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3. The Vocative, for the most part in the singular, and always in the plural, is the same with the Nominative.
Greek nouns in s generally lose s in the Vocative; as, Thomas, Thoma; Anchises, Anchise; Paris, Pari; Panthus, Panthu ; Pallas, -antis; Palla, names of men. But nouns in es of the third declension oftener retain the s; as, ô Achilles, rarely -e; 0 Socrates, seldom -e; and sometimes nouns in is and as; as, O Thais, Mysis, Pallas, -ădis, the goddess Minerva, &c.
4. Proper names for the most part want the plural:
Unless several of the same name be spoken of; as, duodecim Casăres, the twelve Cæsars.
The cases of Latin nouns are thus expressed in English:
Dat. to or for
Abl. with, from, in, by,
Dat. to or for
Abl. with, from, in, by,
to or for
king, Voc. 0
a king: Abl. with, from, in, by, With the definite article, the king.
the king, Nom.
the king: Abl. with, from, in, by,
Nouns in Latin are said to be of different genders, not merely from the distinction of sex, but chiefly from their being joined with an adjective of one termination, and not of another. Thus, penna, a pen, is said to be feminine, because it is always joined with an adjective in that termination which is applied to females; as, bõna penna, a good pen, and not bonus penna.
The gender of nouns which signify things without life, depends on their termination, and different declension.
To distinguish the different genders, grammarians make use of the pronoun hic, to mark the masculine; hæc, the feminine; and hoc, the neuter.
GENERAL RULES CONCERNING GENDER.
Antistes, a prelate.
Adolescens, a young man,
Cliens, a client.
Affinis, a relation by marriage. Conjux, a husband or wife.
Conviva, a guest.
the kings, the kings, the kings,
1. Names of males are masculine; as, Homērus, Homer; păter, a father; poēta, a poet.
2. Names of females are feminine; as,
Hělěna, Helen; mulier, a woman; uxor, a wife; måter, a mother; sŏror, a sister; Tellus, the goddess of the earth.
Hic bos, an ox; hæc bos, a cow; hic părens, a father; hæc părens, a mother.
3. Nouns which signify either the male or female, are of the common gender; that is, either masculine or feminine; as,
Infans, an infant.
Patruēlis, a cousin-german, by Princeps, a prince or princess.
Testis, a witness.
But antistes, cliens, and hospes, also change their termination to express the feminine; thus, antistita, clienta, hospita: in the same manner with leo, a lion ; leana, a lioness; èquus, èqua; mūlus, mūla; and many others.
There are several nouns, which, though applicable to both sexes, admit only of a masculine adjective; as, advěna, a stranger; agricola, a husbandman; assecla, an attendant; accola, a neighbour; exul, an exile; latro, a robber; fur, a thief; õpifex, a mechanic; &c. There are others, which, though applied to persons, are, on account of their termination, always neuter; as, scortum, a courtesan; mancipium, servitium, a slave, &c.
In like manner, opěræ, slaves or day-labourers; vigilia, excubia, watches; noxæ, guilty persons; though applied to men, are always feminine.
OBS. 1. The names of brute animals commonly follow the gender of their termination.
Such are the names of wild beasts, birds, fishes, and insects, in which the distinction of sex is either not easily discerned, or seldom attended to. Thus, passer, a sparrow, is masculine, because nouns in er are masculine; so aquila, an eagle, is feminine, because nouns in a, of the first declension are feminine. These are called Epicene, or promiscuous nouns. When any particular sex is marked, we usually add the word mas or femina; as, mas passer, a male sparrow; femina passer, a female sparrow. OBS. 2. A proper name, for the most part, follows the gender of the general name under which it is comprehended.
Thus, the names of months, winds, rivers, and mountains, are masculine; because mensis, ventus, mons, and fluvius, are masculine; as, hic Aprīlis, April; hic Aquilo, the north wind; hic Africus, the south-west wind; hic Tiberis, the river Tiber; hic Othrys, a hill in Thessaly. But many of these follow the gender of their termination; as, hæc Matrona, the river Marne in France; hæc Ætna, a mountain in Sicily; hoc Sōracte, a hill in Italy.
In like manner, the names of countries, towns, trees, and ships, are feminine, because terra or regio, urbs, arbor, and nāvis, are feminine; as, hæc Egyptus, Egypt; Sămos, an island of that name; Corinthus, the city of Corinth; pomus, an apple-tree; Centaurus, the name of a ship. Thus also the names of poems, hæc ilias, -ados, and Odyssea, the two poems of Homer; hæc Æneis, -idos, a poem of Virgil's; hæc Eunuchus, one of Terence's Comedies.
The gender, however, of many of these depends on the termination; thus, hic Pontus, a country of that name: hic Sulmo, -onis; Pessinus, -untis; Hydrus, -untis; names of towns: hæc Persis, -idis, the kingdom of Persia; Carthago, inis, the city Carthage; hoc Albion, Britain: hoc Care, Reate, Præneste, Tibur, ilium, names of towns. But some of these are also found in the feminine; as, Gelida Præneste, Juvenal, iii. 190; Alta Ilion, Ovid. Met. xiv. 466.
The following names of trees are masculine, õleaster, -tri, a wild olive-tree; rhamnus, the white bramble.
The following are masculine or feminine; cytisus, 2 kind of shrub; rìbus, the bramble-bush; larix, the larch-tree; lotus, the lote-tee; cupressus, the cypress-tree. The first two however are oftener masculine; the rest oftener feminine.
Those in um are neuter; as, buxum, the bush, or box-tree; ligustrum, a privet; so likewise are suber, -ĕris, the cork-tree; siler, -ĕris, the osier; robur, -oris, oak of the hardest kind; acer, -ĕris, the maple-tree.
The place where trees or shrubs grow is commonly neuter; as, Arbustum, quercētum,
Conjux, atque parens, infans, patruelis, `et hæres,
esculētum, sălictum, fruticētum, &c. a place where trees, oaks, beeches, willows, shrubs, &c. grow: also the names of fruits and timber; as, pōmum, or malum, an apple; pirum, a pear; ěběnum, ebony, &c. But from this rule there are various exceptions.
OBS. 3. Several nouns are said to be of the doubtful gender; that is, are sometimes found in one gender, and sometimes in another; as, dies, a day, masculine or feminine; vulgus, the rabble, masculine or neuter.
Nouns of the first declension end in a, e, as, es.
Latin nouns end only in a, and are of the feminine gender.
The terminations of the different cases are; Nom. and Voc. Sing. a; Gen. and Dat. æ, diphthong; Acc. am; Abl. ά; Nom. and Voc. Plur. ; Gen. arum; Dat. and Abl. is; Acc. as. See example, musa, a song, page 10,
Exc. 1. The following nouns are masculine: Hadria, the Hadriatic sea; comēta, a comet; planēta, a planet; and sometimes talpa, a mole; and dāma, a fallow deer. Pascha, the passover, is neuter.
Exc. 2. The ancient Latins sometimes formed the genitive singular in ăi ; thus, aula, a hall, gen. aulái; and sometimes likewise in as; which form the compounds of fămilia usually retain; as, māter-fămilias, the mistress of a family; gen. matris-familias; nom. plur. matres-familias, or matres-familiarum.
Exc. 3. The following nouns have more frequently abus in the dative and ablative plural, to distinguish them in these cases from masculines in us of the second declension :
Anima, the soul, the life.
Fămăla, a female servant.
Thus, deabus, filiābus, rather than filiis, &c.
Nouns in as and es are
Nouns in as are declined like musa; only they have am or an in the accusative; as, Æneas, Æneas, the name of a man; gen. Æneæ; dat. -œ; acc. -am or -an; voc. -a; abl. a. So Boreas, -eæ, the north wind; Tiaras, -a, a turban. In prose they have commonly am, but in poetry oftener an, in the accusative. Greek nouns in a have sometimes also an in the acc. in poetry; as, Ossa, -am, or -an, the name of a mountain.
Filia, & Nata, a daughter.
Nouns in as, es, and e of the first declension, are Greek. masculine nouns in e are feminine.
Nouns in es and e are thus declined :
Penelope, Penelope, the name of a woman.
These nouns, being proper names, want the plural, unless when several of the same name are spoken of, and then they are declined like the plural of musa.
The Latins frequently turn Greek nouns in es and e into a ; as, Atrīda, for Atrīdes ; Persa, for Perses, a Persian; Geōmetra, for -tres, a Geometrician; Circa, for Circe; Epitoma, for me, an abridgment; Grammatica, for -ce, grammar; Rhetorica, for -ce, oratory. So Clinia, for Clinias, &c. The accusative of nouns in es and e is found sometimes in em.
Note. We sometimes find the gen. plural contracted; as, Cælicòlûm for Cælicolarum ; Æneădûm for -arum.
Nouns of the second declension end in er, ir, ur, us, um ; os, on.
Nouns of the second declension have the gen. sing. in i; the dat. and abl. in o; the accusative in um; the voc. like the nom. (but nouns in us make the vocative in e;) the nom. and voc. plur. in i, or a; the gen. in orum; the dat. and abl. in is; and the acc. in os, or a. See example, puer, a boy, page 10.
After the same manner decline socer, -ĕri, a father-in-law; gener, -ěrĭ, a son-inlaw: So furcifer, a villain; Lucifer, the morning star; adulter, an adulterer; armiger, an armour-bearer; presbyter, an elder; Mulciber, a name of the god Vulcan; vesper, the evening; and iber, -ēri, a Spaniard, the only noun in er which has the gen. long, and its compound Celtiber, -ēri: Also, vir, viri, a man, the only noun in ir; and its compounds, levir, a brother-in-law; semivir, duumvir, triumvir, &c. And likewise sătur, -uri, full, (of old, saturus,) an adjective.
But most nouns in er lose the e in the genitive. See example, liber, a book, page 10 In like manner decline,
Abyssus, a bottomless pit. Antidotus, a preservative against poison.
Liber, the bark of a tree, or a book, has libri; but liber, free, an adjective, and Liber, a name of Bacchus, the god of wine, have liběri. So, likewise, proper names, Alexander, Evander, Periander, Menander, Teucer, Měleager, &c. gen. Alexandri, Evandri, &c. For examples in us and um, see declension of dominus, a master, and of donum, a gift, page 10.
Aretos, the Bear, a constellation
Căper, a he goat.
EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER.
Exc. 1. The following nouns in us are feminine, humus, the ground; alvus, the belly; vannus, a sieve: and the following derived from Greek nouns in os:
Amethystus, an amethyst.
Chrysolithus, a chrysolite.
Diălectus, a dialect, or manner
Diametros, the diameter of a
Atomus, an atom.
Diphthongus, a diphthong.
Măgister, a master.
To these add some names of jewels and plants, because gemma and planta are feminine; as,
Sapphirus, a sapphire.
Biblus, an Egyptian reed, of
Barbitus, a harp.
Měthŏdus, a method.
Byssus, fine flax or linen.
Other names of jewels are generally masculine; as, Beryllus, the beryl; Carbunculus, a carbuncle; Pyrōpus, a ruby; Smaragdus, an emerald: and also names of plants; as, Aspărăgus, asparagus, or sparrowgrass; ellebõrus, ellebore; raphănus, radish, or colewort; intybus, endive, or succory, &c.
Exc. 2. The nouns which follow are either masculine
Grossus, a green fig.
Exc. 3. Virus, poison;
pělăgus, the sea, are neuter.
Exc. 4. Vulgus, the common people, is either masculine or neuter, but oftener
EXCEPTIONS IN DECLENSION.
Proper names in ius lose us in the vocative; as,
Horatius, Horāti; Virgilius, Virgili; Georgius, Georgi, names of men; Lārius, Lari; Mincius, Minci, names of lakes. Filius, a son also hath fili; genius, one's guardian angel, geni; and deus, a god, hath deus, in the voc. and in the plural more frequently dii and diis, than dei and deis. Meus, my, an adjective pronoun, hath mi, and sometimes meus, in the vocative.
Other nouns in ius have e; as, tăbellärius, tabellarie, a letter-carrier; pius, pie, &c. So these epithets Delius, Dēlie; Tirynthias, Tirynthie; and these possessives, Laertius, Laertie; Saturnius, Saturnie, &c. which are not considered as proper names.
The poets sometimes make the vocative of nouns in us like the nominative; as, fluvius, Latinus, for fluvie, Latine. Virg. This also occurs in prose, but more rarely; thus, Audi tu, păpălus, for popule. Liv. i. 24.
The poets also change nouns in er into us; as, Evander, or Evandrus; vocative, Evander, or Evandre. So Meander, Leander, Tymber, Teucer, &c. and so anciently puer in the vocative had puĕre, from puěrus Note. When the genitive singular ends in ii, the latter i is sometimes taken away by the poets, for the sake of quantity: as, tuguri, for tugurii; ingěnî for ingenii, &c. And in the genitive plural we find deûm, liběrûm, sacrûm, duumvirum, &c. for deorum, liberorum, &c. and in poetry, Teucrûm, Graiúm, Argirúm, Dănaûm, Pělagûm, &c. for Teucrorum, &c.
Os and on are Greek terminations; as, Alpheos, a river in Greece; Ilion, the city Troy; and are often changed into us and um, by the Latins; Alphēus, Ilium, which are declined like dominus and regnum.
Nouns in eos or us are sometimes contracted in the genitive; as, Orpheus, genitive Orphëi, Orphei, or Orphi. So Theseus, Prometheus, &c. But nouns in cus, when eu is a diphthong, are of the third declension.
Some nouns in os have the genitive singular in o; as, Androgeos, genitive Androgeos or -či, the name of a man; Athos, Atho, or -i, a hill in Macedonia: both of which are also found in the third declension; thus, nominative Androgeo, genitive Androgeonis. So Atho, or Athon, -onis, &c. Anciently nouns in os, in imitation of the Greeks, had the genitive in u; as, Menandru, Apollodōru, for Menandri, Apollodori, Ter.
Nouns in os have the accusative in um or on; as, Delus or Delos, accusative Delum or Delon, the name of an island.
Some neuters have the genitive plural in ón; as, Georgica, genitive plural Georgicón, books which treat of husbandry, as Virgil's Georgicks.
There are more nouns of the third declension than of all the other declensions together. The number of its final syllables is not ascertained. Its final letters are thirteen, a, e, i, o, y, c, d, l, n, r, s, t, x. Of these, eight are peculiar to this declension, namely, i, o, y, c, d, l, t, x: a and e are common to it with the first declension; n and r with the second; and s with all the other declensions. A, i, and y, are peculiar to Greek
The terminations of the different cases are these; nom. sing. a, e, &c.; gen. is ; dat. i; acc. em; voc. the same with the nominative; abl. e, or i: nom. acc. and voc. plur. es, a, or ia; gen. um, or ium; dat. and abl. ibus. See examples, sermo, a speech; rupes, a rock; lapis, a stone; caput, the head; sedile, a seat; and iter, a journey page 10.
OF THE GENDER AND GENITIVE OF NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.
A, E, I, and Y.
1. Nouns in a, e, i, and y, are neuter.
Nouns in a form the genitive in ǎtis; as, diadēma, diademătis, a crown; dogma, -utis, an opinion. So,
Enigma, a riddle.
Numisma, a coin.
Apothegma, a short pithy say- Phasma, an apparition.
Poëma, a poem.
Schema, a scheme or figure.
Stemma, a pedigree.
is; as, rēte, retis, a net. So,
Equile, a stable for horses.
Navale, a dock or place for ship-
Nouns in e change e into
Cochleare, a spoon.
Stigma, a mark or brand, a disgrace.
Strǎtǎgēma, an artful contri
Thēma, a theme, a subject to
Övile, a sheep-fold.
Præsepe, a stall; a bee-hive.
Suile, a sow-cote.