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age and water supply; of various arts and pupil. Even though the subjects that are devices dependent upon fundamental under consideration

under consideration seem simple and principles of natural science, such as use trite, the youthful ardor must not be of mucilage, glue, solder, the splicing of dampened by lack of interest and symwire, the bending of tubes, the arrange- pathy on the part of the teacher. ment of pulleys and levers, the effect of Well-chosen experiments performed by lubricants, use of materials to protect a judicious teacher with simple apparatus against heat and cold; these, and a hun- are a valuable means of making school life dred other impressions will remain with attractive, and anything that tends tothe pupil through life, and will have at wards this end is a means of inducing times a deciding power in the manage- pupils to persevere in their school career. ment of important operations.

There comes a time in the life of nearly It is well known that a large percent every child when, by insistence, he may age of our boys and girls leave school and choose for himself between a discontinuassume the duties of citizenship without ance and one or two years more of school. having had the advantage of any part of If he can be induced to elect the latter, a high school course. If such pupils have his value to the state as a citizen is mabeen merely introduced to habits of scien- terially increased. tific investigation and reasoning, it is fair Other reasons present themselves; a to assume that their minds have been brief mention must suffice: Scientific inrendered somewhat alert in regard to struction broadens the horizon of the such subjects; and because of this, they learner. He can see and understand more will be open to the acquirement in after on every hand that comes to him in outyears of much that is useful and helpful. side life. Allusions in books, magazines, All of this would be passed without at- sermons, lectures and conversation, betention were it not for the elementary sci- fore without meaning, now become intelence study in youth. A very excellent ligible. The life in the high school, if he engineer on one of the railroads passing becomes a pupil there, is more congenial, through Binghamton told the writer re- because he sees familiar landmarks as he cently that a brief science lesson on the progresses in his course. Material for steam engine given in a small district composition work is at hand, and that school sixteen years ago was the means dreaded task becomes an easy one.

Give of awakening in his mind as a pupil an a child something to describe and the art interest in machinery, leading eventually of composition may be made as easy and to his present employment.

as natural as the art of conversation. To the teachers in charge of these boys I am aware that there is a tendency on and girls in school, many of the lessons the part of one who is urging a special in science may convey truths which seem subject or line of action to place undue exceedingly simple and commonplace; emphasis on its claims. A strong effort but it must be borne in mind that the has been made in this discussion to avoid observation and experience of a child are extreme conclusions, yet it is hoped that far more limited than those of an adult. the arguments presented, even if there Truly, all the world seems to him “a were no stronger ones, may be considered complex Chinese toy.” In nature study, a sufficient reason for saying that scienand in science likewise, it should be a tific culture should be taught in all gramteacher's delight as well as duty to share mar schools. Having reached this conthe enjoyment and enthusiasm of the clusion, it is probable that we shall meet with some objections when we try to put In reply to the objections under the our resolution into effect. These objec- 'second and third heads, it may be said tions will be urged chiefly under the fol- that the material used need not be expen lowing heads:

sive, and the equipment need not be a Lack of time.

elaborate or costly. There are now a b Lack of equipment.

number of excellent manuals published, c Lack of qualification or inclination of outlining good elementary courses in difthe teacher.

ferent branches of science and making use These objections must be met in differ- of material obtainable for the most part ent ways according to the peculiar cir- 'at nominal cost. Of the several branches cumstances involved in each case. In available for science teaching, it is beanswering the first, it is suggested that lieved that physics is more fundamental the teacher use, as often as may be con- and elementary than any of the others, sidered expedient, a recitation period of except, perhaps, chemistry. Its lessons, the subject most closely related to the too, present a greater variety of topics rephase of natural science that is being lated to matters of every-day interest. taught. There ought not to be the slight Apparatus devised, prepared, or invented est difficulty in correlating science with by the teacher has a peculiar value of its any subject in the school curriculum. It own from that very fact. It appeals to can be urged further that, inasmuch as the pupils because it bears impress of science stands capable of taking the child the individuality of the teacher. The as he may be situated, and willing to help thoroughness and enthusiasm that will him use his time to the very best advan- characterize that teacher's use of it will tage possible, the very training and disci- attain results usually superior to those pline thus obtained will result in a gain from regularly manufactured articles. of acumen more than compensating for The teacher will understand perfectly all the time thus consumed. In other words, the principles of construction and operathe progress of a class in a given subject tion, and will thus be abundantly compemay be actually accelerated and increased

tent to present the lessons in a forceful in thoroughness, even though a part of and attractive form. the time allotted to the regular subject is

The attention of the pupils should be diverted for the purpose of science in- stimulated by knowing that their memstruction. That the above claim is a

ory, observations and conclusions will reasonable one will be admitted when we

afterwards be tested, the character of the bear in mind the following definitions: 1. “Science unites facts into a system in

test to be determined by the teacher after such a manner that each fact throws light considering the attendant circumstances. on the other facts, and thus all facts help It is, therefore, recommended that the to explain each.” 2. “ Science is the sys- teacher keep a notebook memorandum of tematized result of observation." 3. the subjects taught, with a brief account “Science is organized common sense.” of each lesson.

Autumn is here again,
Banners on hill and plain

Blazing and flying.
Hail to the amber morn,

Hail to the heaped-up corn,
Hail to the hunter's horn,
Swelling and dying.

James Russell Lowell.

Studies of English Masterpieces


The Merchant of Venice

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A PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS AND TOPIC 1. Give a brief sketch of Shakspere's life,

dividing it into three parts: (a) The early years in Stratford, (b) the life. in

London, (c) the period of retirement. 2. Name and distinguish the three groups into

which the plays of Shakspere are usually divided, and mention three dramas be

longing to each group. 3. Mention three works of Shakspere other

than those dramatic in form. 4. What explanation is given for the fact that Shakspere sometimes

verse and sometimes prose in different parts of the

same drama? 5. Describe the verse used in Shakspere's

dramas and scan some passage of ten

lines from the Merchant of Venice. 6. Give a brief description of Venice and show

why lines 14 and 15 of the first scene

are called an anachronism." 7. What was the ducat of mediaeval times and

what would be the approximate value of three thousand of them?

Scene 2 15. What comparison in tone may be drawn

between the opening of this scene and

the preceding? 16. What does the scene inform us as to the

method of which Portia must be chosen? 17. Illustrate Portia's attitude towards her

various suitors, drawing material from

her replies to Nerissa. 18. What does the close of the scene inform us

with reference to Portia's feelings about

Bassanio? 19. Explain the allusions to the weeping philoso

pher (51), Sibylla and Diana (116, 117).


Scene 3



20. Explain the play on the word good (12), 21. Reconcile Shylock's hatred of Antonio and

his willingness to take the bond. 22. What are the terms of the bond? 23. Explain the Biblical allusions in the passage

referring to the Nazarite. 24. What peculiarity is to be noticed in the

ending of the last few lines which close

each scene in this act ? 25. What three groups of characters appear in

this act, and how have two of them been brought into contact through the interest of one of the two groups in the third.

Act II. Scene I



Act I, Scene I 8. What is the meaning of the word sad as

used in line 1, and what from its use may we judge to have been the subject of the conversation which preceded the open

ing of the play? 9. What three causes do Antonio's friends sug

gest for his state of mind, and how does

he refute each? 10. Contrast the characters of Antonio and

Gratiano so far as they can be judged

from the conversation of the first scene. 11. Give the substance of the interview between

Antonio and Bassanio emphasizing three

points made by the latter. 12. Explain the classical allusions in Janus

(line 30), Nestor (56), Cato's daughter, Brutus' Portia (166), Colchos' strand

(171), Jasons (172). 13. Scan lines 8, 22, 54, 139, 143, 178.

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31. Give the conversation between Gobbo and

his son, bringing out its humorous character and describing the necessary stage

play. 32. Relate the progress of Launcelot's suit to

Bassanio. 33. How does Launcelot obtain his suit from Bassanio?

Scenes 3–6 34. Give all the events in the elopement of

Jessica. 35. Comment on Shylock and Jessica as father

and daughter. 36. What was the nature of such a masque as

the friends were preparing ? 37. What is the historical allusion in Black

Monday? 38. Scan line 24 scene 6.

Act III. Scene i 49. What is the Rialto and what were the Good

wins? 50. Show how Shylock is badgered both by

Christian and Jew. 51. How does Shylock defend his hatred of Antonio?

Scene 2 52. Show how lines 10, 41-43, and the song,

give some support to the claim that Portia

really helped Bassanio in his choice. 53. Discuss the statement in question 40 with

reference to Bassanio. 54. Answer question 41 with reference to the

scroll in the leaden casket. 55. Give the substance of Portia's speech upon

his successful choice from the caskets. 56. What oath is registered by Bassanio upon

receiving Portia's first gift? 57. Explain the allusions in lines 55-60, 85, 102. 58. What now appears to be an explanation of

Gratiano's wish to accompany Bassanio

to Belmont? 59. How does it happen that Salanio, Lorenzo

and his wife appear together? 60. Show why we may say that in this scene

the three separate groups with which the play opened are all brought together by

representatives. 61. What effect has the letter brought by

Salanio? 62. What plan for Antonio's relief is urged upon

Bassanio by Portia ?

Scene 7 39. What are the inscriptions on the three cas

kets? 40. Three things condition the choice made by

each of the three suitors, the material of the several caskets, the inscriptions on each and the personal character of the man making the choice. Show how this fact is brought out in the case of Morocco and which of the three elements chiefly

guides him to his decision. 41. How is the writing on the scroll consistent

with the inscription on the casket contain

ing it? 42. Scan the lines containing the several in

scriptions, line 51, and the verses upon the scroll. Point out all deviations from the normal line of the Shaksperean drama.

Scene 3 63. Show the conduct of Antonio and Shylock

when the former is at the latter's mercy.

Scene 8 43. Comment on Shylock's grief over his double

loss and on its probable effect upon An

tonio's relations with the Jew. 44. What double sorrow has fallen upon An

tonio? 45. Comment upon the relations of Antonio and

Bassanio as an ideal friendship.

Scenes 4 and 5 64. Give in detail Portia's second plan for giving

aid to Antonio. 65. Present the whimsical course of reasoning

by which Launcelot endeavors to show Jessica that she must cherish no hope of

salvation. 66. Give Jessica's comment on Portia.


Scene 9 46. On what terms do we now learn that the

suitors are allowed to make choice of the

caskets? 47. Discuss the statement in qu ion 40 with

reference to Aragon. 48. Answer question 41 with reference to the

scroll in the silver casket.

Act IV. Scenes I and 2 67. What double show of kindness does the

Duke expect from the Jew? 68. Upon what does Shylock first rest his refusal

to show mercy ? 69. How does Bassanio hope to help his friend,

and what answer does he get from Shylock?

86. Give the details of the double quarrel about

the rings and show how the matter is set

tled. 87. How is the ring episode an artistic method

of making Bassanio and his friends see that Portia and Nerissa were at the

court? 88. What good news has Portia for Antonio and

Lorenzo ?

70. What is Shylock's reply to the Duke's second

plea for mercy ? 71. In what way does Shylock justify himself

in response to the railings of Gratiano? 72. Who was Pythagoras and what is his opin

ion referred to in fines 131-133 ? 73. Narrate the circumstances of Portia and

Nerissa's admittance to the court. 74. What is Portia's first recommendation to

Shylock, and what is his reply? Commit

to memory the famous speech on mercy. 75. What is Portia's second recommendation to

Shylock and what is his reply? 76. How does Portia seem to side with Shylock

in her earlier talks with him? 77. What last show of kindness does he ask

from Shylock and how is her recom

mendation met? 78. What humorous episode is now introduced

between Bassanio, Portia, Gratiano and

Nerissa? 79. How is the Jew's insistence upon the exact

fulfilment of the bond turned against

him? 80. How is the Jew's earlier scorn of Bassanio's

offer of payment now used against him? 81. How is the Jew's earlier stand upon

the laws of Venice made an instrument of

punishment? 82. Under what conditions is Shylock allowed to

leave the court? Explain minutely the

terms on which mercy is shown. 83. Show how Portia and Nerissa get possession

of their earlier gifts to their husbands.

C. GENERAL QUESTIONS 89. What two main stories are interwoven to

form the plot of the play? Give the chief

incidents and the points of contact. 90. What two minor love stories occur and how

do they help the plot? 91. What minor story serves as a sort of farcical

element in the play and how does it help

the final solution of the plot? 92. Discuss the question of whether or not

Shylock was justly treated. 93. Defend Shylock for his hatred of Antonio. 94. Criticise Jessica for her treatment of her

father. 95. Why is the Merchant of Venice called a

comedy? What tragic elements does it

contain? 96. What is meant by the often repeated remark

that Antonio was saved through a quibble? 97. By what means are our sympathies turned

towards and against Shylock? 98. If Shakspere intended us to feel that Shy

lock was treated unjustly, how does the absence of reference to the Jew in Act V show us that those who have ill-treated him have suffered in character develop

ment? 99. Show how the turning point of this play

is found in its mechanical middle. 100. Show how the two equal parts on either side

of this dramatic center have their own movements of rise and fall,

Act V 84. Explain the several classical allusions which

occur in lines 1-14, 66, 80, 87, 109. 85. Describe the return of Portia and Nerissa

and the welcome which they extend to Bassanio and his friends.


Greenwinged pods upon the poppies wave,

The hollyhocks are gothic with slim spires, The balsam's rose and snow have passed away To little sacks of gold on silver wires.

Birds of Nature.

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