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THIS new series of arithmetics has been prepared by Dr. Milne to meet the
1 demand which has sprung up in some quarters for a treatment of the subject upon somewhat new lines. This treatment does not, however, depart from the old and tried foundations which have gained for his previous series the widest use throughout the country.
In planning the Progressive Arithmetics, the author has preserved these older features, and infused them with new life by a combination with what is best in modern methods of instruction.
Built upon a definite pedagogical plan, these books teach the processes of arithmetic in such a way as to develop the reasoning faculties, and to train the power of rapid, accurate and skillful manipulation of numbers. The inductive method is applied, leading pupils to discover truths for themselves, but it is supplemented by model solutions and careful explanations of each new step. Each new topic is first carefully developed, and then enforced by sufficient practice to fix it thoroughly in the mind when first presented. The problems, which have been framed with the greatest care, relate to a wide range of subjects drawn from modern life and industries.
Reviews of various forms are a marked feature. Usefulness is the keynote. The numerous illustrations always serve a practical purpose.
FROM KINDERGARTEN TO COLLEGE
Why Do We Educate ?
C. L. CRONEBAUGH, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, MASSILLON, OHIO
N attempting to answer this question human race and which compel progres
I shall assume that the pronoun we sion rather than retrogression, of which refers to the people taken as a whole, the race is probably wholly unconscious, that the term is confined to the people and (b) those by which individuals put of this country, and that reference is had forth a conscious effort to resist the to the present time. Such an inquiry downward tendencies of unfortunate involves a knowledge of the intents and hereditary influences and vicious environpurposes of all the people, including in ment or to make an advance upon present its scope persons of all ranks of society conditions and achievements. With the and of widely varying degrees of intelli- first of these we cannot deal, for if we gence. No attempt has ever been made, could they would fall into the latter class. so far as my knowledge extends, to The second class at once suggests (1) gather the necessary data upon this sub- those forces which are incidental and are ject to give an exact answer to the ques- directed to ends and aims entirely distion. The conclusions must therefore tinct from the purposes of education but necessarily be based purely upon obser- very potent for all that, and (2) those vation within a very limited field and which are formal and find expression in must be wholly empirical in their nature. schools, colleges and seminaries, and all
If the desired data were at hand, a the educational processes carried on in generalized answer might be given, de- them. The end and aim of these instirived in a manner similar to the method tutions and processes is the problem wit'ı employed in finding the resultant of a which we have to deal. number of forces acting upon a body, as is done in physics. To make such a
CULTURE VERSUS PRACTICAL STUDIES statement valuable, it would be neces- Two distinct views are held upon this sary that all the components be known subject, clearly indicated by the subjectfrom which the resultant is derived. matter in which pupils are to be trained, What a complex problem! Yet the prob- one class placing emphasis upon the solem exists, and the answer is being given called culture studies, the other emphain daily life in that which we do, or sizing what are called practical subjects. rather in the results which we obtain in There is an insistence on the part of some the great scheme of public education. educational experts that some subjects
The forces that determine the trend of are pre-eminently culture studies. Culpublic education may all be included un- ture as understood by these persons, and der (a) those that are inherent in the indeed as generally accepted by all per
sons, means a cultivation of the human tions, which I have named, requiring a faculties to develop refinement in con- skilled brain as well as a skilled hand, duct and speech. These culture studies might be multiplied many fold. I have correspond to what was known in earlier already said that the education offered a times as the humanities. They formed century ago was intended for a gentlethe major portion of every formal course man. But our conception of a gentleman of study of those times. They were the has undergone a radical change. Men principal studies of those who did not who were classed as gentlemen in the expect to enter the ministry, the latter Virginia colony three hundred years ago taking up additional studies known as would belong to an entirely different divinity studies. They were, in brief, the class in the opening years of the twenstudies pursued by the sons of gentlemen tieth century. There is therefore every of those times who aspired to some liter- reason for saying that an education that ary and intellectual standing. Whether met the requirements of the people a cenit was supposed at that time that they tury or two ago is not adequate to meet possessed some peculiar virtues by which present requirements. This fact has been they inculcated refinement of manners, recognized by schools and colleges everyor whether it was thought that the where. New departments have been creeducative process alone produced such'ated in colleges, new subjects have been refinement, was probably not clearly de- introduced into the public schools, new fined. But since these studies contrib- schools, such as business colleges, schools uted so largely to every gentleman's of technology and so on, have been oreducation they came to be looked upon ganized. All of this has come in reas being peculiarly adapted to making sponse to a demand; a demand that stua gentleman of a boy. There is no dents shall be able to do some things as doubt that at the present time a great well as that they shall know some things. many people attach superior value to a This is an age of scientific investigation training in classic language and litera- rather than of pedantic disputation; an ture. To the educated man or woman age of action, not of inanition; an age this belief comes as an inheritance. The of achievement, not of dreaming. The people who in former times hoped to demand made of the schools is that they occupy positions of influence socially or shall develop men and women of power intellectually had to be trained in these and not make them receptacles of vast subjects. The positions of influence de- stores of knowledge which they can not manded such training. It was practically apply. The problem, therefore, that conthe only list of subjects except mathe- fronts the public schools at present is to matics in which training was given. The choose such subjects for the curriculum common people were ignorant in most of study as shall have a direct and vital instances of the rudiments of an educa- relation to the social and industrial life tion. The industrial life of the people of the people, and to teach these subjects was of such a character that education in such a way that this relation may be for the workingman was not a necessity. clearly perceived so that the school trainWhat need was there a century ago of a ing may be applied directly to the proknowledge of steam, or electrical, or me- cess of living. This must not be taken in chanical engineering? What call was the narrow sense of providing the matethere for the skilled operator at the loom, rial means of living only, but in the more or the forge, or the throttle? These posi- extensive conception of entering immediately and intimately into the whole still holds that children are under obligafabric of the life processes, affecting the tion to render service and obedience to thoughts, the feelings, and the purposes parents during the period of their minorof the race. I would not be understood ity. The same rule applies with equal as entering a protest against the teaching force to the citizens of a state. If this of what I have called the humanities. fact were more clearly perceived it might Undoubtedly they have a place in the transform many of the conditions that modern scheme of education. They be- now obtain. long there to the extent to which they contribute to this broader conception of
FOR THE SAKE OF TRUTH training for living. I do enter a protest, In the second place we educate for the however, against the claim that they pos- sake of truth. Truth is “conformity to sess superior merit in developing greater fact or reality; exact accordance to that refinement of speech and conduct, or in which has been, or is, or shall be.” The cr'tivating in a higher degree the gentle love of truth is one of the highest attrimæuly virtues and instincts. The high- butes of the human soul. To know the est development along these lines comes truth is to be set free from the bondage from an honest effort in any department of error and falsehood. The whole formal of human activity that contributes to the process of education consists largely in well-being of society. The special sub- finding truth. Consider the various exject of study is of little consequence so ercises that take place in the school room, long as it falls within this category, and the learning of lessons, the recitation, the the demand made by the people is that gradation and classification of pupils, and the student shall so master his subjects you will find that every act and process of study that he may apply them directly is based upon truth. Every text-book is and successfully to this end. The prod- an exposition of truth. Every teacher is uct of education is not to be ladies and required to possess many virtues, and not galemen of leisure who may manifest least among these is the virtue of truthgood breeding in squandering time, but fulness. Everything in the way of sham, men and women who labor for a benefi- or pretense, or hypocrisy in an educacent purpose and who retain the dignity tional policy is met with severe denunciaof ladies and gentlemen in doing so. tion. The love of truth has been one of
the greatest factors in civilization. It WE EDUCATE FOR SERVICE
has made men martyrs or heroes, or both. * affirm, therefore, in the first place, as Men have spent a lifetime in proving the a partial answer to the question forming truth or fallacy of a belief. Truth holds the title of this paper, that we educate for the loftiest place in history, in science, in service. The method of organization, the society, and in religion. The demands of means by which sustained, makes the truth involve every faculty with which scuool stand forth as the instrument we are concerned in the educational prothrough which the state and society at cess. It requires the most careful trainlarge realize that they can best serve ing of the intellect in order that truth their own highest interests. The idea may be distinguished from falsehood. It that loving care and devotion on the part compels conduct to square itself with of parents or state demands loyal service knowledge. It demands integrity in acfrom children or citizens has almost been tion, fairness in speech, and candidness forgotten by us. The law has held and in thought. It touches the entire subject
matter of instruction, every method of bellion and sullenness, or of disorder and presentation, and the whole moral and abandon, all because the teacher has mental nature of the child. It deals not failed in her relation to the children to only with his school life, but extends catch the true spirit of normal child through his entire present life and into growth. Another teacher goes into the the life beyond the grave. It exists room and happiness and quiet orderlithrough past, present, and future; ness take the place of sullenness and disthrough time and eternity. The knowl- order. The change is brought about by edge of the truth brings finite mind into the clearer perception of the conditions harmony with the infinite. A love for that govern child life. Her ideas, her the truth is a prerequisite for teaching manner, her methods conform to the and for learning. A mind imbued with a truth. Authority is no longer based uponi love for truth yields itself readily and the right of the individual to govern but willingly to leadership and guidance. upon the right of the individual to govern Such a condition of mind must precede rightly, to make his acts conform to right the possibility of attaining the highest standards. No man has a right to govern success in the education of any being. me in a wrong manner whether he hold And here I must recur again to a former his position by right of birth or whether statement that the subject matter is not he be chosen by the people. So in the of as much importance as the manner in school room no teacher can ever claim the which that subject is pursued. Tlie right to do an act of teaching or of govthings that are usually considered inci- erning upon purely personal authority. dental in the school room are frequently The appeal must always lie to the prinof more vital importance than the imme- ciples of truth and justice. It took the diate subjects of study themselves. world a long time to perceive this truth, Regularity and punctuality in attendance but it has entered the consciousness of upon school duties, right habits of study the American people, and, though no and conduct, cheerful obedience to cor- formal statement of the fact could be rect regulations and properly constituteu made by the children of this land, they authority, courtesy and refinement il are conscious of it. It was the consciousspeech and conduct toward others, these ness of the violation of a great and fundaare the things that enter most vitally into mental truth that caused our country tɔ the life of the learner and determine his sever the ties that bound it to the mother future character and career. That inde- country. It was the same thing that finable, all-pervading influence which is brought about the Civil War, and again usually called the atmosphere of the the war with Spain. It is the recognition school room is a powerful factor in deter- of this fact also that is producing the remining the attitude of the learner toward markable agitation which is demanding his work. This influence is not depend of officials a cleaner administration of ent so much upon the child's surround- public affairs, a “square deal” on the ings as upon the personality of the part of great corporations, and a proper teacher. The school room may be fitted accounting of the funds belonging to up with the most modern equipment, the widows and orphans entrusted to the walls may be adorned with pictures, re- large life insurance companies. And finement and culture may pervade the when the public conscience is sufficiently home life of the children, but in the aroused it will be this influence that will school they may evidence a spirit of re- eventually purge our fair land of the curse