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books if that action would serve to break winds of the winter season and the drivdown entirely the barriers that preventing rains will transform this enjoyment to the North and the South from becoming misery. Temporary structures must be reunited in love and allegiance.

utilized, but the great need is expedition John W. Frazier, commander of a in the erection of permanent schoolPhiladelphia Grand Army Post, has pro

houses. posed that Congress appoint a commis- It is estimated that $6,000,000 will be sion to prepare a history of the war and required to replace the ruined school its causes which shall be satisfactory to buildings, and many generous subscripboth sections and which can be used for tions for the purpose have been received school purposes.

He suggests that the from various parts of the country. In commission might comprise the President order that this movement may be stimuof the United States, the Chief Justice of lated and become better known, the the Supreme Court, and the commanders Mayor, the Board of Education and the in chief of the Grand Army and the Con- Superintendent of Schools have been confederate Veterans. Much of real inter- stituted a committee, with power to reest would necessarily be omitted from ceive such subscriptions as such a history, but what difference would tendered. it make if the children of the primary and From this committee AMERICAN EDUsecondary grades were given no more CATION has received the following letter: than the dry bones of the war period for at San Francisco, Cal., June 15, 1906. least two generations. Those students

AMERICAN EDUCATION, Albany, N. Y. who may wish to go into the heart of the matter can do so at an age when prejudice

My dear sir.—I am enclosing herewith has given place to reason.

a circular entitled “San Francisco's

School Situation," which is in effect an For San Francisco's Schools

epitome of the present condition confront

ing our school department. THIRTY-FOUR schools were burned after

A general movement has now gained the earthquake of April 18, 1906. As a

considerable headway in our country for consequence more than 400 teachers and

the rebuilding of our burnt and damaged 20,000 children have no class rooms.

schools through the aid of friends of eduThe great destruction of property, the extraordinary demands upon the public

cation everywhere. Any assistance which

you are able to give in extending this by purse in every direction, leave the school authorities confronted with the prospect before you, will be greatly appreciated.

the publication of the facts here placed of interminable delay in the erection of

Very truly yours, new buildings unless outside aid is


Superintendent of Schools. During the summer schools have been conducted in tents furnished by the We believe that this call for help will United States military authorities in be answered generously by the people of Golden Gate Park. Soldiers have served America, and especially by the teachers as truant officers; a drill sergeant puts the and pupils of the public schools. The boys through setting-up exercises. Stow Superintendent of Schools of San Franlake has furnished opportunity for swim- cisco will furnish on application plans for ming, so that the children have been en- raising funds in schools, cities, counties joying the summer session; but the cold or States.

A Crusade Against Child Slavery

York basement making paper bags at A COMMENDABLE crusade to save the

four cents a thousand bags. These are children from the evils of child labor has only three instances out of several thoubeen begun by the Woman's Home Com

sand cases that have been investigated. panion. The articles already published Is it any wonder that a race of anarchists portray vividly industrial conditions

and socialists is being reared in America ? which present a national problem that cannot be overlooked by an intelligent

ANTI CHILD LABOR CREED citizenship. Every child in America is

I. entitled to an education, but corporate We Believe in the right of every child to

health and education. greed has snatched 2,000,000 of them from their rightful heritage. Here is a theme

II for the social and economic investigators

WE BELIEVE that child labor interferes with

that right. which will out-parallel the disclosures of rotten insurance methods, and standard

III. oil and beef trust scandals.

WE BELIEVE that child labor is in itself cruel

and wasteful; that it is mentally, morally and In Pennsylvania there are not less than physically injurious to the child; and that it is

à distinct menace to the nation. 24,000 children under sixteen working in breakers or in the mines; the cotton mills

IV. of the South employ more than 60,000

WE BELIEVE that no child under fourteen should

work in a factory, workshop, mercantile house, little boys and girls, all under the age

store, office, hotel or apartment house, in any limit recognized by humanity and the place of public amusement, or should be em

ploved in making, preparing or distributing law; children in our great cities, hidden

articles of sale or commerce at home or in any away in dark tenements and cellars, out piace in the nature of a factory, workshop or

mercantile establishment. of sight and beyond the protection of the law, work long, weary hours at unhealthy


We Believe that no child between fourteen and occupations that sap their vitality and

sixteen should be permitted to work under the send them to a premature death or create conditions specified unless the child can read in their minds distorted ideas which make fluently and write legibly simple sentences in

the English language. them dangerous citizens.

VI. Can anyone read the story of little

WE BELIEVE that no child under sixteen should Esther Silverstein, eleven years old, who be employed between the hours of seven p. m. was found in a foul-smelling Pittsburg and seven a. m. or longer than eight hours in

any twenty-four hours, or longer than fortytenement, helping her mother make cheap eight hours a week. “stogies,” without feeling a deep sense

VII. of injustice at the indifference of govern

WE BELIEVE that no child under sixteen should ment and society to such matters. Then be employed in occupations dangerous to life, there little Rosa Gozzola, who

limb, health or morals. worked all day making artificial flowers,

VIII. the kind used by fashionable milliners.

WE BELIFVE in the establishment of a permanent

Children's Bureau to be conducted by the NaShe had never seen any real flowers until tional Government, for the purpose of investia fresh air mission sent her to the country.

gating and reporting upon general conditions

directly involving the welfare of children, When she saw the beautiful living speci- especially all matters connected with child labor. mens of God's handiwork she asked: “Do yer think as Gawd's riled wif us fer WE BELIEVE that uniform laws against child making them there roses so bad?" Little labor should be enacted without delay in every

state, territory and colonial possession of the Ephraim Goldberg was found in a New United States.



The Educational Field

Miss Olive M. Jones is the principal and she is A written examination for license as teacher

a preceptress of large experience. Miss Julia of physical training in elementary schools will be

Richmond, the district superintendent, is the conducted, September 17, 1906, at the Hall of

organizer. Miss Jones, when asked about the

school and her plans, said: the Board of Education, Park Avenue and 59th Street. An oral and practical examination will

“Special attention is given to boys who are

backward. If you take boys of 13 and 14 years be given on September 18. No person will be eligible for this license whose age on September

of age and place them in classes with boys of 8 17, 1906, is under twenty-one or over forty years.

and 9 years they become ashamed, and rather Each applicant must have the following quali

than attend the 'baby class,' as they call it, fications: (a) Graduation from a satisfactory

stay away from school altogether. These boys high school or institution of equal or higher rank,

we give the assistance they need. The lads are or an equivalent academic training, or the pass

subjected to a patient influence under women ing of an academic examination; (b) the comple- shop furnish an outlet for their surplus spirits.”

of tried experience. The gymnasium and worktion of a satisfactory course of professional training.of at least two years in physical training; (c). three years' experience in teaching physical

J. H. Thiry of Long Island City, New York, training, which three years must not include has compiled an interesting table of statistics the two years devoted to professional training; showing the progress of the school savings bank or six years' experience as a class teacher teach- idea in the United States. The system is now ing physical training a satisfactory portion of

in practice in 1,089 schools of 109 cities of twentythe time, which six years may be inclusive of

two states. In these schools 191,009 pupils the years devoted to professional training:

have saved $2,782,012.27. Of this amount The written examination will be upon (a) applied

$2,165,072.63 has been withdrawn, leaving the anatomy, physiology and hygiene; (b) history

sum of $616,939.64 in the names of the young and literature of systems of physical education; depositors, on January 1, 1905. All that a (c) gymnastic games and athletic sports; (d)

teacher has to do to start a school savings bank the principles and the practice of physical

is to collect any money the children of her class training, including principles of education,

desire to save. methods of instruction and class management.

The close of the 16th season of public lectures At the new De Witt Clinton high school on

given free to the people of New York City under 59th Street there are sittings for 3,000 pupils

the auspices of the board of education, was celeand goo can be cared for at one time in the

brated by a re-union of more than 200 members lunch room,

of the public lecture corps at the Hotel Astor, May 4.

The experiment of giving education to The administration of Principal Lyman A,

adults by means of lectures was begun in six Best, as president of the Brooklyn Teachers'

school houses seventeen years ago, and, about Association has been sustained by his reelection

20,000 persons attended the 186 lectures. Duralthough the vote was close. His opponent was

ing the season just closed over 5,000 lectures Dr. Charles 0. Dewey. Mr. Best had been

were given to 1,250,000 people. attacked for his course in connection with the Pettingill schedule salary suit, but in his annual

THE SCHOOLS OF CHICAGO report was a complete vindication of his work.

Margaret Haley is reported to have discovered Walter S. Knowlson of Poughkeepsie and a graft in chalk in the Chicago schools. The Ernest E. Smith of Mohawk have been appointed teachers had been using for years 4 cent chalk, assistant teachers of history, the former in without complaint. Suddenly chalk costing 174 Erasmus Hall high school and the latter in the cents a box was substituted, but it was so greasy boy's high school.

that the marks could not be erased from the

boards by dry rubbing. The condition grew Albert Shields, principal of No. 40 Manhattan maddening but the teachers dared not say a has been elected district superintendent to word. That was last year. Now it is different. succeed Gustave Straubenmüller who has be- Mayor Dunne appointed Jane Addams and Dr. come associate superintendent. A few years Cornelia de Bey members of the school board ago Mr. Shields was offered the position of and these two ladies began to hear things. An Superintendent of schools of Venezuela. Prin- investigation was made and there are signs that cipal John W. Davis succeeds Arthur McMullin the city is being saved a few pennies on the as assistant superintendent in the Bronx. purchase of chalk.

A novel school, said to be the only one of its kind in the United States, is in the old two-story public school No. 120, on Broome street, and has been established especially for the benefit of children of foreign parentage who have been crowded out of other schools and those who are naturally a little backward in their studies.

The disbursements by the Chicago board of education in 1905 for school text-books was $67,000. Of this amount the American Book Company received nearly $21,000, Rand, McNally & Company, nearly $16,000, Silver, Burdett & Co., nearly $10,000, and the Macmillan Company, nearly $7,000.


A committee has just completed an investigation into the causes for pupils of the first high school year leaving school in such large numbers A summary of the report shows the reasons for withdrawal as follows:

Boys. Girls.

Total. To seek employment... 203

68 271 To attend business college. . 23

38 61 To attend preparatory school 43 37 80 Miscellaneous..






1,013 Now the committee is wondering how the course of study can be made more attractive.

Never before has any Chicago board of educa“ tion undertaken such an enormous amount of school building construction as has been ordered in the last eight months by the present trustees. The preliminary report of Assistant Business Manager Franklin shows that new structures at an estimated cost of $2,551,987.97 have been decided upon. Other new schoolhouses under consideration probably will run the grand total above $3,000,000 before the end of the school year. Last year $2,200,000 was ordered spent The trustees, by this large expenditure, have planned accommodations for 17,672 additional pupils, counting forty-seven seats to each room, the average number of children now assigned to each teacher. The board now has 5,201 schoolrooms in use, of which 102 are in rented buildings giving accommodations to 4,686 pupils.

For Teachers' Elementary and Academic Certifi

cates JANUARY 22–26, 1906.

(Continued from June.) ELEMENTARY ENGLISH

Questions 1 Analyze by diagram or otherwise the following

Assault your bee tree boldly with your ax,

and you will find that when the honey is

exposed, every bee has surrendered. 2 Answer either A or B: A Give the principal parts of the following:

draw, laugh, fly, lead, break, blow. B Give the plural of each of the following:

penny, race, leaf, mouse, gentleman,

handful, box, hero, axis, he, my, her. 3 Combine the following into two good sentences;

tell what kinds of sentences you have made: Peggy Mel came up in great haste she was loaded with apple blossom honey she deposited it she rushed off again all the other bees exclaimed let's follow and away

they went. 4 Answer either A or B: A In the following, contract the phrases to

single words and the subordinate clauses
to phrases; what change results in the
form of the complex sentences ?

a He obeyed with cheerfulness.
b This is a matter of importance.
c To read is Robert's chief delight.
d John decided that he would try

e Their mother, who was watching at

the window, smiled and waved her

hand. B Write (a) an interrogative sentence con

taining an adjective in the comparative degree, (6) complex declarative sentence containing a verb in the emphatic from, present tense, (c) an exclamatory sentence containing an

infinitive. 5 Correct 10 of the following sentences: (a) He learned us how to punctuate, (b) It

dont seem cold to me, (c) Please, mother, can I go? (d) A man whom she thought was Basil appeared, (e) Everybody knows their own business best, (f) Neither of them are very studious, (8) I like these kind of apples, (h) He lay down the snow shovel, (i) The days not only seem short but also dark, (1) He wants you and I to do better, (k) I did not read but a little while, (l) Whose book is

laying on the floor? 6 Answer either A or B: A A cousin visited you during the Christmas


Write a letter to a friend, telling what

you did to entertain your cousin. B Let Gabriel write a letter to his father

Basil, telling about his wanderings. 7. Look at the picture described in the following

lines. Make a list of the objects that you

By a vote of 15 to 3 the board of education has adopted the scheme proposed by Superintendent Cooley for the promotion of teachers, and put at an end the controversy which for more than five years has been raging between that body and the Chicago Teachers' federation. Briefly, the new plan contemplates that no teacher's salary shall be increased after a certain maximum paid for length of service is reached, unless she shows increased efficiency. To show this she is required to take a course of study in the Chicago Normal School or some accredited college or university

and pass such tests as may be required there. This differs mostly from the old plan in that it permits the teachers to attend a college instead of taking the course and examination prescribed by the superintendent of schools.


Quoting figures to show that thousands of children annually are forced out of school or compelled to do their year's work over again because of lack of individual attention, Supt. Cooley, in his annual report to the board of education, declares the present system of overcrowding the schoolrooms is wasteful of the lives and efforts of the children." Under the existing conditions, he says, it is impossible for the teacher to give special attention to the personal peculiarities of the pupils, and the deplorable insufficiency of personal attention which the pupils receive from their teachers has forced a large number of children out of the schools into the factories and workshops.


What prominent object is in the middle of the foreground? How are the other objects grouped about it? Near to the bank of the river, o'ershad

owed by oaks from whose branches Garlands of Spanish moss and of mystic

mistletoe flaunted, Stood, secluded and still, the house of the

herdsman. A garden Girded it round about with a belt of

luxuriant blossoms,
Filling the air with fragrance.
At each end of the house, amid the flowers

of the garden,
Stationed the dovecots were. ..

The line of shadow and sunshine
Ran near the tops of the trees; but the

house itself was in shadow. 8 Describe one of the characters in Evangeline,

either (a) picturing the appearance of the person, or (b) telling what the person said or did that interested you.

Answers 1 It is a compound imperative sentence. Principal clauses are you (understood) assault and you will find. And connects the verbs assault and will find. Subject of the first principal clause is you (understood); predicate, assault; object bee tree. Assault is modified by the adverb boldly and by the adverbial phrase with your ax, consisting of the preposition with with its object ax. Ax is modified by the possessive pronoun your. Bee tree is modified by the possessive pronoun your. Subject of the second principal clause is you; predicate, will find; object, the noun clause that every bee has surrendered, etc. That introduces the noun clause. The subject of the noun clause is bee; predicate has surrendered. Bee is modified by the adjective every; has surrendered is modified by the adverbial clause of time honey is exposed. Honey is modified by the adjective thé. When connects is exposed to the verb has surrendered, which it modifies.

2 a) Draw, drew, drawing, drawn; laugh, i aughed, laughing, laughed; , fly, flew, flying, flown; lead, led, leading, led; break, broke, breaking, broken; blow, blew, blowing, blown.

b) Pennies or pence, races, leaves, mice, gentlemen, handfuls, boxes, heroes, axes, they, our, their or them.

3 Peggy Mel came up in great haste, loaded with apple blossoms which she deposited.

Complex declarative sentence. As she rushed off again all the other bees exclaimed, “Let's follow," and away they went.

Compound declarative sentence.

4 (a) He obeyed cheerfully, (b) This is an important matter, (c) Reading is Robert's chief delight, (d) John decided to try again, (e) Their mother, watching at the window, smiled and waved her hand.

The sentences (d) and (e) are both changed to simple sentences.

(a) Is she a better girl than I am?

(b) I do study when no one disturbs me (c) O that I might go to see him

5 Substitute (a) taught for learned, (b) doesn't for don't, (c) may for can, (d) who for whom or to be for was, (e) his for their, (f) is for are, (8) this for these, (h) laid for lay. (i) Place not only immediately before short. (1) Substitute me for

1. (k) I read but a little while. (1) Substitute lying for laying 6(a)

Russell, N. Y., Jan. 26, 1906. Dear Alice:

Your welcome letter was received the 23 inst. and I was pleased to hear that you had such a merry Christmas. I have had a fine time during the holidays. My cousin, George Williams, came from Malone the day before Christmas and stayed with us several days.

Christmas Eve. the young folks including myself retired early so that father and mother could trim the Christmas tree. We were all up early the next morning to receive our long wished for presents. We had a delicious Christmas dinner and at night popped corn and made candy. During the following week, cousin George, my brother and I spent much of our time coasting and skating. New Year's eve I gave a party in honor of my cousin who returned home the next day. Hoping to hear from you soon, I am

Your loving friend,

Jennie White. (6) Camp in the Ozark Mts., May 3, 1714 Dear Father:

It has been a long time since I have heard from you or about you, but I hope you are as well as when I saw you last. I am still pushing my way northward and I do not care to go back to Louisiana. I am so restless, that I can stay only a little while in one place.

Have you seen or heard anything from Evangeline? 'I haven't and am afraid I never shall. If we could only find her and take her to Louisi. ana, then I would be happy and contented there.

This is a hard life I am leading now, but it helps me forget my troubles. So do not expect me home for some time. Your loving son,

Gabriel. 7 River, bank of a river, oaks, moss, mistletoe, house, garden, flowers, dovecots.

A house stands in the middle of the foreground. It is near the bank of a river and is overshadowed by oaks whose branches are covered with moss and mistletoe. A garden of fragrant flowers surrounds the house and, amid the flowers at each end of the house, are the dovecots. 8

EVANGELINE Evangeline, the daughter of Benedict Bellefontaine and the pride of the Acadian village of Grand Pré, was a tall, slender maiden. Her simple Acadian dress rendered her graceful form puritanically severe yet detracted nothing from its symmetry. She was fair to behold, eyes black like unto a raven's wing and hair like spun sunshine, but she looked still fairer on a Sabbatn morning when with her prayer book in her hand she starts down the street toward the meeting house, her saintly face expressing the piety of her soul and the purity of her thoughts.


Questions 1 Select from the following quotation (a) a noun

clause, (b) an adjective clause, (c) an adverbial clause; mention the subdivision of the adverbial clause and give the syntax of each clause selected:

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