario, for a Vario, Hor. Honesta bonis viris quæruntur, for a viris, Cic. VIDEOR, to seem, always governs the dative; as, Videris mihi, You seem to me: but we commonly say, Videris a me, You are seen by me; although not always; as, Nulla tuarum audita mihi, neque visa sororum, for a me, Virg.
OBS. 3. Induor, amicior, cingor, accingor, also exuor, and discingor, are often construed with the accusative, particularly among the poets, though we do not find them governing two accusatives in the active voice; as, Induitur vestem or veste.
OBS. 4. Neuter verbs are for the most part only used impersonally in the passive voice; unless when they are joined with a noun of a similar signification to their own; as, Pugna pugnata est, Cic. Bellum militabitur, Horat. Passive impersonal verbs are most commonly applied either to
a multitude, or to an individual taken indefinitely; as, Statur, fletur, curritur, vivitur, venitur, &e. a nobis, ab illis, &c. We are standing, weeping, &c. Bene potest vivi a me, vel ab aliquo, I or any person may live well. Provisum est nobis optimè a Deo; Reclamatum est ab omnibus, all cried out against it, Cic.
They also govern the same cases as when used personally; as, Ut majoribus natu assurgatur, ut supplicum misereatur, Cic. Except the accusative: for in these phrases, Itur Athenas, pugnatum est biduum, darmitur totam noctem, the accusative is not governed by the verb, but by the prepo sitions ad and per understood. We find, however, Tota mihi dormitur hyems; Noctes vigilantur amara; Oceanus raris ab orbe nostro navibus audetur, Tacit.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF IMPERSONAL VERBS.
LXI. Impersonal verbs govern the dative; as,
Expedit reipublicæ, It is profitable for the state.
Verbs which in the active voice govern only the dative, are used impersonally in the passive, and likewise govern the dative; as,
Favetur mihi, I am favoured, and not Ego faveor. So nocetur mihi, imperatur mihi, &c. We find, however, Hæc ego procurare imperor; Ego cur invideor; for imperatur, invidetur mihi, Hor. OBS. 1. These verbs, Potest, cœpit, incipit, desinit, debet, and colet, are used impersonally, when joined with impersonal verbs; as,
Non potest credi tibi, You cannot be believed; Mihi non potest noceri, I cannot be hurt; Negat jucunde posse vivi sine virtute, Cic. Per virtutem potest iri ad astra. Aliorum laudi et gloria invideri solet, The praise and glory of others use to be envied, Id. Neque a fortissimis infirmissimo generi resisti posse, Sallust.
OBS. 2. Various verbs are used both personally and impersonally; as, Venit in mentem mihi hæc res vel de hac re, vel hujus rei, scil. memoria, This thing came into my mind. Est curæ mihi hæc res vel de hac re. Doleo vel dolet mihi id factum esse.
OBS. 3. The neuter pronoun it is always joined with impersonal verbs in English; as, It rains, it shines, &c. And in the Latin an infinitive is commonly subjoined to impersonal verbs, or the subjunctive with ut, forming a part of a sentence which may be supposed to supply the place of a nominative ; as, nobis non licet peccare, the same with peccalum; Omnibus bonis expedit rempublicam esse salvam, i. e. Salus reipublicæ expedit omnibus bonis, Cic. Accidit, evenit, contigit, ut ibi essemus. These nominatives, hoc, illud, id, idem, quod, &c. are sometimes joined to impersonal verbs; as, idem mihi licet, Cic. Eadem licent, Catull.
OBS. 4. The dative is often understood; as, Faciat quod libet, sc. sibi, Ter. Slat casus renovare omnes, sc. mihi, I am resolved, Virg.
LXII. Interest and refert require the genitive; as,
Interest omnium, It is the interest of all. Refert patris, It concerns my father.
¶ But mea, tud, sua, nostra, vestra, are put in the accusative plural neuter; as,
Non mea refert, It does not concern me.
OBS. 1. Some think mea, tua sua, &c. to be in the ablative singular feminine. We say either cujus interest, and quorum interest; or cuja interest, from cujus, -a, -um.
OBS. 2. Interest and refert are often joined with these nominatives, Id, hoc, illud, quid, quod, nihil, &c. also with common nouns; and with these genitives, Tanti, quanti, magni, permagni, parvi, pluris; as, Illud mea magni interest, Cic. Hoc parvi refert. Usque adeo magni refert studium, Lucret. Incessus in gravida refert, Plin.
They are frequently construed with these adverbs, Tantum, quantum, multum, plus, plurimum, infinitum, parum, maximè, vehementer, minimè, &c. as, Faciam, quod maximè reipublicæ interesse judicabo, Cic. Sometimes instead of the genitive, they take the accusative with the preposition ad; as, Quid id ad me, aut ad meam rem refert, Persæ quid rerum gerant? Of what importance is it &c. Plaut. Magni ad honorem nostrum interest, Cic. rarely the dative; as, Dic quid referat intra natura fines viventi, &c. Hor. Sometimes they are placed absolutely; as, Magnopere interest opprimi Dolobellam, It is of great importance, Cic. Permultum interest, qualis primus aditus sit, Id. Adeone est fundata leviter fides, ut ubi sim, quam qui sim, magis referat, Liv. Plurimum enim intererit, quibus artibus, aut quibus hunc tu moribus instituas, Juv.
OBS. 3. The genitive after interest and refert is governed by some substantive understood, with which the possessives mea, tua, sua, &c. likewise agree; as, Interest Ciceronis, i. e. est inter negolia Ciceronis; Refert patris, i. e. refert se hæc res ad negotia patris. So Interest mea, est inter negotia
LXIII. Miseret, pœnitet, pudet, tædet, and piget, govern the accusative of a person, with the genitive of a thing; as,
Miseret me tui, I pity you,.
Tædet me vitæ, I am weary of life.
Pudet me culpæ, I am ashamed of my fault.
OBS. 1. The genitive here is properly governed either by negotium understood, or by some other substantive of a signification similar to that of the verb with which it is joined; as, miseret me lui, that is, negotium or miseratio tui miseret me.
OBS. 2. An infinitive or some part of a sentence may supply the place of the genitive; as, Pœnitet
me peccasse, or quod peccaverim. The accusative is frequently understood as, Scelerum si bene pœnitet, scil. nos, Horat.
OBS. 3. Miseret, pœnitet, &c. are sometimes used personally, especially when joined with these nominatives, hoc, id, quod, &c. as, Ipsa sui miseret, Lucr. Nonne hæe te pudent, Ter. Nihil quod pœnitere possit, facias, for cujus te poenitere possit, Cic.
We sometimes find miseret joined with two accusatives; as, Menedemi vicem miseret me, scil. secundum or quod ad, Ter.
OBS. 4. The preterites of miseret, pudet, tædet, and piget, when used in the passive form, govern the same cases with the active; as, Miseritum est me tuarum fortunarum, Ter. We likewise find, miserescit and miseretur used impersonally; as, Miserescit me tui, Ter. Misereatur te fratrum. Neque me tui, neque tuorum liberorum misereri potest, Cic.
LXIV. Decet, delectat, juvat, and oportet, govern the accusative of a person. with the infinitive mood; as,
Delectat me studere, It delights me to study.
Non decel te rixari, It does not become you to scold.
OBS. 1. These words are sometimes used personally; as, Parvum parva decent, Hor. Est aliquid, quod non oporteat, etiamsi liceat, Cic. Hæc facta ab illo oportebant, Ter.
OBS. 2. Decet is sometimes construed with the dative; as, Ita nobis decet, Ter.
Sibi quisque consulat oportet, Cic. Or with the perfect participle, esse or fuisse being understood; as, Communicatum oportuit; mansum oportuit; Ådolescenti morem gestum oportuit, The young man should have been humoured, Ter.
OBS. 4. Fallit, fugit, præterit, latet, when used impersonally, also govern the accusative with the infinitive; as, In lege nullâ esse ejusmodi caput, non te fallit ; De Dionysio fugit me ad te antea scribere, Cic.
NOTE. Altinet, pertinet, and spectat, are construed with ad; Ad rempublicam pertinet, me conservari, Cic. And so personally, Ille ad me attinet, belongs, Ter. Res ad arma spectat, looks, points, Cic.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE NAMES OF PLACES,
The circumstances of place may be reduced to four particulars. 1. The place where, or in which. 2. The place whither, or to which. 3. The place whence, or from which. 4. The place by, or through which.
AT or IN a place is put in the genitive; unless the noun be of the third declension, or of the plural number, and then it is expressed in the ablative.
To a place is put in the accusative; FROM Or By a place in the ablative.
But these cases will be more exactly ascertained by reducing the circumstances of place to particularly questions.
1. The Place WHERE.
LXV. The name of a town, signifying the place where, or in which, if it be of the first or second declension and singular number, is put in the genitive; but if it be of the third declension, or plural number, it is put in the ablative; as,
OBS. 1. When a thing is said to be done, not in the place itself but in its neighbourhood, or near it, we always use the preposition ad or apud; as, Ad or upud Trojam, At or near Troy.
OBS. 2. The name of a town, when put in the ablative, is here governed by the preposition in understood; but if it be in the genitive, we must supply in urbe, or in oppido. Hence, when the name of a town is joined with an adjective or common noun, the preposition is generally expressed; thus, we do not say, Natus est Romæ urbis celebris: but either Roma in celebri urbe, or in Romæ celebri urbe, or in Roma celebri urbe, or sometimes Roma celebri urbe. In like manner we usually say, Habitat in urbe Carthagine, with the preposition. We likewise find, Habitat Carthagini, which is sometimes the termination of the ablative when the question is made by ubi?
2. The Place WHITHER.
LXVI. The name of a town, signifying the place whither, is put in the accusative; as,
He came to Rome.
OBS. 1. We find the dative also used among the poets, but more seldom; as, Carthagini nuntios mittam, Horat.
OBS. 2. Names of towns are sometimes put in the accusative after verbs of telling and giving, where motion to a place is implied; as, Romam, erat nuntiatum, The report was carried to Rome, Liv. Hæc nuntiant domum Albani, Id. Messanam literas dedit, Cic.
3. The Place WHENCE.
LXVII. The name of a town, signifying the place whence, or through what place, is put in the ablative; as,
When motion by or through a place is signified, the preposition per is commonly used; as, Per Thebas iter fecit, Nep.
Domus and Rus.
LXVIII. Domus and rus, signifying the place where, are construed like the names of towns; as,
He stays at home.
He returns home.
Domo arcessitus sum,
I am called from home.
Vivit rure, or more frequently ruri, He lives in the country.
He is returned from the country.
OBS. 1. Humi, militiæ, and belli, are likewise construed in the genitive, as names of towns; thus,
Domi et militiæ, or belli, At home and abroad. Jacel humi, He lies on the ground.
OBS. 2. When Domus is joined with an adjective, we commonly use a preposition; as, In domo paterna, not domi paternæ; So Ad domum paternam: Ex domo paterna. Unless when it is joined with these possessives, Meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester, regius, and alienus; as, Domi meæ vixit, Cic. Regiam domum comportant, Sall.
OBS. 3. When domus has another substantive in the genitive after it, the preposition is sometimes used, and sometimes not; as, Deprehensus est domi, domo, or in domo Cæsaris.
OBS. 4. To names of countries, provinces, and all other places, except towns, the preposition is commonly added; as,
When the question is made by
Ubi? Natus in Italia, in Latio, in urbe, &c.
Quo? Abiit in Italiam, in Latium, in or ad urbem, &c.
Unde? Rediit ex Italia, e Latio, ex urbe, &c.
Qua? Transit per Italiam, per Latium, per urbem, &c.
UBS. 5. A preposition is often added to names of towns; as, In Roma, for Romæ ; ad Romam, ex Roma, &c.
Peto always governs the accusative as an active verb without a preposition; as, Petivit Egyptum, He went to Egypt.
OBS. 6. Names of countries, provinces, &c. are sometimes construed without the preposition like names of towns; as, Pompeius Cypri visus est, Cæs. Creta jussit considere Apollo, Virg. Non Lybiæ, for in Lybia; non antè Tyro, for Tyri, Id. Æn. iv. 36. Venit Sardiniam, Cic. Roma, Numidiæque facinora ejus memorat, Sall.
THE ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE.
LXIX. A noun, or pronoun, joined with a participle expressed or understood, when its case depends on no other word, is put in the ablative absolute; as,
Sole oriente, fugiunt tenebræ, The sun rising, or while the sun riseth, darkness flies away.
So Dominante libidine, temperantiæ nullus est locus; Nihil amicitiâ præstabilius est, excepta virtute; Oppressa libertate patriæ, nihil est quod speremus, amplius; Nobilium vita victuque mutato, mores mulari civitatum puto, Cic. Parumper silentium et quies fuit, nec Etruscis, nisi cogerentur, pugnam inituris, et dictatore arcem Romanam respectante; at ab auguribus, simul aves rite admisissent, ex composito tolleretur signum, Liv. Bellice, depositis clypeo paulisper et hasta, Mars ades, Ovid.
Fast. iii. 1.
OBS. 1. This ablative is called Absolute, because it does not depend upon any other word in the sentence.
For if the substantive with which the participle is joined, be either the nominative to some following verb, or be governed by any word going before, then this rule does not take place; the ablative solute is never used, unless when different persons or things are spoken of; as, Milites, hostibus