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THE orations presented in this edition are arranged in the order which seems most advantageous to the student reading them for the first time; in the Introduction, however, they have been treated in their chronological sequence. In making the selection of letters the political career of Cicero was not specially kept in mind. Only a small proportion of the whole number could find place in a volume of this compass in any case; and so it was thought best to choose letters of more general human interest, which would reveal Cicero the man rather than the politician, at different periods of his life and under different circumstances. The shorter letters in particular may be found suitable for rapid reading, or for sight translation.

The speeches should be interpreted as spoken rather than as written language. In the study of them nothing can take the place of practice in oral delivery, or of the work of the classroom in the rhetorical analysis of sentences, paragraphs, and orations as wholes. At the same time, an oration becomes effective in the degree that it is adapted to the audience and the occasion, — in a word, to its environment; and the interpretation

of it will be sound and satisfactory only when the matter, motive, method of presentation, occasion, and surroundings are all clearly understood. In view of this fact it appears unnecessary to offer further justification for the brief discussion, given in the Introduction, of the oration as distinguished from other literary efforts, and of Cicero's life and character, as affecting his oratory; or for the attention paid, in both Introduction and Notes, to the circumstances of delivery and to the subject-matter.

Besides obligation of a more general nature to the critical editions of Cicero's complete works, and to several other of the editions and works mentioned on pp. 356-358, the editor takes pleasure in making acknowledgment of special indebtedness to the editions of the orations by Richter and Eberhard, Halm and Laubmann, and Reid's Pro Archia; and to those of the letters by Tyrrell, Boot, and Schütz. He is also under obligations to Professor John C. Rolfe and Dr. W. K. Clement for help on the proofs; and to Assistant Professor Carl W. Belser for assistance in preparing the Vocabulary.

August 15, 1892.

June 15, 1895.



For the references to Professor Bennett's Latin Grammar given in this edition the editor is indebted to Mr. Anthony Pratt.

F. W. K.

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