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Nouns in are generally indeclinable; as, gummi, gum; zingibĕri, ginger; but some Greek nouns add itis; as, hydroměli, hydromelitis, water and honey sodden together, mead.

Nouns in y add os; as, moly, molyos, an herb; mysy, -yos, vitriol.


2. Nouns in o are masculine, and form the genitive in ōnis; as, Sermo, sermonis, speech; draco, drăconis, a dragon.


Agaso, a horse-keeper.
Aquilo, the north wind.
Arhǎbo, an earnest-penny,

Cúrio, the chief of award or curia.
Equiso, a groom or hostler.
a Erro, a wanderer.

Fullo, a fuller of cloth.
Helluo, a glutton.
Histrio, a player.
Latro, a robber.
Lēno, a pimp.

Bubo, an owl.

Būfo, a toad.

Călo, a soldier's slave.
Căpo, a capon.
Carbo, a coal.
Caupo, an innkeeper.

Lúdio, and -ius, a player.
Lurco, a glutton.
Mango, a slave merchant.
Mirmillo, a fencer.
Mōrio, a fool.

Cerbo, a cobler, or one who fol- Mucro, the point of a weapon.
lows a mean trade.

Mulio, a muleteer.
Něbŭlo, a knave.

Bălatro, a pitiful fellow.
Bambǎlio, a flatterer.
Băro, a blockhead

Ciniflo, a frizler of hair.

Crabro, a wasp or hornet.

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Exc. 1. Nouns in io are


rătio, rationis, reason.

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Pavo, a peacock.

feminine, when they signify any thing without a body; as,

Perduellio, treason.
Portio, a part.
Pōtio, drink.

Papilio, a butterfly.
Pugio, a dagger.
Pusio, a little child.

Proditio, treachery.
Proscriptio, a proscription, or-
dering citizens to be slain and
confiscating their effects.

Curculio, the throat-pipe, the Scipio, a staff.


Harpago, -ōnis, a drag.
Ligo, onis, a spade.

But when they mark any thing which has a body, or signify numbers, they are masculine; as,

Pero, a kind of shoe.
Præco, a common crier
Prædo, a robber.
Pulmo, the lungs.
Püsio, a little child.
Salmo, a salmon.
Sannio, a buffoon.
Sapo, soap.

Sipho, a pipe or tube.
Spădo, an eunuch.
Stolo, a shoot or scion.
Strabo, a goggle-eyed person.
Temo, the pole or draught-tree.
Tiro, a raw soldier.

Scorpio, a scorpion.
Septentrio, the north.
Stellio, a lizard.
Titio, a firebrand.

Umbo, the boss of a shield.
Úpilio, a shepherd.

Volo, a volunteer.

Erugo, rust (of brass.)
Caligo, darkness.
Cartilago, a gristle.
Crépido, a creek, a bank.
Farrago, a mixture.
Ferrugo, rust (of iron.)
Formido, fear.
Füligo, soot.

Grando, hail.

Hirudo, a horse-leech.

But the following are masculine;

Cardo, -inis, a hinge.
Cúdo, -ōnis, a leather cap.

Sanctio, a confirmation.

Sectio, the confiscation or for-
feiture of one's goods.
Seditio, a mutiny.
Sessio, a sitting.
Statio, a station.
Suspicio, mistrust.
Titillǎtio, a tickling.
Translatio, a transferring.
Úsucăpio, the enjoyment of a
thing by prescription.

Vacatio, freedom from labour,&c.
Visio, an apparition.

Unio, a pearl.

Vespertilio, a bat.

Ternio, the number three.


Exc. 2. Nouns in do and go are feminine, and have the genitive in inis; as, ărundo, arundinis, a reed; imāgo, imaginis, an image. So,

Hirundo, a swallow.

Intercăpedo, a space between.
Lānūgo, down.

Lentigo, a pimple.
Ŏrigo, an origin.

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Scatúrīgo, a spring.
Testudo, a tortoise.
Torpedo, a numbness.

Üligo, the natural moisture of the earth.

Porrigo, scurf or scales in the Văletudo, health.

head; dandruff.
Propago, a lineage.
Rubigo, rust, mildew.
Sartago, a frying-pan.

Vertigo, a dizziness.
Virgo, a virgin.
Võrǎgo, a gulf.

Margo, -inis, the brink of a river; also fem.
Ordo, Inis, order.

Tendo, -inis, a tendon.

Udo, -ōnis, a linen or woollen sock.

Cupido, desire, is often masculine with the poets; but in prose always feminine.

Exc. 3. The following nouns havę žnis :

Apollo, -inis, the god Apollo. Nēmo, -ĭnis, m. or f. no body. Homo, -inis, a man or woman. Turbo, -Inis, m. a whirlwind. Caro, flesh, fem. has carnis. Anio, mas. the name of a river, Anienis; Nerio, Nerienis, the wife of the god Mars: from the obsolete nominatives, Anien, Nerien. Turbo, the name of a man, has ōnis.

Exc. 4. Greek nouns in o are feminine, and have ûs in the genitive, and o in the other cases singular; as, Dido, the name of a woman; genit. Didûs; dat. Didó; &c. Sometimes they are declined regularly; thus, Dido, Didōnis; so echo, -ús, f. the resounding of the voice from a rock or wood; Argo, ús, the name of a ship; hâlo, -onis, f. a circle about the sun or moon.

C, D, L.


3. Nouns in c and I are neuter, and form the genitive by adding is; as, Animal, animális, a living creature; tõral, -ālis, a bed-cover; hālec, halēcis, a kind of pickle. So, Cervical, a bolster. Cubital, a cushion.

Except, Consul, -ŭlis, m. a consul.

Fel, fellis, n. gall.
Lac, lactis, n. milk.

Mel, mellis, n. honey.

Cănon, -Ŏnis, a rule.
Dæmon, -onis, a spirit.
Delphin, -inis, a dolphin.
Gnomon, -Ŏnis, the cock of a dial.
Hymen, ĕnis, the god of mar-


Minerval, entry-money.
Minutal, minced meat.

D is the termination only of a few proper names, which form the genitive by adding is; as, David, Davidis.

Abdomen, the paunch.
Acumen, sharpness.
Agmen, an army on march.
Alumen, alum.


4. Nouns in n are masculine, and add is in the genitive; as,

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Múgil, -ilis, m. a mullet-fish.
Sal, sălis, m. or n. salt.
Sales, -ium, pl. m. witty sayings.
Sol, -sõlis, m. the sun.

Puteal, a well-cover.
Vectigal, a tax.

Lien, -ēnis, the milt.
Pæan, -ânis, a song.
Physiognomon, -onis, one who
guesses at the dispositions of
men from the face.

Exc. 1. Nouns in men are neuter, and make their genitive in inis; as, flumen, fluminis, a river. So,

Discrimen, a difference.
Examen, a swarm of bees.
Foramen, a hole.

Germen, a sprout.
Grämen, grass.
Legümen, all kinds of pulse.
Lumen, light.

Nōmen, a name.
Númen, the Deity.

ōmen, a presage.

The following nouns are likewise neuter :

Glúten, -inis, glue.
Unguen, -inis, ointment.

Ren, rênis, the reins.
Splen, -ênis, the spleen.
Syren, -ēnis, f. a syren.
Titan, -anis, the sun.

Pătămen, a nyt-shell.
Sagmen, vervain, an herb.
Sémen, a seed.
Specimen, a proof
Stămen, the warp.
Subtemen, the woof.
Tegmen, a covering.
Vimen, a twig.
Võlumen, a folding.

Inguen, -inis, the groin.
Pollen, -inis, fine flour.

Exc. 2. The following masculines have inis; pecten, a comb; tubicen, a trumpeter; tibicen, a piper; and oscen, v. oscinis, sc. ăvis, f. a bird, which foreboded by singing.

Exc. 3. The following nouns are feminine: sindon, -onis, fine linen; äēdon, -õnis, a nightingale; halcyon, -onis, a bird called the king's fisher; icon, -onis, an image.

Exc. 4. Some Greek nouns have ontis; as, Laomedon, -ontis, a king of Trov. So Acheron, Chamæleon, Phaethon, Charon, &c.


5. Nouns in ar and ur are neuter, and add is to form the genitive; as, Calcar, calcaris, a spur; murmur, murmuris, a noise. So,

Guttur, -ŭris, the throat.
Jūbar, -āris, a sun-beam.
Lăcúnar, -áris, a ceiling.

Nectar, -ăris, drink of the gods.
Pulvinar, -áris, a pillow.
Sulphur, -ŭris, sulphur.

Except, Ebur, -õris, n. ivory.
Far, farris, n. corn.
Fěmur, -õris, n. the thigh.
Furfur, -ŭris, m. bran.
Fur, fūris, m. a thief.
Hépar, -ǎtis, or -ătos, n. the liver.

Actor, a doer, a pleader.

Creditor, he that trusts or lends.


6. Nouns in er and or are masculine, and form the genitive by adding is; as, Anser, anseris, a goose, or, gander; agger, -ĕris, a rampart; der, -ĕris, the air; carcer, -ĕris, a prison; asser, ĕris, and assis, -is, a plank; dolor, ōris, pain; color, ōris, a colour. So,

Cruor, gore.
Děbitor, a debtor.
Fætor, an ill smell.
Honor, honour.
Lector, a reader.

Lictor, an officer among the Romans, who attended the magistrates.

Acer, -ĕris, a maple-tree.

Ador, -oris, fine wheat.
Equor, oris, a plain, the sea.

Cădăver, -ĕris, a dead carcass.
Cicer, -ĕris, vetches.

Jĕcur, -õris, or jecinoris, n. the liver
Rōbur, -ŏris, n. strength.
Sălar, -ăris, m. a trout.
Turtur, ŭris, m. a turtle-dove.
Vultur, -ŭris, m. a vulture.

Ŏdor, and -os, a smell.
Ŏlor, a swan.
Pædor, filth.
Pastor, a shepherd.
Prætor, a commander.
Půdor, shame.
Rubor, blushing.
Rumor, a report.
Săpor, a taste.

Sartor, a cobler or tailor.
Sător, a sower, a father.
Sopor, sleep.

Livor, paleness, malice.
Nidor, a strong smell.

Rhetor, a rhetorician, has rhetoris; castor, a beaver, -ŏris.

Exc. 1. The following nouns are neuter :

Potestas, power.
Probitas, probity.

Marmor, -Ŏris, marble.
Păpăver, -ĕris, poppy.
Piper, -ĕris, pepper.
Spinther, -ĕris, a clasp.
Tuber, -ĕris, a swelling.
Über, -ĕris, a pap, or fatness.
Ver, vēris, the spring.

Cor, cordis, the heart.

Iter, itineris, a journey.

Arbor, oris, a tree, is feminine. Tuber, -ĕris, the fruit of the tuber-tree, is masculine, but when put for the tree, is feminine.

Exc. 2. Nouns in ber have bris in the genitive; as, hic imber, imbris, a shower. So Insuber, October, &c.

Nouns in ter have tris ; as, venter, ventris, the belly; păter, patris, a father; frater, -tris, a brother; accipiter, -tris, a hawk; but crater, a cup, has crātēris; sōter, -ēris, a saviour; later, a tile, lateris; Jupiter, the chief of the Heathen Gods, has Jovis ; linter, -tris, a little boat, is masc. or fem.


7. Nouns in as are feminine, and have the genitive in atis; as, atas, ætatis, an age. So,

Astas, the summer.
Pietas, piety.

Splendor, brightness.
Sponsor, a surety.
Squalor, filthiness.
Stupor, dullness
Sŭtor, a sewer.
Těpor, warmth.
Terror, dread.
Timor, fear.
Tonsor, a barber.
Tutor, a guardian.
Vǎpor, a vapour.
Vēnātor, a hunter.

Sătiětas, a glut or disgust.
Simultas, a feud, a grudge.
Tempestas, a time, a tempest.
Übertas, fertility.

Exc. 1. As, assis, m. a piece of money, or any thing which may be divided into twelve parts.

Véritas, truth.
Võluntas, will.
Võluptas, pleasure.
Anas, a duck, has ǎnǎtis.

Mas, măris, m. a male.
Vas, vădis, m. a surety.
Vas, vasis, m. a vessel.

Note. All the parts of as are masculine, except uncia, an ounce, feminine; as, sextans, 2 ounces; quadrans, 3; triens, 4; quincunx, 5; semis, 6; septunx, 7; bes, 8; dodrans, 9; dextans, or dĕcunx, 10; deunx, 11 ounces.

Exc. 2. Of Greek nouns in as, some are masculine, some feminine, some neuter. Those that are masculine have antis in the genit. as, gigas, gigantis, a giant; ădămas, -antis, an adamant; ělěphas, -antis, an elephant. Those that are feminine have ădis or ados; as, lampas, lampadis, or lampados, a lamp; dromas, -ădis, f. a dromedary: likewise Arcas, an Arcadian, though masculine, has Arcadis or -ados. Those that are neuter have ǎtis, as, bucheras, -atis, an herb; artocreas, -ătis, a pie.


8. Nouns in es are feminine, and in the genitive change es into is; as, rūpes, rupis, a rock; nubes, nubis, a cloud. So,

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Ales, -Itis, a bird.

Ames, -itis, a fowler's staff.
Aries, ětis, a ram.

Exc. 1. The following nouns are masculine, and most of them likewise excepted in the formation of the genitive:

Fōmes, -itis, fuel.
Gurges, -itis, a whirlpool.
Hēres, -ēdis, an heir.
Indiges, -ětis, a man deified.
Interpres, -ětis, an interpreter.
Limes, Itis, a limit or bound.
Miles, -itis, a soldier.

Bes, bessis, two thirds of a pound.

Cespes, -itis, a turf.
Eques, Itis, a horseman.

Pălumbes, m. or f. a pigeon.
Proles, an offspring.
Pubes, youth.

Ales, -itis, swift.

Bipes, -ědis, two-footed.

Abies, -ětis, a fir-tree.
Ceres, -ětis, the goddess of corn.
Merces, ĕdis, a reward, hire.
Merges, itis, a handful of corn.
Quies, -ėtis, rest.

To these add the following adjectives:

Quadrupes, -edis, four-footed.

Deses, dis, slothful.
Dives, -itis, rich.

Obses, -idis, a hostage.

But ales, miles, heres, interpres, obses, and vates, are also used in the feminine.

Hěbes, -ětis, dull.
Perpes, -ětis, perpetual.

Exc. 2. The following feminines are excepted in the formation of the genitive:

Rèquies, -ėtis, or requiei, (of the fifth declension,,


Palmes, -itis, a vine branch.
Păries, -ětis, a wall.
Pes, pedis, the foot.
Pēdes, -itis, a foolman.
Poples, -itis, the ham of the leg.
Præses, -idis, a president.
Sătelles, -itis, a life guard.
Stipes, -itis, the stock of a tree.
Termes, -itis, an olive-bough.
Trâmes, -itis, a path.

Sépes, a hedge.
Soboles, an offspring.
Strages, a slaughter.
Strues, a heap.
Sudes, a stake.
Tabes, a consumption.
Vulpes, a fox.

Vēles, -itis, a light-armed soldier.
Vates, vatís, a prophet.
Verres, verris, a boar-pig.

Axis, axis, an axle-tree.
Aqualis, a water-pot, a ewer.
Callis, a beaten road.
Caulis, the stalk of an herb.

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Exc. 3. Greek nouns in es are commonly masculine; as, hic ăcînăces, -is, a Persian sword, a scimitar: but some are neuter; as, hoc căcoethes, an evil custom; hippomănes, a kind of poison which grows in the forehead of a foal; pănăces, the herb all-heal; nepenthes, the herb kill-grief. Dissyllables, and the monosyllables Cres, a Cretan, have ētis, in the genitive; as, hic magnes, magnētis, a loadstone; tapes, -ětis, tapestry; lēbes, -ētis, a caldron. The rest follow the general rule. Some proper nouns have either ētis or is; as, Dăres, Darētis, or Daris; which is also sometimes of the first declension; Achilles, has Achillis; or Achilli, contracted for Achillëi or Achillei, of the second declension, from Achillëus: So, Ulysses, Péricles, Verres, Aristõtěles, &c.


9. Nouns in is are feminine, and have their genitive the same with the nominative; as,

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Exc. 1. The following nouns are masculine, and form the genitive according to the general rule:

Collis, a hill.

Cenchris, a kind of serpent.
Ensis, a sword.
Fascis, a bundle.

Rătis, a raft.
Rūdis, a rod.
Vallis, a valley.
Vestis, a garment.
Vitis, a vine.

Féciālis, a herald.

Follis, a pair of bellows.

Fustis, a staff.
Mensis, a month.

Múgilis, or -il, a mullet-fish.
Orbis, a circle, the world.
Patruēlis, a cousin-german.
Piscis, a fish.

Impubis, or impubes, -is, or -ĕris, not marriageable.

Postis, a post.
Sodalis, a companion.
Torris, a fire-brand.

To these add Latin nouns in nis; as, pānis, bread; crinis, the hair; ignis, fire; fūnis, a rope, &c. But Greek nouns in nis are feminine, and have the genitive in idis; as, tyrannis, tyrannidis, tyranny.

Exc. 2. The following nouns are also masculine, but form their genitive differently: Cinis, -ĕris, ashes. Pubis, or pubes, -is, or oftener -ĕris, marriageable. Pulvis, -ĕris, dust.

Cucumis, -is, or -ĕris, a cucumber.

Dis, Ditis, the god of riches, or rich, an adj.
Glis, gliris, a dormouse, a rat.

Quiris, -itis, a Roman.
Samnis, -itis, a Samnite.
Sanguis, -inis, blood.

Semis, -issis, the half of any thing.

Lapis, ĭdis, a stone.

Vomis, or -er, ĕris, a ploughshare.

Pulvis and cinis are sometimes feminine. Semis is also sometimes neuter, and then it is indeclinable. Pubis and impubis, are properly adjectives; thus, Puberibus caulem foliis, a stalk with downy leaves, Virg. Æn. xii. 413. Impube corpus, the body of a boy not having yet got the down (pubes, is, f.) of youth, Horat. Epod. v. 13. Exsanguis, bloodless, an adjective, has exsanguis in the genitive.

Amnis, a river.

Anguis, a snake.

Cănalis, a conduit-pipe.
Clúnis, the buttock.
Corbis, a basket.

Unguis, the nail.
Vectis, a lever.
Vermis, a worm.

Exc. 3. The following are either masculine or feminine, and form the genitive according to the general rule:

Arbos, or, -or, -ŏris, a tree.

Cos, cōtis, a whetstone.

Dos, dotis, a dowry.

Exc. 4. These feminines have idis: Cassis, -idis, a helmet; cuspis, -idis, the point of a spear; capis, -idis, a kind of cup; promulsis, -idis, a kind of drink, metheglin. Lis, strife, f. has litis.

Finis, the end; fines, the boundaries of a field
or territories, is always masculine.
Scrōbis, or scrobs, a ditch.
Torquis, a chain.

Exc. 5. Greek nouns in is are generally feminine, and form the genitive variously: some have eos or ios; as, hæresis, -eos, or ios, or -is, a heresy; so, basis, f. the foot of a pillar; phrasis, a phrase; phthisis, a consumption; poěsis, poetry; metròpõlis, a chief city, &c. Some have idis, or idos; as, Paris, idis, or -idos, the name of a man; aspis, -idis, f. an asp; ephemeris, -idis, f. a day-book; iris, -idis, f. the rainbow; pyxis, -idis, f. a box. So, Egis, the shield of Pallas; cantharis, a sort of fly; periscělis, a garter; proboscis, an elephant's trunk; piramis, a pyramid; and tigris, a tiger, -idis, seldom tigris: all fem. Part have idis, as, Psophis, -idis, the name of a city: others have inis; as, Eleusis, inis, the name of a city; and some have entis ; as, Simois, Simoentis, the name of a river. Charis, one of the graces, has Charitis.


10. Nouns in os are masculine, and have the genitive in ōtis; as, něpos, -ōtis, a grandchild; săcerdos, -ōtis, a priest; also feminine.

Exc. 1. The following are feminine :

Flos, floris, a flower.
Honos, or -or, -ōris, honour.
Lăbos, or -or, -ōris, labour.
Lěpos, or -or, -öris, wit.
Mos, mōris, a custom.
Ros, rōris, dew.

Exc. 2. The following masculines are excepted in the genitive:

Eos, eois, the morning.

Glos, glōris, the husband's sister, or brother's wife.

Custos, -ōdis, a keeper; also fem.

Hēros, herōis, a hero.

Minos, õis, a king of Crete.
Tros, Trois, a Trojan.

Bos, bovis, m. or f. an ox or cow.

Exc. 3. Os, ossis, a bone; and ōs, oris, the mouth, are neuter.

Exc. 4. Some Greek nouns have õis, as, hēros, -õis, a hero or great man: So Minos, a king of Crete; Tros, a Trojan; thos, a kind of wolf.


11. Nouns in us are neuter, and have their genitive in oris; as, pectus, pectoris, the breast; tempus, temporis, time. So,

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