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and the Angel," and "Evelyn Hope," “One Word More" should be studied have not been difficult for the first year last, for it is the longest and most difficult pupil to understand. In “The Lost of the selections. One child brought to Leader," there is allegory, allusion, none class, in connection with the study of this of the narrative and little of the descrip- poem,' a book which she had made for tive quality. Before trying to interpret some exhibition in the eighth grade, conthe poem, the pupil should understand taining a life of Raphael, and pictures of the situation and the allusions thoroughly. himself and his greatest paintings. Every A teacher who starts with the supposi- pupil recognized the Sistine Madonna, tion that a first year pupil has a very though its name and Raphael's had been slight knowledge of English literature has unfamiliar to most of them. In the same fewer shocks and more pleasant surprises way Guido Reni's Aurora and one of the than she who takes an opposite stand numerous likenesses of Dante help to point. We may suppose the pupil to be show the pupil the connection of the somewhat familiar with Shakespere poem with the outside world. For it is through modern dramatic interpretation, difficult to arouse interest in anything enwith Burns through his lyrics read in the tirely foreign to the child's mind. grades, and with Shelley and Milton not After the student understands that this at all. It is no slight task to show the is the crowning poem of fifty which are pupil the connection of each one of these dedicated to Browning's wife, who was poets with the Radical cause. Some also a poet, and after he knows the meanpupil, supplemented by the teacher, maying of the allusions, he may be asked to add to the recitation an account of the select the lines which embody the meanFrench Revolution as portrayed in “A ing of the entire poem. If he has learned Tale of Two Cities.” If this book was to whom Raphael the painter wrote sonchosen for reading in the first semester nets, and why the poet Dante painted a instead of “ Ivanhoe,” the poem will at picture for Beatrice, he is apt to select the once interest the class.
lines: " The Lost Leader” gives the best op- "God be thanked, the meanest of his creatures portunity yet furnished the first year Boast two soul-sides, one to face the world with, pupil for a wider glimpse into the meth- One to show a woman when he loves her." ous of studying poetry. It is more ab- He should commit them to memory to stract than what he has previously read;
serve as a key to the remainder of the he must discover what every word means, poem. and to what it refers, in order to under- It is not a matter for surprise that the stand the poem thoroughly. He must lines which describe the moonlight slantlearn why the lost leader deserted the ing through the cypress trees should be cause, why Shakespere, Milton, Burns and chosen by the class as the most beautiful Shelley, though not all Wordsworth's in the poem, but when several first year contemporaries, yet served the same students select lines like the following as cause, and finally, why Browning does their favorite passages, and explain the not wish to have the lost leader return. reasons for their choice, a great satisfacIt is easy to tell the pupil the answers to tion after a hard struggle is apt to come these questions, and hard but very satis- to the instructor: factory, to cause him to think them out “But the best is when I glide from out them. for himself.
Cross a step or two of dubious twilight."
A Normal School Problem
WALTER J. KENYON, STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SAN FRANCISCO
F any high school principal will test Without attempting at present to locate
his outgoing senior class on the rudi- the cause of this condition let us consider ments of geography he will be dumb- what there may be in the way of remedy. founded, dismayed and finally amused, at The normal schools of the country are the outcome. He will find intelligent compelled to receive this product and, to a young men and women who say in per- great extent, make it over, so far as the fect seriousness that “the Mississippi elements of formal knowledge are conriver flows into Lake Superior and thence cerned, before it is even the raw stuff out into Hudson Bay;" that “New York of which teachers can be made. City is about four hundred miles inland Apparently the most direct remedy is and its people are engaged in raising to gather up the substance of this formal horses ;” that “Wall Street is a long knowledge, in its bare essentials, and restreet in Texas where the stocks are con- quire of the entering student that he shall gregated, and where bulls and bears be definitely possessed of it. The test abound;” that "sand dunes travel about must take the form of an examination, sixty miles an hour."* I will not prolong but it should differ from the ordinary exthe list. In the Popular Educator of Jan- amination in two respects: Since the uary, 1905, may be found a bouquet of knowledge-fund stipulated is entirely defitypical cases, cireumstantially set forth.. nite in its extent, there is no objection to
“ From California ?" No, not all of acquainting the applicant beforehand them. Some of these notes were made in with the questions he is to answer. On New England, others in Chicago. All of the other hand his attainment in the test them relate to graduates of a twelve must be 100 per cent. years' attendance upon the American We are now putting this plan into exepublic school. Many of these graduates cution with each entering class, and the can conjugate French verbs, but they results assure us that our student teachcannot show you Paris, within six hun- ers approach their practice work tolerably dred miles of its place, on a blank map. sound in those fundamentals of formal
It is apparent, in passing, that students knowledge which constitute an indispenvisualizing the map as vaguely as is here sable basis for elementary teaching. They indicated are in no condition to get the may know more but they must not know best good out of their history, literature less. The entering test in formal geogand descriptive geography courses, nor raphy is here appended. The entering out of the thought exchanges of daily liv- student is given free access to these quesing. The public school graduate who dis- tions for thirty days preceding the test, courses freely on synclines and anticlines, and she is required to attain virtually 100 without being able to show you New per cent. Tests similar in character are York or London on the map, has somewhere given in the formal side of the other jumped a cog in his preparation for life. fundamental subjects. * The statement of a university freshman in entrance In compiling this formal geography test
the question arises as to just what con- 2. Define or explain (a) latitude, (b) stitutes the essentials of the subject. longitude, (c) the mercator map. The reasonable conclusion would seem 3. Explain why the Arctic lands, such to be that there is included all of the map as Greenland and Alaska, vary in proporknowledge (and no more) that passes as tions on different maps. coin current among people of sound in- North America. telligence and average culture. Applying 4. On an outline map of North America this simple test to each item (each map (furnished herewith) print the names, in location), it is not a difficult matter to their appropriate places, of determine, with virtual certainty, the es. The principal seven surrounding bodies sential body of knowledge in this subject. of water. The procedure is indeed principally a sift- The most important group of islands, ing of the material which the older text and also three large islands exclusive of books deemed worth while. Capes, for this group. example: There are only two people in The main four islands, individually, of the world (the sailor and the school the West Indies group. teacher) who can name or locate the ar- The five political divisions shown. ray of capes-Bon, Blanco and the rest- The following cities (in addition to the that fringe the textbook continent. The name place a dot to show the exact locabanker, lawyer, physician, merchant or tion in each case): author knows of only three,* or possibly Washington, Montreal, Mexico, Hafour, if Hatteras be added.
vana, New York, Chicago, New Orleans, Thus the basis is established for com- San Francisco. piling the test. The teacher should know The two more important mountain and should be able to teach those ele- systems. ments of general information which are Six main rivers and two important the common property of the reasonably tributaries. cultured stratum of society. And we The Great Lakes, individually. think that no test in the formal subjects Pike's Peak, Mt. Shasta, Great Salt should either fall short of this limit or go Lake, Hawaiian Islands. beyond it.
5. On an outline map of South America Entrance Tests. Formas deography (furnished herewith) print the names, in
The questions are so phrased as to pro- their appropriate places, of vide a test also in geographical spelling. The four surrounding bodies of water. The World.
The most important isthmus, strait, 1. Sketch two circles, not less than cape, lake and island. four inches in diameter. Fill these in : Three plateaus and the principal mounwith the continental outlines so as to
to represent the two hemispheres. Under
The chief three rivers. each hemisphere print its name.
The selvas, llanos and pampas. Add to the diagrams the following features, and beside each print its name:
The political divisions, as shown. Equator, Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of
The cities of Buenos Ayres, Rio Janeiro, Capricorn, Arctic Circle, Antarctic Circle, Santiago, Panama. North Pole, South Pole.
In each case place a dot beside the Europe.
name, to mark location. * Capes Cod, Horn and Good Hope.
Three marine areas and two political 6. On an outline map of Europe (fur- divisions bounding the U. S. nished herewith) print the names, in their Two plateaus, two great lowlands and appropriate places, of
three great mountain systems. Two oceans, seven seas, three straits, Seven of the most important main one channel, two islands (exclusive of rivers and two tributaries. British Isles).
The five Great Lakes, individually. Eight rivers, seven mountain ranges, Capes Cod and Hatteras, Puget Sound, two peaks.
Chesapeake Bay, Great Salt Lake, NiThe political divisions, as shown, in- agara Falls, Pike's Peak. cluding the separate divisions of the 10. On a second outline of the United British Isles.
States (furnished herewith) print the The capital of each, including those names, in their appropriate places, of of Ireland and Scotland, but omitting The states and territories, as shown. those of the Balkan States. In each case The cities of Boston, New York, Philaplace a dot beside the name, marking lo- delphia, Washington, Charleston, New cation.
Orleans, Galveston, St. Louis, Chicago, Also these cities : Hamburg, Liverpool, Cleveland, Buffalo, Pittsburg, MinneapoNaples, Venice, Moscow.
lis, Kansas City, Omaha, Denver, Salt Asia.
Lake City, San Francisco, Los Angeles, 7. On an outline map of Asia (fur- Portland, Seattle. nished herewith) print the names, in their California. (A suggestion for questions appropriate places, of
on other states.) Three oceans, eight seas, one bay, one 11. On an outline map of California gulf, two straits, one isthmus, five single (furnished herewith) print the names, in islands and two groups.
their appropriate places, of Ten rivers, one mountain range, one The land and water boundaries of the peak, two plateaus, one desert.
state; also one important strait and the The political divisions, as shown. chief three bays.
The following cities: Peking, Tokio, Six rivers, three lakes, two mountain Manila, Calcutta, Bombay, Mecca, Jeru- systems, three peaks. salem.
Yosemite Valley, Mohave Desert, Africa.
Santa Catalina Island, the Farallones. 8. On an outline map of Africa (fur- Cities of San Francisco, Los Angeles, nished herewith) print the names, in their Oakland, Sacramento, San Jose, Fresno, appropriate places, of
Stockton, San Diego, Santa Barbara. Three oceans, two seas, one gulf, one 12. On a second outline of California strait, one isthmus, one cape, one island, (furnished herewith) print the name of one group of islands, one canal.
each county, in its appropriate place. Five rivers, four lakes, one desert, one Australia. range, one peak, one plateau.
13. On an outline map of Australasia The political divisions as shown. (furnished herewith) print the names, in
The cities of Cairo, Alexandria, Cape their appropriate places, of Town, Pretoria.
Three oceans, nine single islands and United States.
groups, Barrier Reef. 9. On an outline map of the United One river, one tributary. States (furnished herewith) print the The cities of Melbourne, Sydney, Adenames, in their appropriate places, of laide, Wellington.
Science in the Grammar School
EDWARD B. HORTON, BINGHAMTON, N. Y.
W E live in a scientific civilization. The deductive reasonings, to arrive at certain
V productive power of the laborer has conclusions, and so decide upon lines of been marvelously increased during the past action. These reasonings are similar in four decades through the invention and their nature to those constantly employed use of labor-saving machines. These in science, whether applied in botany to changed conditions create a demand for a the analysis of a flower, in geology to the scientifically educated class of laborers. classification of a rock, in chemistry to While it cannot be maintained that it is, the determining of an element, or in physthe province of the schools to provide ics to the discovery of some natural law. courses of instruction and training that In one case, as in the other, whatever we shall equip the learner for a given trade assume as true is assumed at our own or line of work, it may safely be argued risk; and the conclusion reached is right that the instruction given in the schools or wrong, according to the scope and corshould be in harmony with prevalent out- rectness of our observation and the accuside conditions and demands. Upon this racy of our reasoning. subject, Dr. Harris, U. S. Commissioner While we can not give training in the of Education, says: “In view of the in- public schools for a special trade or profluence of science on our civilization, it fession, many of the truths taught by would seem important to introduce the means of lessons in elementary science repupils of our elementary schools to the main with the pupil through life and have results and methods of science as early a direct and controlling influence on his as possible.” It therefore follows natu- opinions and management. The boy who rally that the pupil is entitled to such a has learned in school of the oxidizing of training as will inculcate a habit of scien- iron and the wear of the elements on tific observation. His range will not be paint and wood, if a roadmaster in after that of an adult, and his deductions may years, will not be apt to waste a four hunat times be erroneous; but if his habits of dred dollar road machine by storing it in thought and investigation are in accord the open air by the side of the road from with the demands that will be made upon one spring to the next, throwing away the him by life in later years, his way is made money of those who paid taxes for its easier to join the workers whose services purchase; while the girl who learned at are in demand.
school some very simple facts concerning Science study differs from other educa- the effects of heat and light in promoting tional discipline, and bears a close paral- chemical action, will see to it, after she lelism to the problems of common life. becomes a housekeeper, that her canned In these latter, the conditions are these: fruit is kept where there is the least posCertain matters of fact are presented for sible chance for fermentation. In a simour consideration. These we must accu- ilar way, knowledge of the principles of rately observe and comprehend. Having heating, lighting and ventilation ; of sanidone this, we proceed, by inductive and tary conditions, such as dampness, drain