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third grade, but when tested was found to lack arithmetic foundation. She could not do upper second grade, lower second grade or even upper first grade number work. Her reading test was almost up to lower third grade standard, but her written work was only up to lower second grade. Although educationally retarded she showed promise of improvement. At the end of 8 weeks it was thought best to put her back into a lower third regular grade, leaving no promotion apparent in her register. Her actual gain in the adjustment room was 60 weeks' work in number and 40 weeks' work in written expression in 8 weeks’ time.
months; American, from lower fourth grade; grew up with deficient brother; was considered defective until measured by the Binet scale; had imitated brother's mannerisms, and had a very poor opinion of her own ability. Her reading speed measured up to a lower sixth grade rate, but she needed greater familiarity with certain phonetic combinations, and training in reading for comprehension. Her written work was below upper third grade standard, while in the lower third grade numbers she was very slow. Beginning at her educational level in these two subjects, she learned first that she could do well what she had been considering impossible. With constant encouragement from teacher and class she has in 70 days reached upper fifth grade standard in all her work. This covered 80 weeks' work in written expression and numbers. These three types of cases could be duplicated fifty or more times. What is the secret of these remarkable results 2 Dr. Sutherland states that it is the purpose of the adjustment class to conserve all the real abilities of children, who are now failures and to encourage them to reach a higher educational level before leaving school. In order to do so the method adopted is not a “teaching ” plan, but a “learning ” plan. While a few short class exercises are necessary, the greater part
heads in accordance with the type of
mental activity involved. A progress outline in natural educational steps has been arranged from the simplest to the most difficult projects in upper sixth grade work. These outlines group the minimum essentials for a grade and they thus put before the pupils definite successive goals. The teacher devotes most of her time to supervision of individual learning. She has never more than 20 pupils under her care. Many of the teachers have had courses in educational and experimental psychology. Indeed, it is essential that the teacher be export in diagnosing educational difficulties and familiar with many methods to apply as remedies.
educational tools, such as a familiaritv with standard tests, educational measurements and individual learning curves. It is a great advantage, too, if she has been trained in the method of measuring general intelligence such as the use of the Binet-Simon scale. The clue to the remarkable progress made by these children, therefore, is the recognition of individual differences and the discovery of specific weaknesses by means of educational tests and scales and by means of the psychological information about school subjects which has been accumulated and the application of proper methods to overcome these. I refrain from prophesying what the probable results would be from the other children, the average and the superior pupils, if equally intelligent methods were used in their case. There is no escape, however, from the thought that at present in our schools the waste due to inefficiency in our teaching is imInell Se. What is the significance of these facts for us? What should be our plans for the future in the light of these con
Her task would be hard unless she had a command of modern ditions? I shall assume that the material basis for satisfactory education must be provided. Surely it is self-evident that adequate buildings, equipment and service must be furnished. The great need that then demands emphatic statement is that a Bureau of Educational Research be established as an integral and essential part of the public school system. It should be di
- rected by a psychologist, highly trained , in Educational Psychology and Ex
perimental Education. He should be provided with an adequate staff and his task should be to aid the teachers of this city in the fulfillment of their duty, the conservation and development of the real abilities of the citizens of to-morrow. Not only would individual children be studied, but a systematic attempt to raise the standards of accomplishment in our schools by evaluating existing methods of teaching would be made. This would be no unprecedented step. At the present moment in many cities such bureaus have been established and their accomplishment is widely recognized as of great value. In Cincinnati, for example, there is such a bureau where expert advice can be obtained as regards any of the city’s educational charges. Similarly in Los Angeles remarkably fruitful work is being done. There two experts are in charge, one devoting his entire time to the solection of the pupils for the ungraded and adjustment classes and to their supervision, the other spending his whole energy in the effort to raise the standards of achievement in the schools by the improvement of methods of teaching in the ordinary class room. There can be no doubt whatever as to the value of such expert supervision. If proof were needed, the fact that progressive private schools have such an exPert attached to their staffs would be sufficient. Certain schools absorb the full time of a psychologist. They regard this expenditure of money as most Profitable and necessary. There is no good reason why the children in the pub
lic schools should be deprived of such scientific care. There must needs be born a new attitude to the art of teaching and to the teaching profession, and not only in those without, but in those within its ranks. There is now a tide in the affairs of men bearing richest argosies, if we only have the vision and the openmindedness to appreciate their value and to go out to welcome them. Human learning can now be guided and controlled in a scientific fashion, so that it can proceed economically and efficiently. Are not the vague dissatisfactions that our schools arouse in us due to the fortunate awakening of our minds to the vast potentiality of children now neglected, which psychological science has revealed to us? While we must improve school buildings and provide a proper physical environment for children, let us beware of resting satisfied with these. Is it not cqually incumbent upon us if we are to attain our goal and develop in our children the best that they have it in them to be, to take further steps ? The first should be the foundation of a department of research. The second should be the improvement of the teachers now in service, so that they may have an opportunity to equip themselves with recent knowledge of the science of education. This will mean that every encouragement should be given them in their efforts to secure higher training. This encouragement should frequently take a financial form. Promotion should be rapid for those with scientific training. The third step should be that the status of teachers should be raised not by richer monetary rewards alone, but by largely increased opportunities for intellectual and spiritual growth, by added responsibility and by greater freedom in their work. Only by such reforms shall we win into the ranks of the profession the finest manhood and womanhood that effective teaching demands. Our welfare as members of a democracy depends upon these changes. An
autocratic ruler may govern without scionce, a bureaucracy may dispense with science, but no democracy can survive unless its education is sound, unless its educational policy is based upon the achieved science of its time, unless scientific research is constantly encouraged.
This is the challenge of the hour. Shall we have the wisdom, the self-sacrifice and the courage to strike down ignorance and to arrest human wastage with zeal and enthusiasm equal to that with which we marched to overthrow the enemies of the state on the field of battle?
Suggestions for Constructive Criticism of Themes
By F. LIVINGSTON JOY, Oberlin College
One may or may not approve the plan, adopted by many universities and secondary schools, of having student critics, or “Readers,” to help carry the burden of theme reading in the department of English. Many who disapprove of the plan are using it, for the simple reason that conditions surrounding the English work admit of no happier solution to the theme reading problem. Where an instructor continuously has the direction of from five to ten readers, and perhaps the training, in the course of the school year, of fifteen or twenty readers—not an unusual condition in a large high school or university—the coaching of these inexperienced critics is a difficult matter. It goes without saying that the readers should receive as effective training as possible, be they untried sophomores or more mature post-graduates. The writer has secured very happy results by handing to each new reader a copy of the suggestions submitted below. These suggestions have grown out of the actual need, in the writer's work as high school teacher, as college and as university instructor, of reducing some of the points brought up in reader conferences to a form that could be removed to an accessible place in the reader's room or to a convient pigeon-hole of his desk. They may be easily modified. They may be readily adapted moreover, to the peculiar conditions prevailing at any institution where a teacher finds himself
point, in each theme, specifically.
B. Be sure you tell why this is a good point. Never say “Good work,” or “poor work’ or any similar expression. Make the application of your term apparent.
C. Be sure you set some specific point for attention in the next theme. Sometimes this may be done mercly by phrasing your criticism in such a way as to project interest in the direction of the next effort: suggest some point to be adhered to, or hint of some specific practice that might be avoided in the next theme.
D. Do not hesitate to give constructive criticism. “Would not a concrete detail, such as, ‘The blade of the shovel
E. Have I cleared up the obscure points :
F. Have I made a critical comment where actual reconstruction of a passage would have been more fruitful ?
G. Have I put enough sincerity and personality into my criticism to make the students look forward to reading criticisms on their next theme? 4. Finally ask:
Given the present theme, have I returned the student generous, though not gushing, criticism for what he has written this time, have I stimulated him to write better next time, and have I given him knowledge of how to do this better writing? Am I making him feel, weck in and week out, that he is “getting something out of ’’ the course; that he is giving something to the course, and is glad to give z
Salt Lake City Meeting, N. E. A.
The fifty-eighth annual convention of
the N. E. A. which took place at Salt Lake City July 4-10 was a meeting of
great significance. While the attendance was far below that of many previous annual meetings, the importance of the topics discussed at the general sessions and section meetings and the fact that at the business session the by-laws were amended and radical changes made, contribute toward making this session a memorable one in the history of the organization. Hereafter the election of officers and transaction of business at the annual meetings will reside exclusively in a representative assembly composed of delegates elected from state teachers' associations and affiliated state and local educational associations according to the new by-laws enacted at this meeting. Salt Lake City and the state of Utah have been twice honored with the enter
a most progressive and far-reaching program of education which was designed to meet the new demands of education and aimed to develop the highest possible type of citizenship through insisting that every child shall become physically fit, morally straight and vocationally officient.
- The Program A well-arranged program of impowtant topics, presented by able speakers and some of our foremost educational leaders, was carried out at the general sessions and in the twenty-nine different section meetings. The great Mormon Tabernacle was the meeting place for the general sessions and suitable auditoriums were provided for the various section meetings. A notable feature of the general entertainment was the rendering of the oratorio, “The Creation * by the Oratorio Society, Friday evening on the campus of the University of Utah. . A choir of over 250 trained singers, ably supported by noted soloists from eastern cities, rendered this great oratorio.