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3. The following want the superlative:

Adolescens, adolescentior, young.
Diŭturnus, diuturnior, lasting.
Ingens, ingentior, huge.

Jŭvěnis, junior, young.

Õpimus, opimior, rich.

Prōnus, pronior, inclined downwards.
Sătur, satŭrior, full.
Senex, senior, old.

To supply the superlative of juvěpis, or ădõlescens, we say, minimus natu, the youngest; and of senex, maximus nalu, the oldest.

Adjectives in ilis, ālis, and bīlis, also want the superlative; as, civilis, civilior, civil; rēgālis, regalior, regal; flēbilis, -ior, lamentable. So, juvenilis, youthful; exilis, small; &c.

To these add several others of different terminations: Thus, arcanus, -ior, secret; declīvis, -ior bending downwards; longinquus, -ior, far off; pròpinquus, -ior, near.

Anterior, former; sequior, worse; satior, better; are only found in the comparative.

4. Many adjectives are not compared at all; such are those compounded with nouns or verbs, as, versicolor, of divers colours; pestifer, poisonous: also adjectives in us pure, in ivus, inus, orus, or imus, and diminutives; as, dubius, doubtful; vacuus, empty; fugitivus, that flieth away; mātūtīnus, early; cănărus, shrill; lēgitimus, lawful; tenellus, somewhat tender; majusculus, &c. together with a great many others of various terminations; as, almus, gracious; præcox, -ocis, soon or early ripe; mīrus, ĕgēnus, lăcer, měmor, sospes, &c.

This defect or comparison is supplied by putting the adverb magis before the adjective, for the comparative degree; and valdè or maximè for the superlative; thus, egēnus, needy; magis egenus, more needy; valdè or maximè egenus, very or most needy. Which form of comparison is also used in those adjectives which are regularly compared.

PRONOUN.

A Pronoun is a word which stands instead of a Noun.

Thus, I stands for the name of the person who speaks; thou for the name of the person addressed. Pronouns serve to point out objects, whose names we either do not know, or do not want to mention. They also serve to shorten discourse, and prevent the too frequent repetition of the same word; thus, instead of saying, When Cæsar had conquered Gaul, Cæsar turned Cæsar's arms against Casar's country, we say, When Cæsar had conquered Gaul, he turned his arms against his country.

The simple pronouns in Latin are eighteen; ego, tu, sui; ille, ipse, iste, hic, is quis, qui; meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester; nostras, vestras, and cujas.

Three of them are substantives, ego, tu, sui; the other fifteen are adjectives.

OBS. 1. Ego wants the vocative, because one cannot call upon himself, except as a second person; thus, we cannot say, O ego, OI; O nos, O we.

OBS. 2. Mihi in the dative is sometimes by the poets contracted into mí.

OBS. 3. The genitive plural of ego was anciently nostrorum and nostrarum; of tu, vestrorum and vestrarum, which were afterwards contracted into nostrûm and vestrûm.

We commonly use nostrûm and vestrûm after partitives, numerals, comparatives, or superlatives; and nostri and vestri after other words.

The English substantive pronouns, he, she, it, are expressed in Latin by these pronominal adjectives, ille, iste, hic or is. Ille, iste, hic, and is, express he, &c. with this difference: hic is nearest to the speaker; iste, next; and ille, farthest off. Is generally denotes a person absent.

Ille usually implies respect, and iste contempt or aversion; as, Alexander ille magnus, Alexander the great. Tarquinius iste Superbus, Tarquin the Proud.

Ipse is often joined to ego, tu, sui; and has in Latin the same force with self in English, when joined with a possessive pronoun; as, ego ipse, I myself.

Ego, tu, sui, ille, ipse, iste, hic, is, quis, qui, are declined in page 12.

The other pronouns are derivatives, coming from ego, tu, and sui. Meus, my or mine; tuus, thy or thine; suus, his own, her own, its own, their own, are declined like bonus, -a, -um: and noster, our; vester, your; like pulcher, -chra, -chrum, of the first and second declension.

Nostras, of our country; vestras, of your country; cujas, of what or which country, are declined like felix, of the third declension: gen. nostrātis, dat. nostrāti, &c.

Pronouns as well as nouns, that signify things which cannot be addressed or called upon, want the vocative.

Meus hath mi, and sometimes meus, in the vocative singular, masculine.

The relative qui has frequently qui in the ablative; and that, which is remarkable, in all genders

and numbers.

Qui is sometimes used for quis: and instead of cujus, the genitive of quis, we find an adjective pronoun, cujus, -a, -um.

Simple pronouns, with respect to their signification, are divided into the following classes:

1. Demonstratives, which point out any person or thing present, or as if present: ego, 116, hic, iste, and sometimes ille, is, ipse.

2. Relatives, which refer to something going before: ille, ipse, iste, hic, is, qui

3. Possessives, which signify possession: meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester.

4. Patrials or Gentiles, which signify one's country: nostras, vestras, cujas,

5. Interrogatives, by which we ask a question; quis? cujus? When they do not ask a question, they are called Indefinites, like other words of the same nature.

6. Reciprocals, which again call back or represent the same object to the mind: sui and suus.

COMPOUND PRONOUNS.

Pronouns are compounded variously:

1. With other pronouns; as, isthic, isthæc, isthoc, isthuc, or istuc. Acc. Isthunc, isthanc, isthoc, or isthue. Abl. Isthoc, isthac, isthoc. Nom. and accusative plural, neuter, isthæc, of iste and hic. So illic, of ille and hic.

2. With some other parts of speech; as, hujusmõdi, cujusmõdi, &c. mēcum, tēcum, sēcum, nobiscum, vobiscum, quocum or quicum, and quibuscum: eccum, eccam; eccos, eccas, and sometimes ecca, in the nominative singular, of ecce and is. So ellum, of ecce and ille.

3. With some syllable added; as, tute, of lu, and te, used only in the nom. egōmet, tūtěmet, suimet, through all the cases, thus, meimet, tuimet, &c. of ego, tu, sui, and met. Instead of tumet, in the nom. we say, tutěmet: hiccine, hæccine, &c. in all the cases that end in c; of hic and cine: Meapte, tuapte, suapte, nostrapte, vestrapte, in the abl. fem. and sometimes meopte, tuople, &c. of meus, &c. and ple: hicce, hæcce, hocce; hujusce; hīce, hisce, hosce; of hic, and ce: whence hujuscěmõdi, ejuscemodi, cujuscemodi. So IDEM, the same, compounded of is and dem, which is thus declined:

N. idem,
G. ejusdem,

Plur.
eædem,
earundem,
iisdem, &c.
easdem,
cædem,

D. eidem,
A. eundem,

V. idem,

iisdem, &c.

A. eodem,
The pronouns which we find most frequently compounded, are quis and qui.
Quis in composition is sometimes the first, sometimes the last, and sometimes likewise the middle
part of the word compounded: but qui is always the first.

1. The compounds of quis, in which it is put first, are, quisnam, who? quispiam, quisquam, any one; quisque, every one; quisquis, whosoever; which are thus declined:

Nom.

Quisnam,
Quispiam,
Quisquam,
Quisque,
Quisquis,

Sing. eǎdem, ejusdem,

eidem,

eandem,

eadem,

eâdem,

Quicunque,
Quidam,

Quilibet,

Qui

quænam,
quæpiam,
quæquam,

quæque,

ĭdem,
ejusdem,
eidem,

idem,

ĭdem,

eōdem;

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quæcunque,
quædam,
quælibet,
quævis,

N. iidem,

G. eorundem,

D. eisdem, or
A. eosdem,

V. iidem,

A. eisdem, or

quodnam or quidnam;
quodpiam or quidpiam ;
quodquam, or quidquam;
quodque, or quidque ;
quidquid or quicquid;

or ecquid;

aliquod or aliquid;
ecquod
si quod
ne quod
num quod or

or

si quid;

or

ne quid;
num quid;

Gen.

cujusnam,
cujuspiam,
cujusquam,
cujusque,

cujuscujus,

And so in the other cases, according to the simple quis. But quisquis has not the feminine at all; and the neuter only in the nominative and accusative. Quisquam has also quicquam for quidquam. Accusative quenquam, without the feminine. The plural is scarcely used.

2. The compounds of quis, in which quis is put last, have qua in the nom. sing. fem. and in the nominative and accusative plural, neuter; as, aliquis some; ecquis, who? of et and quis; also nequis, siquis, numquis, which for the most part are read separately thus, ne quis, si quis, num quis. They are thus declined:

Nom.

quodcunque ;

quaddam or quiddam;
quodlibet or quidlibet;

ΟΤ dvis;

Gen.
alicujus,
eccujus,
si cujus,

ne cujus,
num cujus,

eǎdem, eorundem,

cădem,

eǎdem,

Gen.

cujuscunque,
cujusdam,
cujuslibet,
cujusvis,

Dat. cuinam.

cuipiam. cuiquam.

Aliquis, aliqua,

Ecquis, ecqua or ecquæ,
Si quis, si qua,

Ne quis, ne qua,
Num quis, num qua,
3. The compounds which have quis in the middle, are ecquisnam, who? unusquisque, gen. unius-
cujusque, every one. The former is used only in the nom. sing. and the latter wants the plural.
4. The compounds of qui are quicunque, whosoever; quidam, some; quilibet, quivis, any one
whom you please, which are thus declined:

Nom.

cuique.

cuicui.

Dat. alicui. eccui. si cui.

ne cui. num cui.

Dat. cuicunque. cuidam.

cuilibet. cuivis.

OBS. 1. All these compounds have seldom or never queis, but quibus, in their dative and ablative plural; thus, aliquibus, &c.

OBS. 2. Quis and its compounds, in comic writers have sometimes quis in the feminine gender. OBS. 3. Quidam has quendam, quandam, quoddam or quiddam, in the accusative singular; and quorundam, quarundam, quorundam, in the genitive plural, n being put instead of m, for the better sound.

OBS. 4. Quod, with its compounds, aliquod, quodvis, quoddam, &c. are used when they agree with a substantive in the same case; quid, with its compounds, aliquid, quidvis, &c. for the most part, have either no substantive expressed, or govern one in the genitive. For this reason, they are by some reckoned substantives.

A verb is a word which expresses what is affirmed of things; as, the boy reads. The sun shines. The man loves.

Or, A verb is that part of speech which signifies to be, to do, or to suffer.

It is called Verb or Word, by way of eminence; because it is the most essential word in a sen tence, without which the other parts of speech can form no complete sense. Thus, the diligent boy reads his lesson with care, is a perfect sentence; but if we take away the affirmation, or the word reads, it is rendered imperfect, or rather becomes no sentence at all; thus, the diligent boy his Lesson with care.

A verb therefore may be thus distinguished from any other part of speech: Whatever word expresses an affirmation or assertion, is a verb; or thus, Whatever word, with a substantive noun or pronoun before or after it, makes full sense, is a verb; as, stones fall, I walk, walk thou. Here fall and walk are verbs, because they contain an affirmation; but when we say, a long walk, a dangerous fall, there is no affirmation expressed; and the same words walk and fall become substantives or nouns. We often find likewise in Latin the same word used as a verb, and also as some other part of speech; thus, amor, -ōris, love, à substantive; and amor, I am loved, a verb.

Verbs, with respect to their signification, are divided into three different classes, Active, Passive, and Neuter; because we consider things either as acting, or being acted upon or as neither acting, nor being acted upon; but simply existing, or existing in a certain state or condition, as in a state of motion or rest, &c.

1. An Active verb expresses an action, and necessarily supposes an agent, and an object acted upon; as, amare, to love; amo te, I love thee.

2. A verb Passive expresses a passion or suffering, or the receiving of an action; and necessarily implies an object acted upon, and an agent by which it acted upon; as, amări, to be loved; tu amāris a me, thou art loved by me.

3. A Neuter verb properly expresses neither action nor passion, but simply the being, state, or condition of things; as, dormio, I sleep; sedeo, I sit.

The verb Active is also called Transitive, when the action passeth over to the object, or hath an effect on some other thing; as, scribo literas, I write letters; but when the action is confined within the agent, and passeth not over to any object, it is called Intransitive; as, ambulo, I walk; curro, I run; which are likewise called Neuter verbs. Many verbs in Latin and English are used both in a transitive and in an intransitive or neuter sense; as, sistĕre, to stop; incipere, to begin; durăre, to endure, or to harden, &c.

Verbs which simply signify being, are likewise called Substantive verbs; as, esse, or existere, to be or to exist. The notion of existence is implied in the signification of every verb; thus, I love, may be resolved into, I am loving.

When the meaning of a verb is expressed without any affirmation, or in such a form as to be joined to a substantive noun, partaking thereby of the nature of an adjective, it is called a Participle; as, amans, loving; amatus, loved. But when it has the form of a substantive, it is called a Gerund or a Supine; as, amandum, loving; amatum, to love; amatu, to love, or to be loved.

A verb is varied or declined by Voices, Modes, Tenses, Numbers, and Persons.

There are two voices; the Active and Passive.

The modes are four; Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, and Infinitive. The tenses are five; the Present, the Preter-imperfect, the Preter-perfect, the Preter-pluperfect, and the Future.

The numbers are two; Singular and Plural.

The persons are three; First, Second, Third.

1. Voice expresses the different circumstances in which we consider an object; whether as acting, or being acted upon. The Active voice signifies action; as, ămo, I love; the Passive, suffering, or being the object of an action; as, amor, I am loved.

2. Modes or Moods are the various manners of expressing the signification of the verb. The Indicative declares or affirms positively; as, amo, I love; amābo, I shall love: or asks a question; as, an tu amas? dost thou love?

The Subjunctive is usually joined to some other verbs, and cannot make a full meaning by itself as, si me obsecret redibo, if he entreat me, I will return. Ter.

The Imperative commands, exhorts, or entreats; as, ama, love thou.

The Infinitive simply expresses the signification of the verb, without limiting it to any person or number; as, amare, to love.

3. Tenses or Times express the time when any thing is supposed to be, to act, or to suffer. Time in general is divided into three parts, the present, past, and future.

G

Pas time is expressed three different ways. When we speak of a thing, which was doing, but not finished at some former time, we use the Preter-imperfect, or past time not completed; as, scribēbam, I was writing.

When we speak of a thing now finished, we use the Preter-perfect, or past time completed; as, scripsi, I wrote, or have written.

When we speak of a thing finished at or before some past time, we use the Preler-pluperfect, or past time more than completed; as, scripseram, I had written.

Future time is expressed two different ways. A thing may be considered either as simply about to be done, or as actually finished, at some future time; as, scribam, I shall write, or, I shall [then] be writing; scripsěro, I shall have written.

4. Number marks how many we suppose to be, to act, or to suffer.

5. Person shows to what the meaning of the verb is applied, whether to the person speaking, to the person addressed, or to some other person or thing.

Verbs have two numbers and three persons, to agree with substantive nouns and pronouns, in these respects for a verb properly hath neither numbers nor persons, but certain terminations answering to the person and number of its nominative.

A verb is properly said to be conjugated, when all its parts are properly classed, or as it were, voked together, according to Voice, Mode, Tense, Number, and Person.

CONJUGATION OF VERBS.

The Latins have four different ways of varying verbs, called the First, the Second, the Third, and the Fourth Conjugation.

The Conjugations are thus distinguished:

The First has a long before re of the Infinitive; the Second has e long, the Third has e short, and the Fourth has i long, before re of the Infinitive.

Except dăre, to give, which has ă short, and also its compounds; thus, Circundăre, to surround; circundămus, -dătis, -dăbam, -dăbo, &c.

The different conjugations are likewise distinguished from one another by the different terminations of the following tenses.

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1. or, 2. -eor,

3. -or,

4. -ior,

1. -ábar,

2. -ēbar,

3. -ēbar, 4. -iēbar,

1. -ǎbor,

2. -ēbor,

3. -ar, 4. -iar,

1. -er, 2. -ear,

3 -ar, 4. -iar,

1. -årer, 2. -ērer, 3. -ĕre,

4. -irer,

1.

Perf. -i,
Plu. -ěram,

Perf. -ĕrim,
Plu. -issem,

Fut. -ĕro,

-āris

-ēris

-ĕris

-iris

2.

or -āto,
-ēto,

1. a
2. -e or
3. -e or -Ito,
4. -i or

-ito,

1

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

2.

-âte or -ātōte,

-ēte or -ētōte,

-Ite or -ĭtōte,

-ite ΟΤ -itōte,

or -āre

07 -ēre

or

-ĕre

or -ire

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Sing.
2.

PASSIVE VOICE.

INDICATIVE MODE.

PRESENT TENSE.

-isti,

-ĕras,

-ārēris or -ārēre,

-ērēris or -ērēre,

-ĕréris or -ĕrére,

-īrēris or

-irēre,

3.

-áto;

-ēto;

-ito;

-ito;

2.

1. -åre or -átor,
2. -ère or -ētor,

3. -ěre or -itor,

4. -ire or -itor,

-ātur ; -ētur ;

-ĭtur

-itur;

IMPERFECT.

-ābātur ;
-ēbātur ;

-ēbātur ;

-jēbātur ;

3. -it;

-ěrat;

FUTURE.

-abitur ;
-ēbitur;

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE.

PRESENT TENSE.

-ētur ;

-iētur ;

-ĕrit;
-isset;

-ĕrit;

-ētur ;
-eåtur ;

-ātur ;

-jātur ; IMPERFECT.

-ārētur ;

-ārēmur,

-ērētur ;

-ērēmur,

-ĕrētur ;

-ĕrémur,

-irētur ;

-irēmur,

IMPERATIVE MODE.

2 -āmĭni,

-ēmĭni,

-ĭmini,

-imini,

3. -ător; -ētor; -itor;

-itor;

-āmur,

-emur,

-Imur,

-imur,

-ābāmur,

-ēbāmur,

-ēbāmur,

-iēbāmur,

-ābimur,

-ēbĭmur,

1.

-Imus,
-ĕrāmus,

-êmur,

-iemur,

ACTIVE VOICE.

INDICATIVE MODE.

-émur,
-eȧmur,

-āmur,

-jāmur,

-ĕrĭmus,
-issēmus,
-ĕrimus,

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE.

3.

-anto.

-ento.

-unto.

-iunto.

-āmĭni,

-ĕmini,

-ĭmini,

-imini,

-ābāmīni,

-ēbāmini,

-ēbāmìni,

-iēbāmĭni,

-ābimini,

-ēbimini,

-ēmini,

-iēmĭni,

-émini,

-eămîni,

-ămîni,

-iámĭni,

-ārēmĭni,

-ērēmini,

-ĕrēmini,

-irēmĭni,

3. -äntor.

-ëntor.

-untor,

-iuntor

Observe, Verbs in io of the third conjugation have iunt in the third person plural of the present indic. active, and iuntur in the passive; and so in the imperative, iunto and iuntor. In the imperfect and future of the indicative, they have always the terminations of the fourth conjugation, iēbam and iam; iēbar and iar, &c.

The terminations of the other tenses are the same through all the Conjugations. Thus,

-istis,
-ĕrātis,

-ĕrītis, -issētis, -ĕrĭtis,

-antur.

-entur.

-untur.

-iuntur.

Plur.

-ābantur.

-ēbantur.

-ēbantur.

-iebantur.

-ābuntur

-ābuntur.

-entur.

-ientur.

-entur.

-eantur

-antur.

-iantur.

-ârentur.

-ērentur.

-ĕrentur.

-irentur.

-ĕris,

-isses,

-ĕris,

These Tenses, in the Passive Voice, are formed by the Participle Perfect, and the auxiliary verb sum, which is also used to express the Future of the Infinitive Active. See conjugation of the verb sum, in page 9.

1.

-ĕrint.
-issent.

-ĕrint.

3.

-ērunt or ere. -ĕrant.

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