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NE of the most interesting features of the magnificent Houses of Parliament, or New Palace of Westminster, is the lofty clock tower at the north end, which marks the time for all London. The clock, some illustrations of which will be found on our double page, is believed to be the most powerful one in existence. It drives the hands of four dials, each 22 feet 6 inches in diameter, strikes the hours on a bell weighing 13 tons, and chimes the quarters on four bells weighing together about eight tons; and it performs this work with marvellous accuracy. Its reputation
WINDING THE WESTMINSTER CLOCK.
as a time-keeper is unrivalled and well deserved. This year it has surpassed all its previous performances, its accumulated error in 134 days having been less than four seconds, giving a mean variation of less than one second in a month, and this continuous during more than four months. For seventeen consecutive days it went without any perceptible variation whatever. The pendulum, the time measurer, is about 15 feet in length, and has a bob weighing about 700 pounds. It is, of course, compensated for variations of temperature, zinc and iron being the metals employed, and so disposed that the greater expansion of the zinc in any increase of temperature nullifies the lesser expansion of the great
er length of iron, the actual expansions of the two metals being equal, but acting in opposite directions. The escapement of the clock, which gives impulse to the pendulum, and so keeps it in motion, is that known as Denison's double three-legged gravity. The advantage of this form of escapement is that it gives to the pendulum an impulse not subject to any variations such as would be caused by mechanical imperfections in the wheel-work, or from the action of the wind on the long hands, or differences in the friction produced by changes in the condition of the oil, any of which would tell on the going of the clock. The drawing weight of the going part of the clock is comparatively small, being about one
and a half hundred-weight; this, falling about 200 feet, is sufficient to keep the clock going for eight days. It is wound up once every week. The striking parts are much more ponderous. The hammer which at present strikes on the hour bell (Big Ben) weighs about four hundred-weight, but at one time a much heavier hammer was used. The weights of the hour-striking part and of the quarters weigh about three tons. These weights have a fall of about 200 feet to keep the clock striking for four days only. At one time these were wound twice each week, but the work is very laborious, and to ease the men employed the striking parts are generally wound three times each week. The striking is effected with very great precision, the first blow of the hour being struck at Greenwich time. The clock is still under the care of Messrs. E.
will not even be necessary to stop the clock. The dials, as we have said before, are 22 feet 6 inches in diameter—nearly 70 feet in circumference; the strokes or dots indicating the minutes are therefore 13 inches apart, so that the point of each of the minute-hands travels over a distance equal to about one-third of a mile every day. The hour bell is heard all over London; but of course this depends on the condition of the atmosphere, the wind carrying the sound in whichever direction it happens to be blowing. The dials are illuminated, and mechanism was provided in the clock for the purpose of raising and lowering the gas, which was always kept burning, but it was found more economical to turn it offentirely during the day, and therefore it is now lighted each evening by an attendant.
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How To MIARKET MIANUSCRIPT. If you have any descriptive articles, poems, sketches, short stories, or pen-and-ink drawings that you wish ublished, send a 2-cent stamp to the NATIONAL ITERARY & NEWS BUREAU (M), New York, for circular explaining how, and on what terms, they
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IG. 1.-Connemara cloak of light castor-brown cloth with darker brown velvet and lining of changeable surah. The velvet forms a round collar, to which the cloth is gathered in front and back; there are also long panels of velvet extending down each side of the back from the shoulders to the foot and in the middle of the front. The cloak fastens under the front panel. A ribbon belt underneath adjusts the back at the waist line. Openings for the arms are trimmed with wide bands of light fox fur, and a collar is added of the same fur. A back view of the cloak is given
on page 821. Green felt hat faced with velvet, and trimmed with green watered ribbon and ostrich plumes. Suede gloves and patent-leather shoes. Fig. 2–Full-dress toilette of cream-colored silk gauze strewn with gold disks, and made up over jonquil yellow faille. The trimming is cream lace and bunches of blue forget-me-nots. The faille skirt has a pleating at the foot, and forms a short train on which the silk gauze is adjusted with soft drapery at the top and in a sort of panier on the sides; in front the gauze is arranged in a long tablier, which is caught up with yellow ribbon on the left, and opens on the right over four diagonal rows of the lace, on
each of which is a cluster of forget-me-nots. The pointed sleeve. less corsage terminates behind with faille loops, and is made of the gauze over the faille arranged in long pleats in front, opening over a lace plastron. Yellow faille bows on each shoulder and a cordon of forget-me-nots from the left shoulder to the middle of the front. Cream Suede gloves. Brown gauze fan with blue flower painting, and a bow of yellow faille, with flowers in the high coiffure. Fig. 3.-In-door dress of cloth and velvet in the new Cordova leather shades of dull red trimmed with gold galloon and brown feather fur, like bands of down. The velvet skirt, of deeper shade