Immagini della pagina
PDF
ePub

RULES.

1. The adjective agrees with its substantive, in number, case, and gender. 2. The verb agrees with its nominative case, in

number and person.

3. The relative, qui, quæ, quod, agrees with its antecedent in gender, number, and person. 4. If no nominative come between the relative and the verb, the relative is the nominative to the

in the sentence.

verb; but when a nomi-
native intervenes, the
relative is governed by the
verb, or some other word
5. Any verb may have
the same case after as be-
fore it, when both words
refer to the same person
or thing.
6. Substantives signify
ing the same person or
thing, agree in case.

7. One substantive go

verns another signifying

a different person or thing, in the genitive.

8. If the latter of two substantives have an adjective of praise or dispraise, joined with it, it may be put either in the genitive or ablative.

9. An adjective in the neuter gender without a substantive, governs the

genitive.

10, Opus and Usus, signifying need, require

the ablative.

11. Verbal adjectives, and such as signify an af fection of the mind, goyern the genitive.

12. Partitives, and

words placed partitively,
comparatives, superla
tives, interrogatives, and
some numerals, govern
the genitive plural.
13. Adjectives signify.
ing profit or disprofit, like-
ness or unlikeness, &c. go-

yern the dative.

14. These adjectives, dignus, indignus, præditus, and contentus; also, natus, satus, ortus, editus, and the like, govern the ablative.

15. Adjectives signifying plenty or want, govern the genitive or ablative.

16. Sum, when it signihes possession, property,

or duty, governs the geni

tive.

omnes præteritorum malorum oblivio cepit, populusque Romanus præsentis otii lætitiâ perfruitus est. Octavio maximi honores à senatu delati sunt. ́Ipse Augustus cognominatus est et in ejus honorem mensis sextilis eodem nomine est appellatus, quòd illo mense bellis civilibus finis esset impositus. Equites Romani natalem ejus biduò semper celebrârunt: senatus populusque Romanus universus cognomen Patris patriæ maximo consensu ei tribuerunt. Augustus præ gaudio lacrymans res. pondit his verbis: "Compos factus sum votorum meorum; neque aliud mihi optandum est, quàm ut hunc consensum vestrum ad ultimum vitæ finem videre possim."

Dictaturam, quam populus magnâ vi offerebat, Augustus Dogenu nixus dejectâque ab humeris togâ, deprecatus est. mini appellationem semper exhorruit, eamque sibi tribui edicto vetuit, imò de restituendâ republicâ non semel cogitavit; sed reputans et se privatum non sine periculo fore, et rempublicam plurium arbitrio commissum iri, summam retinuit potestatem, id verò studuit, ne quem novi statûs pœniteret. Benè de iis etiam, quos adversarios expertus fuerat, et sentiebat et loquebatur. Legentem aliquandò unum è nepotibus invenit; quumque puer territus volumen Ciceronis, quod manu tenebat, veste tegeret, Augustus librum cepit, eoque statìm reddito: "Hic vir, inquit, fili mi, doctus fuit et patriæ amans."

Pedibus sæpè per urbem incedebat, summâque comitate adeuntes excipiebat: undè quum quidam libellum supplicem porrigens, præ metu et reverentiâ nunc manum proferret, nunc retraheret; "Putasne, inquit jocans Augustus, assem te elephanto dare?" Eum aliquando convenit veteranus miles, qui vocatus in jus periclitabatur, rogavitque ut sibi adesset. Statim Augustus unum è comitatu suo elegit advocatum, qui litigatorem commendaret. Tùm veteranus exclamavit: "At non ego, te periclitante bello Actiaco, vicarium quæsivi, sed ipse pro te pugnavi ;" simulque detexit cicatrices. Erubuit Augustus, atque ipse venit in advocationem.

Quum post Actiacam victoriam Augustus Romam ingredere. tur, occurrit ei inter gratulantes opifex quidam corvum tenens, quem instituerat hæc dicere: Ave, Cæsar victor, imperator. Augustus avem officiosam miratus, eam viginti millibus nummorum emit. Socius opificis, ad quem nihil ex illâ liberalitate pervenerat, affirmavit Augusto illum habere et alium corvum, quem afferri postulavit. Allatus corvus verba quæ didicerat expressit: Ave, Antoni victor, imperator. Nihil eâ re exasperatus Augustus jussit tantummodò corvorum doctorem dividere acceptam mercedem cum contubernali. Salutatus similiter à psittaco, emi eum jussit.

Exemplo incitatus sutor quidam, corvum instituit ad parem salutationem; sed, quum parùm proficeret, sæpè ad avem non respondentem dicebat: Opera et impensa periit. Tandem corvus cœpit proferre dictatam salutationem: quâ auditâ dùm transiret, Augustus respondit: "Satis domi talium solutatorum habeo." Tùm corvus illa etiam verba adjecit, quibus dominum querentem audire solebat: Opera et impensa perit: ad quod Augustus risit, atque avem emi jussit quanti nullam adhuc emerat.

Solebat quidam Græculus descendenti è palatio Augusto honorificum aliquod epigramma porrigere. Id quum frustrà sæpè fecisset, et tamen rursùm eumdem facturum Augustus vi deret, suâ manu in chartâ breve exaravit græcum epigramma,

17.

31.

58.

44. taking away, govern the Sum, taken for habeo, Verbs, signifying ac- The gerund in dum, accusative and dative. (to have,) governs the da- tively, govern the accu- of the nominative, with tive of a person. sative. the verb est, governs the dative.

18.

32.

Sum, taken for affero, Misereor, miseresco, (to bring,) governs two and satago, govern the datives; the one of a per-genitive. son, and the other of a thing.

45.

Verbs of asking, and teaching, govern two accusatives; the one of a The gerund in di, of person, and the other of the genitive, is govern-a thing. ed by nouns, or adjectives.

33.

59.

19.

46.

Any verb may govern the dative in Latin, which The compounds of has to, or for, after it in Sum, except Possum, go- English. vern the dative.

Verbs of loading, binding, clothing, depriving, The gerund in do, of and some others, govern the dative, is governed the accusative and the by adjectives signifying ablative. Verbs compounded usefulness, or fitness, &c. Words of the compa-with satis, bene, and male, rative degree govern the govern the dative. ablative when quam is 35. omitted in Latin.

34.

20.

60.

When a verb in the

47. The gerund in dum, active voice governs two of the accusative, is go-cases, in the passive it Many verbs compound-verned by the preposi-retains the latter case. ed with these ten pre-tions ad, ob, inter, ante, 61. Adverbs qualify verbs, positions, præ, ad, con, propter. Impersonal verbs goparticiples, adjectives, sub, ante, post, ob, in, vern the dative. and other adverbs. inter, super, govern the 62. dative.

21.

22.

Some adverbs of time, place, and quantity, govern the genitive. 23.

48.

36.

The gerund in do, of the ablative, is governed by the prepositions a, ab, Verbs, signifying to de, e, ex, in; or withprofit, hurt, favour, assist, out a preposition, as the command, obey, serve, re-ablative of cause, means, The prepositions ad, sist, trust, threaten, and for manner. apud, ante, &c. govern be angry with, govern

the accusative.

the dative.

24.

37.

The prepositions a, ab, Recordor, memini, re-tion. abs, &c. govern the abla-miniscor, and obliviscor, tive.

49.
The supine in um, is
put after a verb of mo-

Interest and refert require the genitive. 63.

Miseret, pœnitet, pudet, tædel, and piget, govern the accusative of a per son, with the genitive of a thing.

64.

50.

25.

38.

52.

39.

Decet, delectat, juval, and oportet, govern the govern the accusative or The supine in u, is accusative of a per. genitive. put after an adjective. son, with the infinitive The prepositions in, 51. mood. sub, super, and subter, Verbs of abounding Nouns, signifying the 65. govern the accusative, and wanting, govern the price of a thing, are put The name of a town, when motion to a place ablative, and sometimes in the ablative. signifying the place is signified; but when the genitive. where, or in which, if it motion or rest in a place Nouns, signifying the be of the first or second is signified, in and sub Utor, abutor, fungor, instrument, cause, means, declension and singular govern the ablative; su- fruor, potior, vescor, and or manner, are put in number, is put in the geper and subter either the some others, govern the the ablative. nitive, but if it be of the accusative or ablative. ablative. third declension, or pluNouns, signifying mea-ral number, it is put in The interjections 0, A verb compounded sure, or distance, are put the ablative. heu, proh, aud some with a preposition, often in the accusative-someothers, govern the nomi-governs the case of that times in the ablative. native, accusative, or vo-preposition. 54. cative.

53.

26.

40.

41.

27.

66. The name of a town, signifying the place whi Nouns, signifying the ther, is put in the accuThe infinitive mood time when, are put in the sative. The interjections hci, may be governed by a ablative; those, how long, 67. and væ, govern the da-verb, participle, adjec-in the accusative-some- The name of a town, tive. tive, or noun. times in the ablative. signifying the place 42. whence, or through what The conjunctions et, When quod, quin, ut, Verbs of accusing, con- place, is put in the ablaac, atque, nec, aut, neque, or ne, is omitted in Latin, demning, admonishing, tive. and some others, connect the word, which would and accquitting, govern

28.

55.

68.

29.

like cases and modes otherwise bein the the acusative of a per- Domus and rus, signinominative, is put in son with the genitive of fying the place where, are Two, or more substan- the accusative, and the a thing. construed like the names of towns.

56.

69.

tives singular, connected verb in the infinitive
by a conjunction, may mood.
have a verb, adjective,
or relative plural to agree
with them.

43.

Verbs of esteeming, govern the accusative of the A noun, or pronoun, Participles, gerunds, person, or thing esteem-joined with a participle supines, and adverbs, ed, and the genitive, of expressed or understood, 30. govern the same case as the value. when its case depends The conjunctions ut, the words from which on no other word, is quo, licet, &c. govern the they are derived. Verbs of comparing, put in the ablative abso subjunctive mood, giving, declaring, and lute.

57.

RULES.

1. The adjective agrees with its substantive, in number, case, and gender. 2. The verb agrees with its nominative case, in

number and person.
3. The relative, qui,
quæ, quod, agrees with its
antecedent in gender,
number, and person.

4. If no nominative come between the relative

and the verb, the relative is the nominative to the

verb; but when a nominative intervenes, the relative is governed by the verb, or some other word

in the sentence.

6. Any verb may have the same case after as before it, when both words

refer to the same person or thing.

6. Substantives signifying the same person or thing, agree in case. 7. One substantive governs another signifying

a different person or thing, in the genitive.

8. If the latter of two substantives have an adjective of praise or dispraise, joined with it, it may be put either in the genitive or ablative.

9. An adjective in the neuter gender without a substantive, governs the genitive.

10. Opus and Usus, signifying need, require

the ablative.

11. Verbal adjectives, and such as signify an affection of the mind, govern the genitive.

12. Partitives, and words placed partitively, comparatives, superlatives, interrogatives, and some numerais, govern the genitive plural.

13. Adjectives signifying profit or disprofit, like ness or unlikeness, &c. go

vern the dative.

[blocks in formation]

et Græculo venienti ad se obviàm misit. Ille legendo laudare cœpit, mirarique tàm voce quàm vultu, gestuque. Dein quum accessit ad sellam quâ Augustus vehebatur, demissâ in pauperem crumenam manu, paucos denarios protulit, quos principi daret; dixitque se plus daturum fuisse, si plus habuisset. Secuto omnium risu, Græculum Augustus vocavit, eique satis grandem pecuniæ summam numerari jussit.

Augustus ferè nulli se invitanti negabat. Exceptus igitur à quodam cœnâ satis parcâ et penè quotidianâ, hoc tantùm insusurravit: "Non putabam me tibi esse tàm familiarem.” Quum aliquandò apud Pollionem quemdam cœnaret, fregit unus ex servis vas crystallinum: rapi illum protinùs Pollio jussit, et ne vulgari morte periret, abjici murænis, quas ingens piscina continebat. Evasit è manibus puer, et ad pedes Casaris confugit, non recusans mori, sed rogans ne piscium esca fieret. Motus novitate crudelitatis Augustus, servi infelicis patrocinium suscepit: quum autem veniam à viro crudeli non impetraret, crystallina vasa ad se afferri jussit; omnia manu suâ fregit; servum manumisit, piscinamque compleri præcepit.

Augustus in quâdam villâ ægrotans noctes inquietas agebat, rumpente somnum ejus crebro noctuæ cantu; quâ molestiá quum liberari se vehementer cupere significâsset, miles quidam aucupii peritus noctuam prehendendam curavit, vivamque Augusto attulit, spe ingentis præmii; cui Augustus mille nummos dari jussit: at ille minùs dignum præmium existimans, dicere ausus est: Malo ut vivat, et avem dimisit. Imperatori nec ad irascendum causa deerat, nec ad ulciscendum potestas. Hanc tamen injuriam æquo animo tulit Augustus, hominemque impunitum abire passus est.

Augustus amicitias non facilè admisit, et admissas constanter retinuit: imprimis familiarem habuit Mæcenatem equitem Romanum, qui eâ, quâ apud principem valebat gratiâ, ita semper usus est, ut prodesset omnibus quibus posset, noceret nemini. Mira erat ejus ars et libertas in flectendo Augusti animo, quum eum irâ incitatum videret. Jus aliquandò dicebat Augustus, et multos morte damnaturus videbatur. Aderat tunc Mæcenas, qui circumstantium turbam perrumpere, et ad tribunal propiùs accedere conatus est quum id frustrà tentâsset, in tabellâ scripsit hæc verba : Surge tandem, carnifex: eamque tabellam ad Augustum projecit, quâ lectâ, Augustus statim surrexit, et nemo est morte mulctatus.

Habitavit Augustus in ædibus modicis neque laxitate neque cultu conspicuis, ac per annos ampliùs quadraginta in eodem cubiculo hieme et æstate mansit. Supellex quoque ejus vix privatæ elegantiæ erat. Idem tamen Romam, quam pro majestate imperii non satis ornatam invenerat, adeò excoluit, ut jure sit gloriatus marmoream se relinquere, quam lateritiam accepisset. Rarò veste aliâ usus est quàm confectâ ab uxore, sorore, filiâ, neptibusque. Altiuscula erant ejus calceamenta, ut procerior quàm erat videretur. Cibi minimi erat atque vulgaris. Secundarium panem et pisciculos minutos et ficus virides maxime appetebat.

Augustus non ampliùs quàm septem horas dormiebat, ac ne eas quidem continuas, sed ita ut in illo temporis spatio ter aut quater expergisceretur. Si interruptum somnum_recuperare non posset, lectores arcessebat, donec resumeret. Quum audisset senatorem quemdam, licèt ære alieno oppressum, arctè et graviter dormire solitum, culcitram ejus magno pretio emit:

17.

31. 44. taking away, govern the Sum, taken for habeo, Verbs, signifying ac- The gerund in dum, accusative and dative. (to have,) governs the da- tively, govern the accu-of the nominative, with tive of a person. sative. the verb est, governs the dative.

58.

18.

32.

Sum, taken for affera, Misereor, miseresco, (to bring,) governs two and satago, govern the datives; the one of a per-genitive. son, and the other of a thing.

45.

Verbs of asking, and teaching, govern two accusatives; the one of a The gerund in di, of person, and the other of the genitive, is govern-a thing. ed by nouns, or adjectives.

59.

19.

46,

33. Any verb may govern Verbs of loading, bind the dative in Latin, which ing, clothing, depriving, The compounds of has to, or for, after it in The gerund in do, of and some others, govern Sum, except Possum, go- English. the dative, is governed the accusative and the vern the dative. by adjectives signifying ablative. Verbs compounded usefulness, or fitness, &c. Words of the compa- with satis, bene, and male, rative degree govern the govern the dative. ablative when quam is omitted in Latin.

34.

20.

47.

21.

35.

60. When a verb in the The gerund in dum, active voice governs two of the accusative, is go-cases, in the passive it Many verbs compound-verned by the preposi-retains the latter case. ed with these ten pre-tions ad, ob, inter, ante, 61. Adverbs qualify verbs, positions, præ, ad, con, propter. participles, adjectives, sub, ante, post, ob, in, and other adverbs. inter, super, govern the dative.

22.

TE Some adverbs of time, place, and quantity, govern the genitive.

23.

48.

36.

The gerund in do, of the ablative, is governed by the prepositions a, ab, Verbs, signifying to de, e, ex, in; or withprofit, hurt, favour, assist, out a preposition, as the command, obey, serve, re-ablative of cause, means, The prepositions ad, sist, trust, threaten, and or manner. apud, ante, &c. govern be angry with, govern

the accusative.

the dative.

37.

49.

The supine in um, is put after a verb of mo

Impersonal verbs go vern the dative. 62.

Interest and refert require the genitive.

63.

24.

The prepositions a, ab, Recordor, memini, re-tion. abs, &c. govern the abla-miniscor, and obliviscor, tive.

Miseret, pœnitet, pudet, tædet, and piget, govern the accusative of a person, with the genitive of a thing.

50.

25.

38.

65.

52.

64. Decet, delectat, juval, and oportet, govern the govern the accusative or The supine in u, is accusative of a pergenitive. put after an adjective. son, with the infinitive The prepositions in, 51. mood. sub, super, and subter, Verbs of abounding Nouns, signifying the govern the accusative, and wanting, govern the price of a thing, are put The name of a town, when motion to a place ablative, and sometimes in the ablative. signifying the place is signified; but when the genitive. where, or in which, if it motion or rest in a place Nouns, signifying the be of the first or second is signified, in and sub Ulor, abutor, fungor, instrument, cause, means, declension and singular govern the ablative; su-fruor, potior, vescor, and or manner, are put in number, is put in the geper and subter either the some others, govern the the ablative. nitive; but if it be of the accusative or ablative. ablative. third declension, or pluNouns, signifying mea-ral number, it is put in The interjections 0, A verb compounded sure, or distance, are put the ablative. heu, proh, aud some with a preposition, often in the accusative-someothers, govern the nomi-governs the case of that times in the ablative. native, accusative, or vo-preposition. 54. cative.

39.

53.

26.

40.

66.

27.

The name of a town, signifying the place whi41. Nouns, signifying the ther, is put in the accuThe infinitive mood time when, are put in the sative. The interjections hei, may be governed by a ablative; those, how long, 67. and væ, govern the da- verb, participle, adjec-in the accusative-someThe name of a town, tive. tive, or noun. times in the ablative. signifying the place 42. 55. whence, or through what The conjunctions et, When quod, quin, ut, Verbs of accusing, con-place, is put in the ablaac, atque, nec, aut, neque, or ne, is omitted in Latin, demning, admonishing, tive. and some others, connect the word, which would and accquitting, govern

28.

68.

29.

like cases and modes. otherwise be in the the acusative of a per- Domus and rus, signi nominative, is put in son with the genitive of fying the place where, are Two, or more substan- the accusative, and the a thing. construed like the names tives singular, connected verb in the infinitive of towns. by a conjunction, may mood. have a verb, adjective, or relative plural to agree Participles,

56.

69. noun, or pronoun,

43.

with them.

Verbs of esteeming, govern the accusative of the gerunds, person, or thing esteem-joined with a participle supines, and adverbs, ed, and the genitive, of expressed or understood, 30. govern the same case as the value. when its case depends The conjunctions ut, the words from which 57. on no other word, is quo, licet, &c. govern the they are derived. Verbs of comparing, put in the ablative absosubjunctive mood, giving, declaring, and lute.

[ocr errors]

mirantibus dixit: "Habenda est ad somnum culcita in quâ homo qui tantùm debeba dormire potuit."

Exercitationes campestres equorum et armorum statìm post bella civilia omisit, et ad pilam primò folliculumque transiit: mox animi laxandi causâ, modò piscabatur hamo, modò talis nucibusque ludebat cum pueris minutis, quos facie et garrulitate amabiles undique conquirebat. Aleâ multùm delectabatur; idque ei vitio datum est. Tandem afflictâ valetudine in Campaniam concessit, ubi remisso ad otium animo, nullo hilaritatis genere abstinuit. Supremo vitæ die, petito speculo, capillum sibi comi jussit, et amicos circumstantes percontatus est num vitæ mimum satis commodè egisset; adjecit et solitam clausulam: "Edite strepitum, vosque omnes cum gaudio applaudite." Obiit Nolæ sextum et septuagesimum annum agens.

SALLUSTII CATILINA.

Omnis homines, qui sese student præstare cæteris animalibus, summâ ope niti decet vitam silentio ne transeant, veluti pecora, quæ natura prona atque ventri obedientia finxit. Sed nostra omnis vis in animo et corpore sita: animi imperio, corporis servitio, magis utimur. Alterum nobis cum dîs, alterum cum belluis, commune est. Quo mihi rectius videtur ingenii quàm virium opibus gloriam quærere, et, quoniam vita ipsa quâ fruimur brevis est, memoriam nostrî quàm maxume longam efficere: nam divitiarum et formæ gloria fluxa atque fragilis, virtus clara æternaque habetur.

Sed diù magnum inter mortalîs certamen fuit, vine corporis, an virtute animi, res militaris magis procederet: nam et priusquàm incipias consulto, et, ubi consulueris, maturè facto opus est. Ita, utrumque per se indigens, alterum alterius auxilio veget.

Igitur initio reges (nam in terris nomen imperii id primum fuit) diversi; pars ingenium, alii corpus exercebant: etiam tùm vita hominum sine cupiditate agitabatur; sua cuique satis placebant. Posteà verò, quum in Asia Cyrus, in Græcia Lacedæmonii et Athenienses, cœpêre urbes atque nationes subigere, lubidinem dominandi causam belli habere, maxumam gloriam in maxumo imperio putare; tùm demùm periculo atque negotiis compertum est in bello plurimùm ingenium posse.

Quòd si regum atque imperatorum animi virtus in pace ita uti in bello valeret, æquabiliùs atque constantiùs sese res humanæ haberent; neque aliud alio ferri, neque mutari ac misceri omnia, cerneres ; nam imperium facilè his artibus retinetur quibus initio par tum est. Verùm, ubi pro labore desidia, pro continentiâ et æquitate lubido atque superbia invasêre, fortuna simul cum moribus immutatur. Ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque à minùs bono transfertur. Quæ homines arant, navigant, ædificant, virtuti omnia parent.

Sed multi mortales, dediti ventri atque somno, indocti incultique, vitam sicuti peregrinantes transegêre: quibus, profectò contra naturam, corpus voluptati, anima oneri, fuit. Eorum ego vitam mortemque juxtà æstumo, quoniam de utrâque siletur. Verùm enimverò is demum mihi vivere atque frui animâ videtur, qui, alio negotio intentus, præclari facinoris aut artis bonæ famam quærit. Sed in magnâ copiâ rerum aliud alii natura iter ostendit.

Pulchrum est benè facere reipublicæ etiam benè dicere haud absurdum est. Vel pace vel bello clarum fieri licet: et qui fecêre, et qui facta aliorum scripsêre, multi laudantur. Ac mihi quidem, tametsi haud quaquàm par gloria sequatur scriptorem et auctorem rerum, tamen imprimis arduum vidatur res gestas scribere: primùm, quòd facta dictis sunt exæquanda; dehinc, quia plerique, quæ delicta reprehenderis, malevolentiâ et invidiâ dicta putant: ubi de magnâ virtute et gloriâ bonorum memores, quæ sibi quisque facilia factu putat, æquo animo accipit; supra ea, veluti ficta, pro falsis ducit.

Sed ego adolescentulus, initio, sicuti plerique, studio ad rempublicam latus sum; ibique mihi advorsa multa fuêre. Nam pro pudore, pro abstinentiâ, pro virtute, auda cia, largitio, avaritia, vigebant. Quæ tametsi animus aspernabatur, insolens malarum artium, tamen inter tanta vitia, imbecilla ætas ambitione corrupta tenebatur: ac me, cùm ab reliquorum malis moribus dissentirem, nihilo minùs honoris cupido, eâdem, quâ cæteros, famâ atque invidiâ vexabat.

Igitur, ubi animus ex multis miseriis atque periculis requievit, et mihi reliquam æta

« IndietroContinua »