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RULES.

1. The adjective agrees with its substantive, in number, case, and gender. 2. The verb agrees with its nominative case, in

number and person.
3. The relative, qui,
quæ, quod, agrees with its
antecedent in gender,
number, and person.
4. If no nominative

come between the relative and the verb, the relative is the nominative to the

verb; but when a nominative intervenes, the relative is governed by the verb, or some other word 6. Any verb may have the same case after as before it, when both words refer to the same person

in the sentence.

or thing.

6. Substantives signifying the same person or thing, agree in case.

7. One substantive governs another signifying a different person or thing, in the genitive.

8. If the latter of two substantives have an ad

jective of praise or dispraise, joined with it, it may be put either in the genitive or ablative.

9. An adjective in the neuter gender without a substantive, governs the genitive.

the ablative.

10. Opus and Usus, signifying need, require 11. Verbal adjectives, and such as signify an affection of the mind, govern the genitive.

12. Partitives, and

words placed partitively, comparatives, superlatives, interrogatives, and some numerals, govern the genitive plural.

13. Adjectives signifying profit, or disprofil, likeness or unlikeness, &c. govern the dative.

14. These adjectives, dignus, indignus, prædi. tus, and contentus; also, natus, satus, ortus, editus, and the like, govern the

ablative.

15. Adjectives, signifying plenty, or want, govern the genitive, or ablative.

16. Sum, when it signifies possession, property, or duty, governs the geni

tive.

Nempè arida sarmenta boum cornibus alligavit, eaque principio noctis incendit: metus flammæ relucentis ex capite boves velut stimulatos furore agebat. Hi ergo accensis cornibus per montes, per silvas hùc illùc discurrebant. Romani, qui ad speculandum concurrerant, miraculo attoniti constiterunt: ipse Fabius insidias esse ratus, militem extra vallum egredi vetuit. Intereà Annibal ex angustiis evasit. Dein Annibal, ut Fabio apud suos crearet invidiam, agrum ejus, omnibus circà vastatis, intactum reliquit; at Fabius omnem ab se suspicionem propulsavit: nam eumdem agrum vendidit, ejusque pretio captivos Romanos redemit.

Quintus Fabius jam senex filio suo consuli legatus fuit; quumque in ejus castra veniret, filius obviàm patri progressus est; duodecim lictores pro more anteibant. Equo vehebatur senex, nec appropinquante consule descendit. Jam ex lictori bus undecim verecundiâ paternæ majestatis taciti præterierant. Quod quum consul animadvertisset, proximum lictorem jussit inclamare Fabio patri ut ex equo descenderet. Pater tùm desiliens: "Non ego, fili, inquit, tuum imperium contempsi, sed experiri volui an scires consulem agere." Ad summam senectutem vixit Fabius Maximus, dignus tanto cognomine. Cautior quàm promptior habitus est, sed insita ejus ingenio prudentia bello, quod tùm gerebatur, aptissima erat. Nemini dubium est quin rem Romanam cunctando restituerit.

SCIPIO AFRICANUS.

Publius Cornelius Scipio nondùm annos pueritiæ egressus patrem singulari virtute servavit : nam quum is in pugnâ apud Ticinum contra Annibalem commissâ graviter vulneratus esset, et in hostium manus jamjam venturus esset, filius, interjecto corpore, Pœnis irruentibus se opposuit, et patrem periculo liberavit. Quæ pietas Scipioni posteà Ædilitatem petenti favorem populi conciliavit; quum obsisterent tribuni plebis negantes rationem ejus esse habendam, quòd nondùm ad petendum legitima ætas esset: "Si me, inquit Scipio, omnes qui rites ædilem facere volunt, satis annorum habeo." Tanto indè favore ad suffragia itum est, ut tribuni incœpto destiterint.

Quum Romani duas clades in Hispaniâ accepissent, duoque ibi summi imperatores cecidissent, placuit exercitum augeri, eòque proconsulem mitti; nec tamen quem mitterent satis constabat. Eâ de re indicta sunt comitia. Primò populus exspectabat, ut qui se tanto dignos imperio crederent, nomina profiterentur; sed nemo audebat illud imperium suscipere. Moesta itaque civitas erat, et propè consilii inops. Subitò Cornelius Scipio quatuor et viginti fermè annos natus, professus est se petere, et in superiore, undè conspici posset, loco constitit: in quem omnium ora conversa sunt. Deindè ad unum omnes Scipionem in Hispaniâ proconsulem esse jusserunt. At postquàm animorum impetus resedit, populum Romanum cœpit facti pœnitere. Ætati Scipionis maximè diffidebant. Quod ubi animadvertit Scipio, advocatâ concione, ita magno elatoque animo disseruit de bello quod gerendum erat, ut homines curâ liberaverit, speque certâ impleverit.

Profectus igitur in Hispaniam Scipio Carthaginem novam, quâ die venit, expugnavit. Eò congestæ erant omnes penè Africæ et Hispaniæ opes, quibus potitus est. Inter captivos ad eum adducta est eximiæ formæ adulta virgo. Postquàm comperit eam illustri loco inter Celtiberos natam, principique ejus

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31.

44.

taking away, govern the Sum, taken for habeo, Verbs, signifying ac- The gerund in dum, accusative and dative. (to have,) governs the da- tively, govern the accu-of the nominative, with tive of a person. sative. the verb est, governs the dative.

58.

18.

32.

Sum, taken for affero, Misereor, miseresco, (to bring,) governs two and satago, govern the datives; the one of a per-genitive. son, and the other of al thing.

19.

33. Any verb may govern the dative in Latin, which The compounds of has to, or for, after it in Sum, except Possum, go- English. vern the dative.

34.

45.

"

Verbs of asking, and teaching, govern two accusatives; the one of a The gerund in di, of person, and the other of the genitive, is govern-a thing. ed by nouns, or adjectives.

59.

20.

60.

Verbs of loading, bind 46. ing, clothing, depriving, The gerund in do, of and some others, govern the dative, is governed the accusative and the by adjectives signifying ablative. Verbs compounded usefulness, or fitness, &c. Words of the compa- with satis, bene, and male, 47. When verb in the rative degree govern the govern the dative. The gerund in dum, active voice governs two ablative when quam is 35. of the accusative, is go-cases, in the passive it omitted in Latin. Many verbs compound-verned by the preposi-retains the latter case. ed with these ten pre-tions ad, ob, inter, ante, Adverbs qualify verbs, positions, præ, ad, con, propter. participles, adjectives, sub, ante, post, ob, in, and other adverbs. inter, super, govern the dative.

21.

61.

22.

Some adverbs of time,| place, and quantity, govern the genitive. 23.

36.

48. The gerund in do, of the ablative, is governed by the prepositions a, ab, Verbs, signifying to de, e, ex, in; or withprofit, hurt, favour, assist, out a preposition, as the command, obey, serve, re-ablative of cause, means, The prepositions ad, sist, trust, threaten, and or manner. apud, ante, &c. govern be angry with, govern the accusative. the dative.

37.

49.

The supine in um, is put after a verb of mo

Impersonal verbs go vern the dative. 62.

Interest and refert require the genitive. 63.

24.

The prepositions a, ab, Recordor, memini, re-tion. abs, &c. govern the abla-miniscor, and obliviscor, tive.

Miseret, pænitet, pudet, tædet, and piget, govern the accusative of a person, with the genitive of a thing.

50.

25.

38.

51.

65.

52.

64. Decet, delectat, juvat, and oportet, govern the govern the accusative or The supine in u, is accusative of a pergenitive. put after an adjective. son, with the infinitive The prepositions in, mood. sub, super, and subter, Verbs of abounding Nouns, signifying the govern the accusative, and wanting, govern the price of a thing, are put The name of a town, when motion to a place ablative, and sometimes in the ablative. signifying the place is signified; but when the genitive. where, or in which, if it motion or rest in a place Nouns, signifying the be of the first or second is signified, in and sub Utor, abutor, fungor, instrument, cause, means, declension and singular govern the ablative; su- fruor, potior, vescor, and or manner, are put in number, is put in the geper and subter either the some others, govern the the ablative. nitive; but if it be of the accusative or ablative. third declension, or pluNouns, signifying mea-ral number, it is put in The interjections 0, A verb compounded sure, or distance, are put the ablative. heu, proh, aud some with a preposition, often in the accusative-someothers, govern the nomi-governs the case of that times in the ablative. native, accusative, or vo- preposition. 54. cative.

39.

ablative.

53.

26.

40.

66.

27.

28.

55.

The name of a town, signifying the place whi41. Nouns, signifying the ther, is put in the accuThe infinitive mood time when, are put in the sative. The interjections hei, may be governed by a ablative; those, how long, 67. and væ, govern the da-verb, participle, adjec-in the accusative-some- The name of a town, tive. tive, or noun. times in the ablative. signifying the place 42. whence, or through what The conjunctions et, When quod, quin, ut, Verbs of accusing, con- place, is put in the ablaac, atque, nec, aut, neque, or ne, is omitted in Latin, demning, admonishing, tive. and some others, connect the word, which would and accquitting, govern like cases and modes. otherwise be in the the acusative of a per- Domus and rus, signinominative, is put in son with the genitive of fying the place where, are Two, or more substan- the accusative, and the a thing. construed like the names tives singular, connected verb in the infinitive of towns. by a conjunction, may mood. have a verb, adjective, or relative plural to agree

68.

29.

with them.

69.

43.

57.

56. Verbs of esteeming, govern the accusative of the A noun, or pronoun, Participles, gerunds, person, or thing esteem-joined with a participle supines, and adverbs, ed, and the genitive, of expressed or understood, 30. govern the same case as the value. when its case depends The conjunctions ut, the words from which on no other word, is quo, licet, &c. govern the they are derived. Verbs of comparing, put in the ablative absosubjunctive mood. giving, declaring, and lute.

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5. Any verb may have the same case after as before it, when both words refer to the same person or thing. 6. Substantives signify. ing the same person or thing, agree in case.

7. One substantive governs another signifying a different person or thing, in the genitive.

8. If the latter of two substantives have an adjective of praise or dispraise, joined with it, it may be put either in the genitive or ablative.

9. An adjective in the neuter gender without a substantive, governs the genitive.

the ablative.

10. Opus and Usus, signifying need, require 11. Verbal adjectives, and such as signify an affection of the mind, govern the genitive.

12. Partitives, and words placed partitively, comparatives, superlatives, interrogatives, and some numerals, govern the genitive plural.

13. Adjectives signifying profit or disprofil, likeness or unlikeness, &c. go

vern the dative.

14. These adjectives,

dignus, indignus, prædi tus, and contentus; also, natus, satus, ortus, editus, and the like, govern the

ablative.

15. Adjectives, signifying plenty, or want, govern the genitive, or ablative.

16. Sum, when it signifies possession, property, or duty, governs the genitive.

gentis adolescenti desponsam fuisse, arcessitis parentibus et sponso eam reddidit. Parentes virginis, qui ad eam redimendam satis magnum auri pondus attulerant, Scipionem orabant ut id ab se donum reciperet. Scipio aurum poni ante pedes jussit, vocatoque ad se virginis sponso: Super dotem, inquit, quam accepturus à socero es, hæc tibi à me dotalia dona accedent;" aurumque tollere ac sibi habere jussit. Ille domum reversus, ad referendam Scipioni gratiam, Celtiberos Romanis conciliavit.

64

SCIPIO NASICA.

Scipio Nasica censor factus, gravem se ac severum præbuit. Quum equitum censum ageret, equitem quemdam vidit obeso et pingui corpore, equum verò ejus strigosum et macilentum. "Quidnam causæ est, inquit censor, cur sis tu, quàm equus pinguior? Quoniam, respondit eques, ego me ipse curo, equum verò servus." Minùs verecundum visum est responsum; itaque graviter objurgatus eques, et mulctâ damnatus. Idem Scipio Nasica cum Ennio poëtâ vivebat conjunctissimè. Quum ad eum venisset, eique ab ostio quærenti ancilla dixisset Ennium domi non esse, Nasica sensit illam domini jussu dixisse, et illum intùs esse. Paucis pòst diebus quum ad Ñasicam venisset Ennius, et eum à januâ quæreret, exclamavit ipse Nasica se domi non esse. Tùm Ennius: "Quid. ego non cognosco, inquit, vocem tuam? Hîc Nasica: Homo es impudens: ego quum te quærerem, ancillæ tuæ credidi te domi non esse; tu non mihi credis ipsi."

PAULUS EMILIUS.

Confecto bello, Paulus Æmilius regiâ nave ad urbem est subvectus. Completæ erant omnes Tiberis ripe obviàm effusâ multitudine. Fuit ejus triumphus omnium longè magnificentis→ simus. Populus, exstructis per forum tabulatis in modum theatrorum, spectavit in candidis togis. Aperta templa omnia et sertis coronata thure fumabant. In tres dies distribúta est pompa spectaculi. Primus dies vix suffecit transvehendis signis tabulisque; sequenti die translata sunt arma, galeæ, scuta, loricæ, pharetræ, argentum aurumque. Tertio die, primo statim mane ducere agmen cœpêre tibicines, non festos solemnium pomparum modos, sed bellicum sonantes, quasi in aciem procedendum foret. Deindè agebantur pingues cornibus auratis et vittis redimiti boves centum et viginti.

Sequebantur Persei liberi, comitante educatorum et magistrorum turbâ, qui manus ad spectatores cum lacrymis miserabiliter tendebant, et pueros docebant implorandam suppliciter victoris populi misericordiam. Ponè filios incedebat cum uxore Perseus stupenti et attonito similis. Indè quadringentæ coronæ aureæ portabantur, ab omnibus ferè Græciæ civitatibus dono missæ. Postremò ipse in curru Paulus auro purpurâque fulgens eminebat, qui magnam quum dignitate aliâ corporis, tùm senectâ ipsâ majestatem præ se ferebat. Post currum inter alios illustres viros filii duo Emilii; deindè equites turmatim, et cohortes peditum suis quæque ordinibus. Paulo à senatu et à plebe concessum est ut in ludis Circensibus veste triumphali uteretur, eique cognomen Macedonici inditum.

TIBERIUS GRACCHUS ET CAIUS GRACCHUS.

Tiberius Gracchus et Caius Gracchus Scipionis Africani ex filiâ nepotes erant. Horum adolescentia bonis artibus et magnâ

17.

31.

44.

taking away, govern the Sum, taken for habeo, Verbs, signifying ac- The gerund in dum, accusative and dative. (to have,) governs the da- tively, govern the accu-of the nominative, with tive of a person. sative. the verb est, governs the dative. 45.

58.

18.

32.

Sum, taken for affero, Misereor, miseresco, (to bring,) governs two and satago, govern the datives; the one of a per-genitive. son, and the other of a thing.

33.

19.

Any verb may govern the dative in Latin, which The compounds of has to, or for, after it in Sum, except Possum, go-English. vern the dative.

34.

59.

46.

Verbs of loading, bind ing, clothing, depriving, The gerund in do, of and some others, govern the dative, is governed the accusative and the by adjectives signifying ablative. Verbs compounded usefulness, or fitness, &c. Words of the compa- with satis, bene, and male, rative degree govern the govern the dative. ablative when quam is 35. omitted in Latin.

20.

47.

21.

Verbs of asking, and teaching, govern two accusatives; the one of a The gerund in di, of person, and the other of the genitive, is govern- a thing. ed by nouns, or adjectives.

60.

When a verb in the The gerund in dum, active voice governs two of the accusative, is go-cases, in the passive it Many verbs compound-verned by the preposi-retains the latter case. ed with these ten pre-tions ad, ob, inter, ante,| Adverbs qualify verbs, positions, præ, ad, con, propter. participles, adjectives, sub, ante, post, ob, in, and other adverbs. inter, super, govern the dative.

61.

22.

Some adverbs of time, place, and quantity, govern the genitive. 23.

36.

48. The gerund in do, of the ablative, is governed by the prepositions a, ab, Verbs, signifying to de, e, ex, in; or withprofit, hurt, favour, assist, out a preposition, as the command, obey, serve, re-ablative of cause, means, The prepositions ad, sist, trust, threaten, and or manner. apud, ante, &c. govern be angry with, govern the accusative. the dative.

37.

49.
The supine in um, is
put after a verb of mo-

24.

The prepositions a, ab, Recordor, memini, re-tion. abs, &c. govern the abla-miniscor, and obliviscor,

tive.

с

Impersonal verbs go vern the dative. 62. Interest and refert require the genitive.

63.

Miseret, pænitet, pudet, tædet, and piget, govern the accusative of a person, with the genitive of a thing.

50.

25.

65.

52.

64. Decet, delectat, juvat, and oportet, govern the govern the accusative or The supine in u, is accusative of a pergenitive. put after an adjective. son, with the infinitive The prepositions in, 38. 51. mood. sub, super, and subter, Verbs of abounding Nouns, signifying the govern the accusative, and wanting, govern the price of a thing, are put The name of a town, when motion to a place ablative, and sometimes in the ablative. signifying the place is signified; but when the genitive. where, or in which, if it motion or rest in a place Nouns, signifying the be of the first or second is signified, in and sub Ulor, abutor, fungor, instrument, cause, means, declension and singular govern the ablative; su-fruor, potior, vescor, and or manner, are put in number, is put in the geper and subter either the some others, govern the the ablative. nitive; but if it be of the accusative or ablative. third declension, or pluNouns, signifying mea-ral number, it is put in The interjections 0, A verb compounded sure, or distance, are put the ablative. heu, proh, aud some with a preposition, often in the accusative-someothers, govern the nomi-governs the case of that times in the ablative. native, accusative, or vo-preposition. 54. cative.

39.

ablative.

53.

26.

40.

66.

The name of a town, signifying the place whi41. Nouns, signifying the ther, is put in the accuThe infinitive mood time when, are put in the sative. The interjections hei, may be governed by a ablative; those, how long, and væ, govern the da- verb, participle, adjec-in the accusative-sometive. tive, or noun. times in the ablative. 55.

27.

67.

28.

42.

68.

29.

The name of a town, signifying the place whence, or through what The conjunctions et, When quod, quin, ut, Verbs of accusing, con-place, is put in the ablaac, atque, nec, aut, neque, or ne, is omitted in Latin, demning, admonishing, tive. and some others, connect the word, which would and accquitting, govern like cases and modes. otherwise be in the the acusative of a per- Domus and rus, signinominative, is put in son with the genitive of fying the place where, are Two, or more substan- the accusative, and the a thing. construed like the names tives singular, connected verb in the infinitive of towns. by a conjunction, may mood. 69. have a verb, adjective, A noun, or pronoun, or relative plural to agree Participles, gerunds, person, or thing esteem-joined with a participle supines, and adverbs, ed, and the genitive, of expressed or understood, govern the same case as the value. when its case depends The conjunctions ut, the words from which quo, licet, &c. govern the they are derived. subjunctive mood.

56.
Verbs of esteeming; go-
vern the accusative of the

43.

with them.

30.

57.

on no other word, is Verbs of comparing, put in the ablative absogiving, declaring, and lute.

RULES.

1. The adjective agrees with its substantive, in number, case, and gender. 2. The verb agrees with its nominative case, in number and person. 3. The relative, qui, quæ, quod, agrees with its antecedent in gender, number, and person.

4. If no nominative come between the relative and the verb, the relative

is the nominative to the verb; but when a nominative intervenes, the relative is governed by the verb, or some other word

in the sentence.

5. Any verb may have the same case after as before it, when both words refer to the same person or thing.

6. Substantives signifying the same person or thing, agree in case. 7. One substantive governs another signifying a different person or thing, in the genitive.

8. If the latter of two substantives have an ad jective of praise or dispraise, joined with it, it may be put either in the genitive or ablative.

9. An adjective in the neuter gender without a

substantive, governs the genitive.

the ablative.

10. Opus and Usus, signifying need, require 11. Verbal adjectives, and such as signify an affection of the mind, go

vern the genitive.

12. Partitives, and words placed partitively, comparatives, supcrlatives, interrogatives, and some numerals, govern the genitive plural. 13. Adjectives signifying profit or disprofit, likeness or unlikeness, &c. govern the dative.

14. These adjectives, dignus, indignus, præditus, and contentus; also, natus, satus, ortus, editus, and the like, govern the

ablative.

15. Adjectives signifying plenty or want, govern the genitive or ablative.

16. Sum, when it signifies possession, property, or duty, governs the geni

Live.

omnium spe floruit. Ad egregiam quippè indolem accedebat optima educatio. Exstant Cornelia matris epistolæ, quibus apparet eos non solùm in gremio matris educatos fuisse, sed etiam ab eâ sermonis elegantiam hausisse. Maximum matronis ornamentum esse liberos benè institutos meritò putabat sapientissima illa mulier: quum Campana matrona, apud illam hospita, ornamenta sua, quæ erant illâ ætate pretiosissima, ostentaret ei muliebriter, Cornelia traxit eam sermone, quousquè à scholâ redirent liberi; quos reversos hospitæ exhibens: "En hæc, inquit, mea ornamenta." Nihil quidem istis adolescentibus neque à naturâ neque à doctrinâ defuit; sed ambo rempublicam, quam tueri potuissent, impiè perturbare maluerunt.

LUCIUS LUCULLUS.

Habebat Lucullus villam prospectu et ambulatione pulcherrimam, quò quum venisset Pompeius, id unum reprehendit quòd ea habitatio esset quidem æstate peramena, sed hieme minùs commoda videretur; cui Lucullus: "Putasne, inquit, me minùs sapere quàm hirundines, quæ adveniente hieme sedem commutant?" Villarum magnificentiæ respondebat epularum sumptus: quum aliquandò modica ei, utpotè soli, cœna esset posita, coquum graviter objurgavit, eique excusanti ac dicenti se non debuisse lautum parare convivium, quòd nemo esset ad cœnam invitatus: "Quid ais, inquit iratus Lucullus, an nesciebas Lucullum hodiè cœnaturum esse apud Lucullum ?”

POMPEIUS MAGNUS.

Cnæus Pompeius stirpis senatoriæ adolescens, in bello civilí se et patrem consilio servavit. Pompeii pater suo exercitui ob avaritiam erat invisus; itaque facta est in eum conspiratio Terentius quidam, Cnæi Pompeii contubernalis, eum occiden dum susceperat, dùm alii tabernaculum patris incenderent. Quæ res juveni Pompeio cœnanti nunciata est. Ipse nihil periculo motus, solito hilariùs bibit, et cum Terentio eâdem, quâ anteà, comitate usus est. Deindè cubiculum ingressus, clàm subduxit se tentorio, et firmam patri circumposuit custodiam. Terentius tùm districto ense, ad lectum Pompeii accessit, multisque ictibus stragula percussit. Ortâ mox seditione, Pompeius se in media conjecit agmina, militesque tumultuantes precibus et lacrymis placavit, ac suo duci reconciliavit.

Pompeius eodem bello civili partes Syllæ secutus, ita egit, ut ab eo maximè diligeretur. Annos tres et viginti natus, ut Syllæ auxilio veniret, paterni exercitûs reliquias collegit, statimque dux peritus exstitit. Illius magnus apud militem amor, magna apud omnes admiratio fuit; nullus ei labor tædio, nulla defatigatio molestiæ erat. Cibi vinique temperans, somni parcus, inter milites corpus exercebat. Cum alacribus saltu, cum velocibus cursu, cum validis luctâ certabat. Tùm ad Syllam iter intendit, non per loca devia, sed palàm incedens, tres hostium exercitus aut fudit, aut sibi adjunxit. Quem ubi Sylla ad se accedere audivit, egregiamque sub signis juventutem aspexit, desiliit ex equo, Pompeiumque salutavit imperatorem : deinceps ei venienti solebat assurgere de sellâ et caput aperire; quem honorem nemini nisi Pompeio tribuebat.

Transgressus indè in Africam Pompeius, Iarbam Numidiæ regem, qui Marii partibus favebat, bello persecutus est. Intra dies quadraginta hostem oppressit, et Africam subegit adolescens quatuor et viginti annorum. Tùm ei litteræ à Sylla

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