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signals hoisted on Staten Island, signifying the appearance of a fleet. At two o'clock P. M., an express arrived, informing that a fleet of more than 100 square rigged vessels, had arrived and anchored in the Hook. This is the fleet which we forced to evacuate Boston; and which went to Halifax last March, where they have been waiting for reinforcements, and have now arrived here with a view of putting their cursed plans into execution. But, however, we hope and trust to frustrate their cruel designs. A warm and bloody campaign, is the least we can expect; may God grant us victory and success over them, is our most fervent prayer. Expresses have this day gone to Connecticut, the Jerseys, &c., to hurry on the militia.
July 1. By express from Long Island, we are informed, that the whole fleet weigh'd anchor and came from Sandy Hook over under the Long Island shore, and anchored about half a mile off; which leads us to think they mean a descent upon the Island this night. Five hundred men were sent over at nine o'clock this evening, to reinforce the troops on Long Island under General Greene. We have also, received intelligence that our cruisers on the back of Long Island, have taken and carried in one of the enemy's flect laden with intrenching tools.
July 2.-At nine o'clock this morning, the whole army was under arms at their several alarm posts, occasioned by five large men-of-war coming up through the Narrows. We supposed them coming on to attack our forts. Never did I see men more cheerful; they seem to wish the enemy's approach. They came up to the watering place, about five miles above the Narrows, and came to. Their tenders took three or four of our small craft plying between this and the Jersey shore. At six o'clock P. M., about fifty of the fleet followed and anchored with the others. Orders that the whole army lie on their arms, and be at their alarm posts before the dawning of the day. A warm campaign, in all probability, will soon ensue. Relying on the justice of our cause, and putting our confidence in the Supreme Being, at the same time exerting our every nerve, we trust the designs of our enemies will be frustrated.
July 3. This day arrived in camp, Brigadier-General Mercer, from Virginia, being appointed and ordered here by the Honorable Continental Congress; likewise General Hull, with the militia from New Jersey, by order of His Excellency General Washing
July 4.-Last night, or rather at daylight this morning, we attacked a sloop of the enemy's mounting eight carriage guns. She lay up a small river, which divides Staten Island from the main, called the Kills. We placed two nine-pounders on Bergen Point, and soon forced the crew to quit her. By the shrieks, some of them must have been killed or wounded. The sloop was quite disabled.
July 7.-By several desertions from the fleet and army on Staten Island, we learn, that the number of the enemy is about. 10,000; that they hourly look for Lord Howe from England with a fleet, on board of which is 15,000 or 20,000 men; that they propose only to rest on the defensive till the arrival of this fleet, when they mean to open a warm and bloody campaign, and expect to carry all before them. We trust they will be disappointed. July 9.-Agreeable to this day's orders, the Declaration of Independence was read at the head of each Brigade; and was received by three huzzas from the troops. Every one seemed highly pleased that we were separated from a king who has endeavoring to enslave his once loyal subjects. God grant us success in this our new character.
July 10. Last night the statue of George III. was tumbled down and beheaded. The troops, having long had an inclination so to do, thought the time of publishing a declaration of independence, to be a favorable opportunity; for which they received the check in this day's orders.
July 12.-At twelve o'clock, this day, we discovered two of the enemy's ships, with three tenders, standing up for the town, with the tide at flood and a very strong breeze of wind in their favor. As soon as abreast of Red Hook, our battery from there, opened upon them, and all our batteries for three miles on end till they got entirely past. They kept a warm fire the whole of the time on us, though with no effect. A number of our shots hulled them. In this affair, we lost six men by our guns being carelessly handled. When abreast of Mount Washington, twelve miles above the town, General Mifflin gave them a warm reception; but did them no great damage. Their view, probably, is to cut off our communication with Albany and the northern army. I hope we may frustrate their design. The same day arrived Admiral Lord Howe, in the Eagle man-of-war, and joined the fleet at Staten
Island. The ships that went up the river this day, are the Phanix, of forty guns, commanded by Parker, and the Rose, of twenty guns, by Wallace.
July 14. A flag of truce from the fleet, appeared; on which Colonel Reed and myself, went down to meet it. About half way between Governor's and Staten Islands, Lieutenant Brown, of the Eagle, offered a letter from Lord Howe, directed "George Washington, Esq.," which, on account of its direction, we refused to receive, and parted with the usual compliments. It is to be noticed, that the frequent repetitions in general orders, is occasioned by new regiments and companies daily arriving in camp, and quite unacquainted with garrison or camp duty. Time alone, can remedy this inconvenience.
July 15th.-The court of enquiry ordered the 14th, to sit on Colonel Rodolphus Rityema, report, that after the strictest enquiry and maturest deliberation, they are of the opinion, that Colonel Rityema is innocent of the crimes alleged against him, save the last, respecting Lord Sterling. Lord Sterling thinks proper to pardon that. He is, therefore, acquitted with honor.
July 16. A flag this day, to send to General Howe some printed resolves of Congress, respecting the cruelty and barbarity of the King's troops and savages to the northward, and acquainting him, that retaliation shall immediately take place, unless a final stop is put to such inhuman and barbarous conduct. The same day I forwarded a copy of said resolves to the northern army, to be sent to General Burgoyne in Canada.
July 17.—A flag from the enemy, with an answer from General Howe, about the resolves sent yesterday, directed "George Washington, Esq., &c., &c., &c.," which we refused.
July 19. A flag appeared this morning; when Colonel Reed and myself went down, where an Aid-de-Camp to General Howe met us and said, as there appeared an insurmountable obstacle between the two generals, by way of corresponding, "General Howe desired his Adjutant-General might be admitted to an interview with His Excellency General Washington." On which Colonel Reed, in the name of General Washington, consented; and pledged his honor for his being safely returned. The Aid-de-Camp said the Adjutant-General would meet us to-morrow forenoon.
July 20.-At twelve o'clock we met the flag, took the Lieu
regiment into our barge and escorted him safely to town to Colonel Knox's quarters; where His Excellency General Washington, attended with his suite and Life Guards, received and had an interview of about an hour with him. We then escorted him back in safety to his own barge. In going and coming, we passed in front of the Grand Battery; but did not blindfold him: sociable and chatty all the way.
The same evening arrived an express from Charleston, S. C., with the agreeable news of General Lee having defeated the enemy's fleet, after a warm engagement of twelve hours. During the cannonade on the fort, General Clinton and Lord Cornwallis, made several attempts to land with the army; but were beaten off by Colonel Moultrie, with 300 men. It is to be hoped every attempt of our cruel invaders, may meet with the same fate.
This day ten large ships arrived with Scotch troops on board, to reinforce the troops at Staten Island. By the best accounts we can get from deserters, they contain about 10,000 men.
July 23.-By intelligence this day, it appears that the pirates up the North River, have made several attempts to land, and have as often, been repulsed, having left, at different times, fifteen dead behind them, who were killed by our people after getting to
July 25.-This day five ships arrived, supposed to come from England. Whether store-ships or men-of-war, can not say.
July 26.-Arrived eight ships and joined the enemy's fleet. July 28.-Arrived to the evening three ships and one sloop. July 29.-This day and last evening, about twenty large ships have arrived. These with the others which have come in during several days past, have troops on board and are supposed to be part of Lord Howe's fleet, with the foreigners.
NOTE.-The foregoing settles, very conclusively, the question as to who it was, that rejected General Howe's letter to Washington;-the superscription on which was intended to be an insult to our Commander-in-Chief. It appears, too, that Washington's two youthful Aids, assumed the responsibility of refusing the letter without waiting for instructions from their Chief.
Under the head of "Orders Issued and to be Issued," this journal contains all the orders issued between the 21st June and 8th of August,-beginning with the order appointing my father and Richard Carey, Aids-de-Camps to the Commander-in-Chief. I extract a few of them :
NEW YORK, HEADQUARTERS, June 21, 1776.
All officers or soldiers belonging to either of the regiments serving in Canada, are to apply immediately to Major-General Gates; who will give them orders for repairing to their respective detachments.
The General has been pleased to appoint Richard Cary, and Samuel B. Webb, Esqs., his Aids-de-Camp, and Alexander Counter Hanson, Esq., Military Secretary; who are to be obeyed and regarded as such. The Honorable Continental Congress, have been pleased to give the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel to the Aid-de-Camp of the Commander-in-Chief, and to the principal Secretary. Also the rank of Major to the Aids-de-Camp of the Major-Generals.
HEADQUARTERS, NEW YORK, June 22, 1776. COUNTERSIGN-CUMBERLAND. Aaron Burr, Esq., is appointed Aid-de-Camp to General Putnam in place of Major Webb, promoted. He is to be obeyed and regarded as such.
The Quartermaster having in many late instances neglected to see detachments and working parties furnished with the necessary quantity of provisions, the General requires greater punctuality in future; and if any further neglect appears in this respect, such Quartermaster will be severely punished.
HEADQUARTERS, NEW YORK, JULY 9, 1776. The Honorable Continental Congress, having been pleased to allow a chaplain to cach regiment, with the pay of $33.33% per month, the Colonels or commanding officers of each regiment are directed to procure chaplains accordingly, to be persons of good character and exemplary lives; an l to ɛce that all inferior officers and soldiers pay them suitable respect, and attend carefully upon religious exercises. The blessing and protection of Heaven are at all times necessary, but especially so in times of public distress