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time he is full of the zest of life, fond of give a complete and historically accurate all sorts of out-door sports and pleasures, picture of life, customs and character. In and a favorite everywhere. In particu- reply to a question as to the place of the lar, he is said to be an excellent comrade historical novel in a nation's literature, for any sort of excursion. In him are Mr. Churchill said: mingled the strains of Cavalier and Puri- “It is the business of historical fiction, tan, who were the founders of this coun- as I conceive it, to give an absolutely try and the creators of its institutions. faithful picture, complete on all its sides, The tide of Puritan emigration that of the thoughts, ideas, manners and cusflowed westward from New England toms, dress, occupations and pleasures of through Ohio after the Revolution, and a given people in a given age. In one the tide of Cavalier emigration that way it is a needful supplement to history, flowed westward from Virginia through partly because you can tell so much more Pennsylvania and Kentucky after the and partly because you can introduce a Revolution, focused in St. Louis, where great many things which would be utterly Mr. Churchill grew to manhood; and here out of place in a history. It is the details was the origin, and near here was some of that count, you know; the little things the fiercest fighting of the Civil War, the too unimportant to be included in a hisfinal conflict between the types of civili- tory are the things that make the historization represented by those two races. cal novel like life and give a true impresA thoroughly patriotic American, his in- sion. Beyond that, the historical novel vestigations into its history have extended serves the purpose of interesting people far beyond and outside of books, and in history and tempting them to read into have been devoted especially to bringing it further for themselves. out the individualities of the men and “ But it is not sufficient nowadays that women who have influenced its course. a novel should merely give a truthful pic

One of the results, for example, of the ture of life, no matter how complete it publication of “Richard Carvel ” was an may be; you cannot simply tell a story immediate revival of interest in John Paul with a historical background, no matter Jones. Mr. Churchill went to the sources how accurate the setting; the history, as in endeavoring to learn Paul Jones's char- well as the life and the manners and cusacter, and presented the famous old sea toms, must be a vital and essential part of captain for the first time as an actual man. the novel, and it must all be woven inexEverything about Paul Jones soon came tricably together. And no matter how to be of popular interest, with the result well and how faithfully a man may do that several biographies of him have since this, no matter how profound and inexbeen published, that his burial place in haustible may be his knowledge, he is France was sought and found, and that falling below the standard of the present his ashes were exhumed and brought to day if his book be in any place dull. the land whose Navy he first led to Every line of it must be alive with victory.

interest." What Mr. Churchill undertook to do in Two or three years later “ The Crisis" writing "Richard Carvel,” and his atti- appeared. This time Mr. Churchill chose tude toward his work, he set forth in an for his background the stirring days of interview published shortly after the book the Civil War, through some of the most appeared. In it he said that the histor- thrilling events of which his hero passes; ical novel, as he regards it, undertakes to and incidentally he painted supremely good pictures of Lincoln and Grant, whose mind, actively interested in actual showing how they grew out of the condi- things, leads him to desire to know what tions that produced the crisis, and how history in the making means to the men they dominated it and brought it to such connected with it. His new novel,“ Conan issue that the country became better iston," is the direct outgrowth of his parand greater and stronger for the cata- ticipation in politics. clysm that had threatened to disrupt it. In “ Coniston" the fascination of Mr.

Mr. Churchill's next book, in the series Churchill's style and of his manner of tellof historical romances which he began ing a story appears to far better advanwith “Richard Carvel,” is entitled “The tage than ever before. It is more attracCrossing," and was published in the tive, engaging and enjoyable than any of spring of 1904. Its title refers to the his previous books. crossing of the Alleghanies by the tide of There are a good many characters in American immigration after the Revolu- the story, and the drawing of these is tionary War. A portion of the volume is admirable. This is true even of the charthe thrilling account of the journey of acters which appear only two or three some pioneers across those mountains, of times; in these cases their personalities their siege by the Indians, and of the ex- and their whole attitude toward life are pedition of George Rogers Clark and suggested in a few words so vividly that his little band of followers to capture you feel that you know them. The poVincennes. The Mississippi from St. litical contest, which appears at intervals, Louis to New Orleans and the States on in one form or another, throughout the the eastern shore form the background of whole course of the story, is handled in most of this novel, which perhaps con- all its phases with the most masterly skill. tains more of the adventure element than The description of the Woodchuck Sesany other of Mr. Churchill's works. sion and of how Jethro Bass carried

Meanwhile, Mr. Churchill had become through the Truro Franchise Bill is one actively interested in politics. In the of the most exciting and skillfully written year 1903 he became a Member of the passages of the kind in literature. But, New Hampshire Legislature, in which he superb as are these occasional glimpses has served two terms; and quite recently of a political contest for control of a he announced his candidacy for the nomi- State, they never long distract attention nation for Governor of his State. This from the most bewitching, piquant, vivaattention to politics is eminently charac- cious and ingenuous of all Mr. Churchill's teristic of Mr. Churchill, the bent of heroines—Cynthia Wetherell.

What's in the August Magazines Wealth and Democracy in American Colleges, H. Bailey-Century; Children and Their Educa. by President Arthur T. Hadley Harper's; Trend tors, by Agnes Reppelier-Appleton's; Art of in American Education, by Andrew S. Draper Vine Growing-Craftsman; About Evergreens, -Appleton's; Spiric of American Literature by by Arthur P. Anderson Suburban Life; Walt Winifred Webb-Arena; A dissolving view of Whitman, by Louise Collier Willcox-Nirth Punctuation, by Wendell P. Garrison-Atlantic; American Review; Life and Times of Andrew Boy, -Let Him Redeem Himself, by Ben B. Lind- Jackson-Watson's; The Nature Club of Amerisey-Home; Child Winning by Sympathy. by ca, by Anna B. Comstock-Country Life; Work Sarah E. Heyne-Home; Training of Young Child

at the Philadelphia Public Industrial Art School ren, by Marianna Wheeler-Harper's Bazaar;

Technical World; Romance in the Victorian Age, Elmer E. Brown, U.S. Commissioner of Education -Review of Reviews, Women improving School

by Raymond M. Alden--Reader; Modern Hostility Houses, by E. C. Brooks-World's Work ; Social

to Certain Words, by T. R. Lounsbury-Har. Service of a City School-Craftsman; 'The De

per's; The Long Labrador Trail, by Dillon Wallace mand for College Men, by H. G Hapgood— World -Outing; Som Rare Elements and their Applicato-day; Why Some Boys Take to farming, by L. tion, by R. K. Duncan-Harper's.

American Education

MEDICAL inspection of school children by physicians shows a decided improve

ment in conditions, especially in the genPublished every month except July and August

eral appearance and health of the chilBy NEW YORK EDUCATION COMPANY dren. It has been found that many teach50 STATE STREET, ALBANY, NEW YORK

ers have marked down backward pupils 15 cents a copy

$1.00 a year

as dull whose only trouble was defective

hearing or eyesight. Three Years for Two Dollars


THERE is no phase of education more HORATIO M. POLLOCK, Associate Editor

important than the question of county The date on the label of your paper indicates the month supervision; first because of the inexperito which your subscription is paid, and includes that month.

ence of rural teachers, and second, beSubscriptions should be renewed promptly, as we cannot carry arrearages indefinitely. Those who keep their sub- cause rural communities deserve as much scriptions paid in advance are entitled to a special discount

attention in proportion as is given to vilof 25% from the published rate. Arrearages are billed at the rate of 15 cents a month.

lages and cities. No one has yet worked Subscriptions are discontinued at expiration if a definite

out a satisfactory system, but a change is order has been received to that effect. Without instructions to the contrary they are continued, as we find this to be the bound to come soon. wish of the majority of our subscribers.

Notify us at once of any change in address, giving old as well as new address; otherwise your name cannot be found. As SCHOOL opens, we urge upon every Remember that second-class mail matter is not forwarded by principal and superintendent the duty of postmasters.

Agents are wanted in all parts of the country to represent giving subordinate teachers the fullest AMERICAN EDUCATION, especially at Institutes and Association Meetings. Sample copies and other material furnished

possible measure of authority. Lack of free.

authority is the principal cause of failure Articles by teachers of experience are wanted for publica. tion. They should not contain more than 1, 500 words.

in discipline, and consequent worry and trouble on the part of the teacher. Au

thority commands respect and gives digEditorials

nity to the office of teacher. Authority

also gives a teacher the confidence in her The New York State Council of School

own power necessary for the best control Superintendents are planning an interest

of the pupils. ing program for the annual meeting which will be held at Rochester, Octo

Those in charge of the Carnegie Founber 17-19.

dation for the Advancement of Teaching

have paid a delicate compliment to Dr. LIGHT and ventilation of schoolhouses

William T. Harris by making him the should not be sacrificed to extravagance

first recipient of the benefits of the rein ornate architecture. Utility and econ

tirement fund. Dr. Harris is to receive omy, not art and show, should be the

the largest sum that can be awarded, motto of boards of education.

$3,000 yearly for the remainder of his

life. This is a well deserved compliment, BEAUTY has nothing whatever to do for Dr. Harris has rendered the cause of with the success of a teacher. Often the

Often the education in this country a distinct and homeliest of them are the most attractive. valuable service. Strong character, culture and refinement, a sympathetic nature with sound educa- A COURSE of lectures should be maintion are the elements that count.

tained during the winter in every rural,


village and city school in the country. tion held recently at Altoona. The newsThere is always local talent which can papers quoted him as saying that the be secured, and, in New York State, the New York school, system was honeyState Department of Education can fur- combed with graft and that school posinish illustrated lectures on a great vari- tions are bought and sold; that teachers ety of subjects. School principals should simply crammed pupils for the State exnot neglect an opportunity of this kind aminations and that the system of high because it will prove a strong factor in school inspection had a tendency to creincreasing the educational interest of ate many sham schools, high schools in both parents and pupils.

name only, in the country districts, be

cause the size of the district appropriation A Miss Bird, for nineteen years an in- depended largely on the high schools. structor in the astronomical department

We know that Mr. Steele does not beof Smith College, is reported to have re

lieve any such rot. He is not that sort signed because the trustees accepted gifts of man.

. from John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie. Evidently she does not agree

ONE of the chief criticisms made against with Chancellor Day of Syracuse, who be

the public schools is that they do not lieves that a college president can take teach the pupils to study. Much can be the taint away from any millionaire's accomplished with pupils during the money which may be fortunate enough to study period by a capable teacher who fall into the college coffers. As Miss Bird takes the time to discover their individis a star gazer, her ideas would naturally

ual needs. Methods of teaching bear an be flighty.

important relation to the pupil's habit of

study, and therefore careful preparation THE Board of Education of Auburn,

on the part of the teacher is necessary in N. Y., has voted to increase the salary of order that the study period may be of the the teachers in its public schools. Over greatest value to the pupil. Principals $3,000 of the amount will go to the teach

should devote attention to this work and ers of the lower grades. The value of the

should test the classes occasionally in primary teacher's work is becoming more

their power and method of study as well fully recognized than ever before. It as upon their ability to acquire knowlwas only a few years ago that the idea edge. prevailed that almost any high school girl could teach in the first three grades,

The Home and the School but now the people have awakened to the The home and the school, the two prinfact that the teachers of young children cipal factors in the education of children, must have special training and be espe- must work in harmony if the best result cially adapted for the work. After all it is to be obtained. Parents must become is the teacher who makes the salary. educators. They must learn the nature * * *

and purpose of the work of the school PRINCIPAL W. S. STEELE of Harrisburg, and make the home teaching such as will Pa., formerly of New York State, denies support and increase the interest aroused emphatically the statements attributed to by the teacher. They must help the him in a report of an address which he teacher in his efforts to understand the delivered at the annual meeting of the child and show him that he has their Pennsylvania State Educational Associa- sincere confidence and esteem. The teacher must become acquainted with Moreover it is interesting to note that the parents and familiar with the home the continuance of some of this old secconditions of his pupils. He must feel tional animosity is attributed to the diffree to talk with the parents concerning ference in the methods of teaching the the health and work of their children, and history of the war period to children of to give and receive suggestions.

the North and the South. The school Too often the home and the school are

histories used in the North would be antagonistic. Parents send their children thrown into the stove without much cereto school merely to comply with the law mony if the publishers ever attempted to and the schoolmaster teaches them merely introduce them into Southern schools, to secure his salary. In such cases the while the histories used below the Mason children go to school because they are and Dixon line are regarded by the Northsent and study because they are com

erner as rabid and distorted views of the pelled. They have no genuine interest in whole Civil War period. their school work, and consequently re

Of course both sections of the country ceive little benefit therefrom. Com- have a right to their opinions, and the munities where these conditions exist South is to be commended for having have the forms of education without its enough of pride and devotion for her insubstance. They may even have fine stitutions to attempt to justify her action. school buildings with complete equip- However, we believe that the North has ment, and the pupils may secure high been largely to blame for the hostile attistandings in school examinations, but if tude manifested in the historical accourts an abiding interest in education is lack of the struggle and the causes leading up ing the work is largely wasted.

to it. All the prominent histories have An agency that is doing much to bring been written from the Northern point of the home and school together and to in- view, however unbiased the writers may crease the interest of the community in have been, and that Southerner would be education is the Parent-Teachers Circle. deserving of little respect who could read This organization aims to make teacher these accounts without a flush of pain. and parents acquainted with each other. The slavery question had two points of to create a real sympathy and friendship view. And while the re-establishment of between them. It also promotes child the Union with slavery abolished, the restudy on the part of both teacher and lations of the negro race to the constituparent.

tion, and a radical change in the laws and Teachers everywhere will do well to society, settled the question of the right encourage the formation of these Circles of secession, yet they could not convince and to cooperate in every possible way a large body of Southerners that they with the enterprising women that are were wrong and the North was right. organizing and maintaining them.

It is natural, under the circumstances,

that the Southern blood has not cooleri War History Prejudicial

very much, and it seems the height of ALTHOUGH time has wrought many folly that either the national or state govchanges since the days of '61 and sec- ernments should

now permit in the tional feeling between the Northern and schools of the country the use of textSouthern States has become greatly books which tend to perpetuate the illameliorated, yet the old sores caused by feeling. It would be better to cut out the conflict not entirely healed. the war period altogether from the school


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