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CHAPTER IV

PAGE

VERTEBRATES : BACKBONE AND BRAIN

81

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The advance of vertebrates from fish through amphibia and reptiles to
mammals. — The development of skeleton, appendages, circulatory and
respiratory systems, and brain. - Mammals : The oviparous monotremata.
-Marsupials. —Placental mammals.—Development of the placenta. -Prim-
ates.-Arboreal life and the development of the hand. Comparison of man
with the highest apes. -Recapitulation of the history of man's origin and
development. The sequence of dominant functions.

CHAPTER V

THE HISTORY OF MENTAL DEVELOPMENT AND ITS

SEQUENCE OF FUNCTIONS

113

Mode of investigation.— Intellect. — Sense-perceptions. - Association. -
Inference and understanding.-Rational intelligence.—Modes of mental or
nervous action.-Reflex action, unconscious and comparatively mechanical.

- Instinctive action : The actor is conscious, but guided by heredity.-In-
telligent action. The actor is conscious, guided by intelligence resulting
from experience or observation. - The will stimulated by motives.-Appe-
tites.-Fear and other prudential considerations.-Care for young and love
of mates.—The dawn of unselfishness. —Motives furnished by the rational
intelligence: Truth, right, duty.-Recapitulation : The will, stimulated by
ever higher motives, is finally to be dominated by unselfishness and love
of truth and righteousness. These rouse the only inappeasable hunger,
and are capable of indefinite development.–Strength of these motives.-
Their complete dominance the goal of human development.

CHAPTER VI

NATURAL SELECTION AND ENVIRONMENT

.. 152

The reversal of the sequence of functions leads to extermination, degen-
eration, or, rarely, to stagnation.–Natural selection becomes more un-
sparing as we go higher.—Extinction.-Severity of the struggle for life. —
Environment one. But lower animals come into vital relation with but a
small part of it.-It consists of a myriad of forces, which, as acting on a

Human environment. The development of the family as the school of
man's training.--The family as the school of unselfishness and obedience.
- The family as the basis of social life. -Society as an aid to conformity
to environment by increasing intelligence and training conscience.—Mental
and moral heredity.- Personal magnetism.-Man's search for a king. -
The essence of Christianity.-Conformity to environment gives future
supremacy, but often at the cost of present hardship.--Conformity as
obedience to the laws of our being. -Environment best understood through
the study of the human mind.- Productiveness and prospectiveness of
vital capital.-Faith.

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Subject of the Bible. -Man: Body, intellect, heart. —God: Law, sin,

and penalty. God manifested in Christ. -Salvation, the divine life per-
meating man.-Faith. — Prayer. -Hope. -The Church.-The battle. —The
victory. The crown.

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