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31.

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taking away, govern the Sum, taken for habeo,| Verbs, signifying ac- The gerund in dum, accusative and dative. (to have,) governs the da- tively, govern the accu-of the nominative, with tive of a person. sative. the verb est, governs the dative.

58.

18.

32.

Sum, taken for affero, Misereor, miseresco, (to bring,) governs two and satago, govern the datives; the one of a per-genitive. son, and the other of a thing.

33.

19.

Any verb may govern the dative in Latin, which The compounds of has to, or for, after it in Sum, except Possum, go-English. vern the dative.

34.

20.

Verbs

Words' of the compa- with satis, bene, and male, rative degrée govern the govern the dative. ablative when quam is omitted in Latin.

21.

45.

Verbs of asking, and teaching, govern two accusatives; the one of a The gerund in di, of person, and the other of the genitive, is overn- a thing. ed by nouns, or adjectives.

59.

46.

Verbs of loading, binding, clothing, depriving, The gerund in do, of and some others, govern the dative, is governed the accusative and the by adjectives signifying ablative. compounded usefulness, or fitness, &c.

60.

35.

47. When a verb in the The gerund in dum, active voice governs two of the accusative, is go-cases, in the passive it Many verbs compound-verned by the preposi-retains the latter case. ed with these ten pre-tions ad, ob, inter, ante, 61. Adverbs qualify verbs, positions, præ, ad, con, propter. participles, adjectives, sub, ante, post, ob, in, and other adverbs. inter, super, govern the dative.

22.

Some adverbs of time, place, and quantity, govern the genitive.

23.

36.

48. The gerund in do, of the ablative, is governed by the prepositions a, ab, Verbs, signifying to de, e, ex, in; or withprofit, hurt, favour, assist, out a preposition, as the command, obey, serve, re-ablative of cause, means, The prepositions ad, sist, trust, threaten, and or manner. apud, ante, &c. govern be angry with, govern the accusative.

the dative.

37.

24.

49. The supine if um, is put after a verb of moThe prepositions a, ab, Recordor, memini, re-tion. abs, &c. govern the abla-miniscor, and obliviscor, tive.

Impersonal verbs govern the dative. 62. Interest and refert require the genitive.

63.

Miseret, pænitet, pudet, tædet, and piget, govern the accusative of a per son, with the genitive of a thing.

64.

Decet, delectat, juvat, 50. and oportet, govern the govern the accusative or The supine in u, is accusative of a per genitive. put after an adjective. son, with the infinitive 51. mood.

25.

38.

65.

52.

39.

Nouns, signifying the

The prepositions in, sub, super, and subter, Verbs of abounding Nouns, signifying thef govern the accusative, and wanting, govern the price of a thing, are put The name of a town, when motion to a place ablative, and sometimes in the ablative. signifying the place is signified; but when the genitive. where, or in which, if it notion or rest in a place be of the first or second is signified, in and sub Utor, abutor, fungor, instrument, cause, means, declension and singular govern the ablative; su-fruor, potior, vescor, and or manner, are put in number, is put in the geper and subter either the some others, govern the the ablative. nitive, but if it be of the accusative or ablative. ablative. third declension, or plu Nouns, signifying mea-ral number, it is put in The interjections 0, A verb compounded sure, or distance, are put the ablative. heu, proh, aud some with a preposition, often in the accusative-someothers, govern the nomi-governs the case of that times in the ablative. native, accusative, or vo-preposition. 54. cative.

53.

26.

40.

66.

The name of a town, signifying the place whither, is put in the accu

41.

27.

67.

28.

68.

Nouns, signifying the The infinitive mood time when, are put in the sative. The interjections hei, may be governed by ajablative; those, how long, and væ, govern the da-verb, partíciple, adjec-in the accusative-someThe name of a town, tive. tive, or noun. times in the ablative. signifying the place 42. 55. whence, or through what The conjunctions et, When quod, quin, ut, Verbs of accusing, con-place, is put in the ablaac, atque, nec, aut, neque, or ne, is omitted in Latin, demning, admonishing, tive. and some others, connect the word, which would and accquitting, govern like cases and modes otherwise be in the the acusative of a per- Domus and rus, signinominative, is put in son with the genitive of fying the place where, are Two, or more substan- the accusative, and the a thing. construed like the names tives singular, connected verb in the infinitive of towns. by a conjunction, may mood. have a verb, adjective, or relative plural to agree with them.

29.

56.

69.

A noun, or pronoun,

43.

Verbs of esteeming, govern the accusative of the Participles, gerunds, person, or thing esteem-joined with a participle supines, and adverbs, ed, and the genitive, offexpressed or understood, 30. govern the same case as the value. when its case depends The conjunctions ut, the words from which quo, licet, &c. govern the they are derived. subjunctive mood.

57.

on no other word, is Verbs of comparing, put in the ablative abso giving, declaring, and lute.

1

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redditæ sunt, quibus jubebatur exercitum dimittere, et cum unâ
tantùm legione successorem exspectare. Id ægrè tulit Pom-
peius: paruit tamen, et Romam reversus est. Revertenti in-
credibilis multitudo obviàm ivit. Sylla quoque eum lætus
excepit, et Magni cognomine appellavit: nihilominùs Pom-
peio triumphum petenti restitit; nequc eâ re à proposito de-
territus est Pompeius; aususque est dicere plures solem orien-
tem adorare, quàm occidentem: quo dicto innuebat Syllæ
Eâ voce auditâ, Sylla
potentiam minui, suam verò crescere.
juvenis constantiam admiratus, exclamavit: Triumphet, tri-
umphet.

JULIUS CESAR.

Julius Cæsar quæstor factus in Hispaniam' profectus est ; quumque Alpes transiret, et ad conspectum pauperis cujusdam vici comites ejus per jocum inter se disputarent an illic etiam csset ambitioni locus, seriò dixit Cæsar malle se ibi primum esse quàm Roinæ secundum. Ita animus dominationis avidus à primâ ætate regnum concupiscebat, semperque in ore habebat hos Euripidis, Græci poëtæ, versus: Nam si violandum est jus, regnandi gratiâ violandum est: aliis rebus pietatem colas. Quum verò Gades, quod est Hispaniæ oppidum, venisset, visâ Alexandri Magni imagine, ingemuit, et lacrymas fudit: causam quærentibus amicis: "Nonne, inquit, idonea dolendi causa est, quòd nihildùm memorabile gesserim, eam ætatem adeptus quâ Alexander jam terrarum orbem subegerat ?"

Cæsar quum adhuc in Galliâ detineretur, ne imperfecto bello discederet, postulavit ut sibi liceret, quamvis absenti, secundum consulatum petere; quod ei à senatu est negatum. Eâ re commotus in Italiam rediit, armis injuriam acceptam vindicaturus, plurimisque urbibus occupatis, Brundusium contendit, quò Pompeius consulesque confugerant. Tunc summa audaciæ facinus Cæsar edidit: à Brundusio Dyrrachium inter oppositas classes gravissimâ hieme transmisit, cessantibusque copiis quas subsequi jusserat, quum ad eas arcessendas frustrà misisset, moræ impatiens, castris noctu egreditur, clàm solus naviculam conscendit obvoluto capite, ne agnosceretur. Mare adverso vento vehementer flante intumescebat; in altum tamen protinus dirigi navigium jubet; quumque gubernator penè obrutus fluctibus adversæ tempestati cederet; "Quid times? ait: Cæsarem vehis."

Erat Cæsar excelso staturâ, nigris vegetisque oculis, capite calvo: quam calvitii deformitatem ægrè ferebat, quòd sæpè obtrectantium jocis esset obnoxia. Itaque ex omnibus honoribus sibi à senatu populoque decretis non aliud recepit aut usurpavit libentiùs, quàm jus laureæ perpetuò gestandæ. Eum vini parcissimum fuisse ne inimici quidem negârunt: undè Cato dicere solebat unum ex omnibus Cæsarem ad evertendam rempublicam sobrium accessisse. Armorum et equitandi peritissimus erat; laboris ultra fidem patiens: in agmine nonnunquàm equo, sæpiùs pedibus anteibat, capite detecto, sive sol, sive imber esset. Longissimas vias incredibili celeritate confecit, ita ut persæpè nuncios de se prævenerit, neque eum morabantur flumina, quæ vel nando vel innixus inflatis utribus trajiciebat.

CATO UTICENSIS.

Marcus Cato, adhuc puer, invictum animi robur ostendit. Quum in domo Drusi avunculi sui educaretur, Latini de civi

17.

31.

Sum, taken for habeo, Verbs, signifying ac(to have,) governs the da- tively, govern the accutive of a person. sative.

18.

32.

Sum, taken for affero, Misereor, miseresco, (to bring,) governs two and satago, govern the datives; the one of a per-genitive. son, and the other of a thing.

19.

33. Any verb may govern the dative in Latin, which The compounds of has to, or for, after it in Sum, except Possum, go- English. vern the dative.

34.

44.

taking away, govern the The gerund in dum, accusative and dative. of the nominative, with the verb est, governs the dative.

58.

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59.

46.

Verbs of loading, binding, clothing, depriving, The gerund in do, of and some others, govern the dative, is governed the accusative and the by adjectives signifying ablative. Verbs compounded usefulness, or fitness, &c. Words of the compa-with satis, bene, and male, rative degree govern the govern the dative. ablative when quam is 35. omitted in Latin.

20.

47.

21.

22.

Some adverbs of time, place, and quantity, govern the genitive. 23.

45.

Verbs of asking, and teaching, govern two accusatives; the one of a The gerund in di, of person, and the other of the genitive, is govern- a thing. ed by nouns, or adjectives.

60

When a verb in the The gerund in dum, active voice governs two of the accusative, is go-cases, in the passive it Many verbs compound-verned by the preposi-retains the latter case. ed with these ten pre-tions ad, ob, inter, ante, Adverbs qualify verbs, positions, præ, ad, con, propter. participles, adjectives, sub, ante, post, ob, in, and other adverbs. inter, super, govern the dative.

61.

36.

48. The gerund in do, of the ablative, is governed by the prepositions a, ab, Verbs, signifying to de, e, ex, in; or withprofit, hurt, favour, assist, out a preposition, as the command, obey, serve, re-ablative of cause, means, The prepositions ad, sist, trust, threaten, and or manner. apud, ante, &c. govern be angry with, govern the accusative. the dative.

37.

49.

The supine in um, is put after a verb of mo

24.

The prepositions a, ab, Recordor, memini, re-tion. abs, &c. govern the abla-miniscor, and obliviscor, tive.

Impersonal verbs govern the dative. 62.

Interest and refert require the genitive.

63.

Miseret, pœnitet, pudet, tædet, and piget, govern the accusative of a person, with the genitive of a thing.

64.

50.

Decet, delectat, juvat, and oportet, govern the govern the accusative or The supine in u, is accusative of a pergenitive. put after an adjective. son, with the infinitive mood.

51.

65.

52.

25. The prepositions in, 38. sub, super, and subter, Verbs of abounding Nouns, signifying the govern the accusative, and wanting, govern the price of a thing, are put The name of a town, when motion to a place ablative, and sometimes in the ablative. signifying the place is signified; but when the genitive. where, or in which, if it motion or rest in a place 39. Nouns, signifying the be of the first or second is signified, in and sub Ulor, abutor, fungor, instrument, cause, means, declension and singular govern the ablative; su- fruor, potior, vestor, and or manner, are put in number, is put in the geper and subter either the some others, govern the the ablative. nitive; but if it be of the accusative or ablative. ablative. third declension, or pluNouns, signifying mea-ral number, it is put in The interjections 0, A verb compounded sure, or distance, are put the ablative. heu, proh, aud some with a preposition, often in the accusative-someothers, govern the nomi-governs the case of that times in the ablative. native, accusative, or vo- preposition. 54. cative.

53.

26.

40.

66. The name of a town, signifying the place whi41. Nouns, signifying the ther, is put in the accuThe infinitive mood time when, are put in the sative. The interjections hei, may be governed by a ablative; those, how long, and væ, govern the da- verb, participle, adjec-in the accusative--sometive. tive, or noun. times in the ablative. 42 55.

27.

67.

28.

68.

The name of a town, signifying the place whence, or through what The conjunctions et, When quod, quin, ut, Verbs of accusing, con-place, is put in the abla ac, atque, nec, aut, neque, or ne, is omitted in Latin, demning, admonishing, tive. and some others, connect the word, which would and accquitting, govern like cases and modes. otherwise be in the the acusative of a per- Domus and rus, signi. nominative, is put in son with the genitive of fying the place where, are Two, or more substan- the accusative, and the a thing. construed like the names of towns.

29.

tives singular, connected verb in the infinitive
by a conjunction, may mood.
have a verb, adjective,
or relative plural to agree
with them.

56.

43.

Verbs of esteeming, go69. vern the accusative of the A noun, or pronoun, Participles, gerunds, person, or thing esteem-joined with a participle supínes, and adverbs, ed, and the genitive, of expressed or understood, 30. govern the same case as the value. when its case depends 67. The conjunctions ut, the words from which no other word, is quo, licet, &c. govern the they are derived. Verbs of comparing, put in the ablative absosubjunctive mood. Igiving, declaring, and lute.

on

RULES.

1. The adjective agrees with its substantive, in number, case, and gender. 2. The verb agrees with its nominative case, in number and person.

3. The relative, qui, quæ, quod, agrees with its antecedent in gender, number, and person. 4. If no nominative

come between the relative and the verb, the relative is the nominative to the verb; but when a nominative intervenes, the relative is governed by the verb, or some other word in the sentence.

5. Any verb may have the same case after as before it, when both words refer to the same person or thing. 6. Substantives signifying the same person or thing, agree in case.

7. One substantive governs another signifying a different person or thing, in the genitiye.

8. If the latter of two

substantives have an adjective of praise or dispraise, joined with it, it may be put either in the genitive or ablative.

9. An adjective in the neuter gender without a substantive, governs the genitive. 10. Opus and Usus, signifying need, require

the ablative.

11. Verbal adjectives, and such as signify an affection of the mind, govern the genitive. 12. Partitives, and words placed partitively, comparatives, superlatives, interrogatives, and some numerals, govern the genitive plural.

13. Adjectives signifying profit or disprofit, likeness or unlikeness, &c. go

vern the datiye.

14. These adjectives, dignus, indignus, præditus, and contentus; also, natus, satus, ortus, editus, and the like, govern the 15. Adjectives signify

ablative.

ing plenty or want, govern the genitive or ablative.

18. Sum, when it signifies possession, property,

or duty, governs the geni

tive.

tate impetrandâ Romam venerunt. Popedius Latinorum princeps, qui Drusi hospes erat, Catonem puerum rogavit ut Latinos apud avunculum adjuvaret. Cato vultu constanti negavit id se facturum. Iterùm deindè ac sæpiùs interpellatus in proposito persitit. Tunc Popedius puerum in excelsam ædium partem levatum tenuit, et abjecturum indè se minatus est, nisi precibus obtemperaret; neque hoc metu à sententiâ eum potuit dimovere. Tunc Popedius exclamâsse fertur: "Gratulemur nobis, Latini, hunc esse tàm parvum; si enim senator esset, ne sperare quidem jus civitatis nobis liceret."

CICERO.

Marcus Tullius Cicero equestri genere, Arpini, quod est Volscorum oppidum, natus est. Ex ejus avis unus verrucam in extremo naso sitam habuit ciceris grano similem, indè cognomen Ciceronis genti inditum. Quum id Marco Tullio à nonnullis probro verteretur; "Dabo operam, inquit, ut istud cognomen nobilissimorum nominum splendorem vincat." Quum eas artes disceret quibus ætas puerilis ad humanitatem solet informari, ingenium ejus ita eluxit, ut eum æquales è scholâ redeuntes medium, tanquam regem, circumstantes deducerent domum: imò eorum parentes pueri famâ commoti, in ludum litterarium ventitabant, ut eum viserent. Ea res tamen quibusdam rustici et inculti ingenii stomachum movebat, qui cæteros pueros graviter objurgabant quòd talem condiscipulo suo honorem tribuerent.

Cicero dicax erat, et facetiarum amans, adeò ut ab inimicis solitus sit appellari Scurra consularis. Quum Lentulum generum suum exiguæ staturæ hominem vidisset longo gladio accinctum: "Quis, inquit, generum meum ad gladium alligavit ??? Matrona quædam juniorem se, quàm erat, simulans dictitabat se triginta tantùm annos habere. Cui Cicero: "Verum est, inquit, nam hoc viginti annos audio." Cæsar, altero consule mortuo die decembris ultimâ, Caninium consulem horâ septimâ in reliquam diei partem renuntiaverat: quem quum plerique irent salutatum de more: "Festinemus, inquit Cicero, priusquàm abeat magistratu." De eodem Caninio scripsit Cicero: "Fuit mirificâ vigilantiâ Caninius, qui toto suo consulatu somnum non viderit."

CESAR AUGUSTUS.

Tandem Octavius, hostibus victis, solusque imperio potitus, clementem se exhibuit. Omnia deinceps in eo plena mansuetudinis et humanitatis. Multis ignovit à quibus sæpè graviter læsus fuerat, quo in numero fuit Metellus unus ex Antonii præfectis. Quum is inter captivos senex squalidus sordidatusque processisset, agnovit eum filius ejus, qui Octavii partes secutus locutus est: "Pater meus hostis tibi fuit; ego miles: non mafuerat, statìmque exiliens, patrem complexus, sic Octavium algis ille poenam, quàm ego præmium meriti sumus. Aut igitur me propter illum occidi jube, aut illum propter me vivere. Delibera, quæso, utrùm sit moribus tuis convenientius." Octavius postquàm paulùm addubitavisset, misericordiâ motus hominem sibi infensissimum propter filii merita servavit.

Octavius in Italiam rediit, Romamque triumphans ingressus est. Tùm bellis toto orbe compositis, Jani gemini portas suâ manu clausit quæ tantummodò bis anteà clausæ fuerant, primò sub Numâ rege, iterùm post primum Punicum bellum. Tunc

17.

31.

44.

taking away, govern the Sum, taken for habeo, Verbs, signifying ac- The gerund in dum, accusative and dative. (to have,) governs the da- tively, govern the accu-of the nominative, with tive of a person. sative. the verb est, governs the dative.

58.

18.

32.

Sum, taken for affero, Misereor, miseresco, (to bring,) governs two and satago, govern the datives; the one of a per-genitive. son, and the other of a thing.

33.

19.

Any verb may govern the dative in Latin, which The compounds of has to, or for, after it in Sum, except Possum, go-English

vern the dative.

34.

20.

Verbs Words of the compa- with satis, bene, and male, rative degree govern the govern the dative. ablative when quam is 35. omitted in Latin.

21.

Verbs of asking, and teaching, govern two ac45. cusatives; the one of a The gerund in di, of person, and the other of the genitive, is govern- a thing. ed by nouns, or adjectives.

22. Some adverbs of time, place, and quantity, govern the genitive. 23.

59.

46.

Verbs of loading, binding, clothing, depriving, The gerund in do, of and some others, govern the dative, is governed the accusative and the by adjectives signifying ablative. compounded usefulness, or fitness, &c.

47.

60

When a verb in the The gerund in dum, active voice governs two of the accusative, is go-cases, in the passive it Many verbs compound-verned by the preposi-retains the latter case. ed with these ten pre-tions ad, ob, inter, ante, Adverbs qualify verbs, positions, præ, ad, con, propter. participles, adjectives, sub, ante, post, ob, in, and other adverbs. inter, super, govern the dative.

61.

48.

36.

The gerund in do, of the ablative, is governed by the prepositions a, ab, Verbs, signifying to de, e, ex, in; or withprofit, hurt, favour, assist, out a preposition, as the command, obey, serve, re-ablative of cause, means, The prepositions ad, sist, trust, threaten, and or manner. apud, ante, &c. govern be angry with, govern the accusative. the dative.

24.

37.

The prepositions a, ab, Recordor, memini, re-tion. abs, &c. govern the abla-miniscor, and obliviscor, tive.

49.
The supine in um, is
put after a verb of mo-

Impersonal verbs govern the dative. 62.

Interest and refert require the genitive. 63.

Miseret, pœnitet, pudet, tædet, and piget, govern the accusative of a person, with the genitive of a thing.

64.

Decet, delectat, juval, 50. and oportet, govern the govern the accusative or The supine in u, is accusative of a pergenitive. put after an adjective. son, with the infinitive mood.

51.

25.

38.

65.

52.

39.

The prepositions in, sub, super, and subter, Verbs of abounding Nouns, signifying the govern the accusative, and wanting, govern the price of a thing, are put The name of a town, when motion to a place ablative, and sometimes in the ablative. signifying the place is signified; but when the genitive. where, or in which, if it motion or rest in a place Nouns, signifying the be of the first or second is signified, in and sub Ulor, abulor, fungor, instrument, cause, means, declension and singular govern the ablative; su- fruor, potior, vestor, and or manner, are put in number, is put in the geper and subter either the some others, govern the the ablative. nitive; but if it be of the accusative or ablative. ablative. third declension, or pluNouns, signifying mea-ral number, it is put in The interjections O, A verb compounded sure, or distance, are put the ablative. heu, proh, aud some with a preposition, often in the accusative-someothers, govern the nomi-governs the case of that times in the ablative. native, accusative, or vo-preposition. cative.

53.

26.

40.

54.

66.

The name of a town, signifying the place whither, is put in the accu

41.

27.

67.

Nouns, signifying the The infinitive mood time when, are put in the sative. The interjections hei, may be governed by alablative; those, how long, and væ, govern the da-verb, participle, adjec-in the accusative-sometive. tive, or noun. times in the ablative. 55,

42

The name of a town, signifying the place whence, or through what The conjunctions et, When quod, quin, ut, Verbs of accusing, con-place, is put in the abla ac, atque, nec, aut, neque, or ne, is omitted in Latin, demning, admonishing, tive. and some others, connect the word, which would and accquitting, govern

28.

68.

29.

like cases and modes. otherwise be in the the acusative of a per- Domus and rus, signi. nominative, is put in son with the genitive of fying the place where, are Two, or more substan- the accusative, and the a thing. construed like the names tives singular, connected verb in the infinitive of towns. by a conjunction, may mood. have a verb, adjective,

69.

56.
Verbs of esteeming, go-
vern the accusative of the

A noun, or pronoun,

43.

or relative plural to agree Participles, gerunds, person, or thing esteem-joined with a participle with them. supines, and adverbs, ed, and the genitive, of expressed or understood, 30. govern the same case as the value. when its case depends The conjunctions ut, the words from which 57. on no other word, is quo, licet, &c. govern the they are derived. Verbs of comparing, put in the ablative absosubjunctive mood, Igiving, declaring, and lute.

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