« IndietroContinua »
Exc. 2. The following nouns have ŭbus, in the dative and ablative plural:
Artus, a joint.
Gěnu, the knee.
_Portus, genu, and verų, have likewise ibus; as, portibus or portubus.
Lăcus, a lake.
Portus, a harbour.
Exc. 3. IESUS, the venerable name of our Saviour, has um in the accusative, an u in all the other cases.
Spĕcus, a den.
Nouns of this declension anciently belonged to the third, and were declined like grus, gruis, a crane; thus, fructus, fructuis, fructui, fructuem, fructue; fructues, fructuum, fructuibus, fructues, fructues, fructuibus. So that all the cases are contracted except the dative singular, and genitive plural. In some writers, we still find the genitive singular in uis; as, Ejus annuis causâ, for anûs. Terent. Heut. ii. 3. 46. and in others, the dative in u; as, Resistere impetu, for impetui, Cic. Fam. x. 24. Esse usu, sibi, for usui, ib. xiii. 71. The genitive plural is sometimes contracted; as, currûm for curruum.
Nouns of the fifth declension end in es, and are of the feminine gender. See examples, res, a thing; and facies, the face, page 10.
Except dies, a day, masculine or feminine in the singular, and always masculine in the plural ; and meridies, the mid-day or noon, masculine.
The poets sometimes make the genitive, and more rarely the dative, in e.
The nouns of this declension are few in number, not exceeding fifty, and seem anciently to have been comprehended under the third declension. Most of them want the genitive, dative, and ablative plural, and many the plural altogether.
All nouns of the fifth declension end in ies, except three: fides, faith; spes, hope; res, a thing; and all nouns in ies are of the fifth, except these four: abies, a fir tree; ăries, a ram ; păries, a wall; and quies, rest; which are of the third declension.
Avernus, a lake in Campania, hell.
Dindymus, a hill in Phrygia.
Ismărus, a hill in Thrace.
Irregular nouns may be reduced to three classes, Variable, Defective, and Redundant. I. VARIABLE NOUNS.
Nouns are variable either in gender, or declension, or in both.
I. Those which vary in gender are called heterogeneous, and may be reduced to the following classes:
1. Masculine in the singular, and neuter in the plural.
Massicus, a hill in Campania, famous for excel
Mænǎlus, a hill in Arcadia.
Pangæus, a promontory in Thrace.
Taygětus, a hill in Laconia.
Thus, Averna, Avernorum; Dindyma, -orum; &c. These are thought by some to be properly adjectives, having mons understood in the singular; and juga or cacumina, or the like in the plural.
2. Masculine in the singular, and in the plural masculine and neuter.
Jocus, a jest, pl. joci and joca; locus, a place, pl. loci and loca. When we speak of passages in a book, or topics in discourse, loci only is used.
3. Feminine in the singular, and neuter in the plural.
Carbăsus, a sail, pl. carbăsa; Pergămus, the citadel of Troy, pl. Pergama.
4. Neuter in the singular, and masculine in the plural.
Cœlum, pl. cæli, heaven; Elysium, pl. Elysii, the Elysian fields; Argos, pl. Argi, a city in Greece.
5. Neuter in the singular, in the plural masculine or neuter.
Rastrum, a rake, pl. rastri, and rastra; frænum, a bridle, pl. fræni and fræna. 6. Neuter in the singular, and feminine in the plural.
Delicium, a delight, pl. delicia; Epulum, a banquet, pl. ěpůlæ; Balneum, a bath, pl. balnea, and balnea.
II. DEFECTIVE NOUNS.
Nouns are defective, either in cases or in number.
II. Nouns which vary in declension are called heteroclites; as, vas, vāsis, a vessel, pl. vāsa, vasorum ; jugĕrum, jugĕri, an acre, pl. jugěra, jugěrum, jugeribus, which has likewise sometimes jugeris and jugere, in the singular, from the obsolete jugus, or juger.
1. Some are altogether indeclinable; as, pondo, a pound or pounds; fas, right; nefas, wrong; sināpi, mustard; māne, the morning; as, clarum mane, Pers. A mane ad vesperam, Plaut. Multo mane, &c. cepe, an onion; gausăpe, a rough coat, &c. all of them neuter. We may rank among indeclinable nouns, any word put for a noun; as, velle suum, for sua voluntas, his own inclination, Pers. Istud cras, for iste crastinus dies, that to-morrow. Mart. O magnum Græcorum, the Omega, or the large O of the Greeks. Infidus est compositum ex in et fidus; infidus is compounded of in and fidus. To these add foreign or barbarous names; that is, names which are neither Greek nor Latin; as, Job, Elisabet, Jerusalem, &c.
2. Some are used only in one case, and therefore called monoptōta; as, inquies, want of rest, in the nominative singular; dicis, and nauci, in the gen. singular; thus, dicis gratiâ, for form's sake; res nauci, a thing of no value; inficias, and incita or incitas, in the acc. pl. thus, ire inficias, to deny; ad incitas redactus, reduced to a strait or nonplus; ingratiis, in the abl. plur. in spite of one; and these ablatives singular, noctu, in the night-time; diu, interdiu, in the day-time; promptu, in readiness; nātu, by birth; injussu, without command or leave; ergô, for the sake, as, ergo illius, Virg. Ambāge, f. with a winding or a tedious story; compěde, m. with a fetter; casse, m. with a net; veprem, m. a brier: Plur. ambages, -ibus, compedes, -ibus, casses, -ium; vepres, -ium, &c.
3. Some are used in two cases only, and therefore called diptōta; as, něcesse, or -um, necessity; võlupe, or volup', pleasure; instar, likeness, bigness; astu, a town; hir, the palm of the hand; in the nom. and acc. singular: vesper, m. abl. vespère, or vespěri, the evening; siremps, the same, all alike, abl. sìrempse ; spontis, f. in the genitive, and sponte in the ablative, of its own accord: so impětis, m. and impěte, force; verběris, n. gen. and verbère, abl. a stripe: in the plural entire; verbĕra, verberum, verberibus, &c.-rěpětundarum, abl. repetundis, sc. pecuniis, money unjustly taken in the time of one's office, extortion; suppětiæ, nom. plur. suppětias, in the acc. help; inferiæ, inferias, sacrifices to the dead.
4. Several nouns are only used in three cases, and therefore called triptōta; as, prěci, precem, prece, f. a prayer, from prex, which is not used: in the plural it is entire, preces, precum, precibus, &c. Feminis, gen. from the obsolete femen, the thigh; in the dat. and abl. sing.; in the nom. acc. and voc. plur. femina. Dica, a process, acc. sing. dicam; pl. dicas. Tantundem, in the nom. and acc. tantidem, in the gen. even as much. Several nouns in the plural want the genitive, dative, and ablative; as, hiems, rus, thus, mětus, mel, far, and most nouns of the fifth declension.
To this class of defective nouns, may be added these neuters, mělos, a song; měle, songs: ěpos, an heroic poem; căcoēthes, an evil custom ; cēte, whales; Tempe, plur. a beautiful vale in Thessaly, &c. used only in the nom. acc. and voc.—also, grātes, f. thanks.
5. The following nouns want the nominative, and of consequence the vocative, and therefore are called tetraptōta: vicis, f. of the place or stead of another; pecudis, f. of a beast; sordis, f. of filth; ditiōnis, f. of dominion, power; opis, f. of help. Of these pecudis and sordis have the plur. entire; ditionis wants it altogether; vicis is not used in the genitive plural; opis in the plural, generally signifies wealth, or power, seldom help. To these add nex, slaughter; daps, a dish of meat; and frux, corn; hardly used in the nominative singular, but in the plural mostly entire.
6. Some nouns only want one case, and are called pentaptōta; thus, os, the mouth; lux, light; fax, a torch, together with some others, want the genitive plural. Chaos, n. a confused mass, wants the genitive singular, and the plural entirely; dative singular, chao. So satias, i. e. satietas, a glut or full of any thing. Situs, a situation, nastiness, of the fourth declension, wants the genitive, and perhaps the dative singular; also the genitive, dative, and ablative plural.
Of nouns defective in number there are various sorts.
1. Several nouns want the plural, from the nature of the things which they express. Such are the names of virtues and vices, of arts, herbs, metals, liquors, different kinds of corn, most abstract nouns, &c. as, justitia, justice; ambitus, ambition; astus, cunning; musica, music; ăpium, parsley; argentum, silver; aurum, gold; lac, milk; triticum, wheat; hordeum, barley; avěna, oats; juventus, youth, &c. But of these we find several sometimes used in the plural.
2. The following masculines are hardly ever found in the plural:
Hesperus, -i, the evening-slar.
Měridies, -iei, mid-day.
Mundus, a woman's ornaments.
Muscus, -i, moss.
3. The following feminines are scarcely used in the plural:
Sălus, -útis, safety.
Supellex, -ectilis, household furniture.
Argilla, -æ, potter's earth.
Humus, -i, the ground.
Lues, is, a plague.
Plebs, plebis, the common people.
Pubes, is, the youth.
Ebur, -ŏris, ivory.
Gělu, ind. frost.
Hilum, -i, the black speck of a bean, a trifle.
do not sit. Lethum, death.
Lutum, -i, clay.
4. These neuters are seldom used in the plural:
Album, -i, a list of names.
Dilücŭlum, -i, the dawning of day.
Apollinares, -ium, games in honour of Apollo.
6. The following masculines are hardly Cancelli, lattices, or windows made with crossbars like a net; a rail or balustrade round any place; bounds or limits.
Cáni, gray hairs.
Casses, -ium, a hunter's net.
Célères, -um, the light-horse.
Druïdes, -um, the Druids, priests of the ancient
Fasces, -ium, a bundle of rods carried before the
5. Many nouns want the singular; as, the names of feasts, books, games, and several cities; thus,
Fines, -ium, the borders of a country, or a country.
Nemo, -inis, no body.
Pěnus, -i, or -ús, all manner of provisions.
Pontus, -i, the sea.
Tābes, -is, a consumption.
Bianchiæ, the gills of a fish.
Diræ, imprecations, the furies.
Nihil, nihilum, or nil, nothing.
Pělăgus, -i, the sea.
Pěnum, -i, and penus, õris, all kinds of provi,
Sal, sălis, salt.
Sĕnium, -ii, old age.
Ver, vēris, the spring.
7. The following feminines want the singular number:
Făcētiæ, pleasant sayings.
Hyades, -um, the seven stars.
Indŭviæ, clothes to put on.
Kǎlendæ, Nōnæ, Idus, -uum,
Hyberna, sc. castra, winter quarters.
Justa, funeral rites.
Lustra, dens of wild beasts.
Magalia, -ium, cottages.
Monia, -ium, the walls of a city.
Orgia, the sacred rites of Bacchus.
Ŏvilia, -ium, an enclosure where the people went to give their votes.
Pălcăria, -ium, the dew-lap of a beast. Părăpherna, all things the wife brings the husband except her dowry.
Părentālia, -ium, solemnities at the funeral of parents.
Ăcinus, and -um, a grape-stone.
Philtra, love potions.
and an ox.
Tălăria, -ium, winged shoes.
Lautia, provisions for the entertainment of foreign Tesqua, rough places.
Bătillus, and -um, a fire-shovel.
Principia, the place in the camp where the general's tent slood.
Pythia, games in honour of Apollo.
Rostra, a place in Rome made of the beaks of
Sponsalia, -ium, espousals.
Stativa, sc. castra, a standing camp.
SuŎvětaurilia, -ium, a sacrifice of a swine, a sheep,
Several nouns in each of the above lists are found also in the singular, but in a different sense thus, castrum, a castle; litera, a letter of the alphabet, &c.
III. REDUNDANT NOUNS.
Nouns are redundant in different ways: 1. In termination only; as, arbos and arbor, a tree. 2. In declension only; as, laurus, gen. lauri and laurûs, a laurel-tree; sequester, -tri, or -tris, a mediator. 3. Only in gender; as, hic or hoc vulgus, the rabble. 4. Both in termination and declension; as, mātĕria, -æ, or materies, -iei, matter; plebs, -is, the common people, or plebes, -is, -ëi, or contracted, plebi. 5. In termination and gender; as, tonitrus, -ús, masc. tonitru, neuter, thunder. 6. In declension and gender; as, pěnus, -i, and -ûs, m. or f. or penus, -õris, neut. all kinds of provisions. 7. In termination, gender, and declension; as, æther, -ĕris, masc. and ethra, -æ, feminine, the sky. 8. Several nouns in the same declension are differently varied; as, tigris, -is, or -idis, a tiger; to which may be added nouns which have the same signification in different numbers; as, Fīdēna, -œ; or Fidenæ, -arum, the name of a city.
Transtra, the seats where the rowers sit in ships.
The most numerous class of redundant nouns consists of those which express the same meaning by different terminations; as, menda, -œ; and mendum, -i, a fault; cassis, dis; and cassida, -dæ, a helmet.
Cubitus, and -um, a cubit.
Diluvium, and -es, a deluge.
Elephantus, and Elephas, -antis, an elephant.
Angiportus, -ûs, and -i, and -um, a narrow lane. Essěda, and -um, a chariot.
Aphractus, and -um, ar open ship.
Eventus, and -um, an event.
bbus, and -a, and -er, ĕri
Gluttinum, and -en, glue.
or -ĕri, a bunch, a
Intrita, and -um, fine mortar, minced meat.
Măceria, and -es, -iëi, a wall.
Mõnitum, and -us, -ûs, an admonition
Nasus, and -um, the nose.
Segmen, and -mentum, a piece or paring.
Note. The nouns which are called variable and defective, seem originally to have been redundant; thus, vāsa, -orum, properly comes from vasum, and not from vas; but custom, which gives laws to all languages, has dropt the singular and retained the plural; and so of others.
Division of Nouns according to their signification and derivation.
1. A substantive which signifies many in the singular number, is called a Collective noun; as, populus, a people; exercitus, an army.
2. A substantive derived from another substantive proper, signifying one's extraction, is called a Patronymic noun; as, Priămides, the son of Priamus; Æētias, the daughter of Eetes; Nerine, the daughter of Nereus. Patronymics are generally derived from the name of the father; but the poets, by whom they are chiefly used, derive them also from the grandfather, or from some other remarkable person of the family; sometimes likewise from the founder of a nation or people; as, Æăcides, the son, grandson, great-grandson, or one of the posterity of Eăcus; Romulidæ, the Romans, from their first king, Romulus.
Patronymic names of men end in des; of women in is, as, or ne. Those in des and ne, are of the first declension, and those in is and as, of the third; as, Priamides, -dæ, &c. pl. dæ, -darum, &c. Nērine, -es; Tyndāris, idis, or -idos; Æétias, -ădis, &c.
3. A noun derived from a substantive proper, signifying one's country, is called a Partial or Gentile noun; as, Tros, Trois, a man born at Troy; Troas, -ădis, a woman born at Troy: Siculus, -i, a Sicilian man; Sīcēlis, idis, a Sicilian woman : so, Măcēdo, -ŏnis; Arpīnas, -ātis, a man born in Macedonia, Arpinum; from Troja, Sicilia, Macedonia, Arpinum. But partials, for the most part, are to be considered as adjectives having a substantive understood; as, Romānus, Athēniensis, &c.
4. A substantive derived from an adjective, expressing simply the quality of the adjective, without regard to the thing in which the quality exists, is called an Abstract; as, justitia, justice; bonitas, goodness; dulcedo, sweetness: from justus, just; bonus, good; dulcis, sweet. The adjectives from which these abstracts come, are called Concretes; because, besides the quality, they also suppose something to which it belongs. Abstracts commonly end in a, as, or do, and are very numerous, being derived from most adjectives in the Latin tongue.
5. A substantive derived from another substantive, signifying a diminution or lessening of its signification, is called a Diminutive; as, libellus, a little book; chartula, a little paper; opucsulum, a little work; corculum, a little heart; reticulum, a small net; scăbellum, a small form; lăpillus, a little stone; cultellus, a little knife; pāgella, a little page; from liber, charta, opus, cor, rēte, scamnum, lapis, culter, pagina. Several diminutives are sometimes formed from the same primitive; as, from puer, puerulus, puellus, puellulus; from cista, cistula, cistella, cistellula; from homo, homuncio, homunculus. Diminutives for the most part end in lus, la, lum, and are generally of the same gender with their primitives. When the signification of the primitive is increased, it is called an Amplificative, and ends in o; as, Căpito, -ōnis, having a large head; so, nāso, labeo, bucco, having a large nose, lips, cheeks.
6. A substantive derived from a verb is called a Verbal noun; as, amor, love; doctrīna, learning; from ămo, and doceo. Verbal nouns are very numerous, and commonly end in io, or, us, and ura; as, lectio, a lesson; ămātor, a lover; luctus, grief; creatura, a creature.
An adjective is a word added to a substantive, to express its quality; as, hard, soft. We know things by their qualities only. Every quality must belong to some subject. An adjective therefore always implies a substantive expressed or understood, and cannot make full sense without it.