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Origin of Stourbridge Fair. north side, and the rivulet called the Mr. George Dyer, in a supplement to Stour, (from which, and the bridge which his recently published" Privileges of the
crosses it, the fair received its name,) on University of Cambridge,” being a sequel the east side; it is about two miles from to his “ History of the University,” cites Cambridge market-place, and where, durthus from Fuller :
ing the time of the fair, coaches, &c. at“ Stourbridge fair is so called from tend to convey persons to the fair. The Stous, a little rivulet (on both sides where chief diversions at the fair were drolls, of it is kept,) on the east of Cambridge, and plays performed ; and though there
rope-dancing, sometimes a music-booth, whereof this original is reported. A clothier of Kendal, a town characterized to
is an act of parliament which prohibits be Lanificii gloria et industria præcel
the acting of plays within ten miles of
Cambridge, the Norwich company have lens, casually wetting his cloath in water in his passage to London, exposed it there to permission to perform there every night sale, on cheap termes, as the worse for during the fair. wetting, and yet it seems saved by the by the 24th of August, the builders were
If the corn was not cleared off the field bargain. Next year he returned again with some other of his townsmen, prof- booths ; and on the other hand, if the
at liberty to tread it down to build their fering drier and dearer cloath to be sold. booths' and materials were not cleared So that within a few years hither came a confluence of buyers, sellers, and lookers- away by Michaelmas-day at noon, the on, which are the three principles of a
ploughmen might enter the same with their fair. In memoria thereof, Kendal men
horses, ploughs, and carts, and destroy challenge some privilege in that place,
whatever they found remaining on the annually choosing one of the town to be ground after that time. The filth, straw,
dung, &c. left by the fair-keepers, making chief, before whom an antic sword was carried with some mirthful solemnities, and hardening the ground. The shops,
the farmers amends for their trampling disused of late, since these sad times,
or booths, were built in rows like streets, which put men's minds into more serious
having each their name; as Garlick-row, employments.” This was about 1417.
Booksellers’-row, Cook-row, &c, and every commodity had its proper place; as the
cheese-fair, hop-fair, wool-fair, &c. In The “History of Stourbridge Fair," these streets, or rows, as well as in seve&c. a pamphlet published at Cambridge ral others, were all kinds of tradesmen, in 1806, supplies the particulars before who sell by wholesale or retail
, as goldthe reader, respecting Jacob Butler and smiths, toy-men, braziers, turners, millinthe fair, except in a few instances derived ers, haberdashers, hatters, mercers, drafrom authorities acknowledged in the pers, pewterers, china warehouses, and, notes. From thence also is as follows: in short, most trades that could be found
Stourbridge fair was annually set out in London, from whence many of them on St. Bartholomew's day, by the alder came; there were also taverns, coffeemen and the rest of the corporation of houses, and eating-houses in great plenty, Cambridge, who all rode there in grand all kept in booths, except six or seven procession, with music playing before brick-houses, in any of which (except the them; and, when the ceremony was finish coffee-house booth,) you might be accomed, used to ride races about the place; modated with hot or cold roast goose, then returning to Cambridge, cakes and roast or boiled pork, &c. ale were given to the boys who attended Crossing the road, at the south end of them, at the Town-hall; but, we believe, Garlick - row, on the left hand, was a this old custom is now laid aside. On the square formed of the largest booths, called 7th of September they rode in the same the Duddery, the area of which was from manner to proclaim it; which being two hundred and forty to three hundred done, the fair then began, and continued feet, chiefly taken up with woollen drathree weeks, though the greatest part was pers, wholesale tailors, sellers of secondover in a fortnight.
hand clothes, &c. where the dealers had a This fair, which was allowed, some room before their booths to take down years ago, to be the largest in Europe, is and open their packs, and bring in wagkept in a corn-field about half a mile gons to load and unload the same. In the square, the river Cam running on the centre of the square there formerly stood
a high pole with a vane at the top. On quickly decided, the offenders were taken two Sundays, during the principal time of to the said court, and the case determined the fair, morning and afternoon, divine in a summary way, (as was practised in service was performed, and a sermon those called pie-powder courts in other preached by the minister of Barnwell, fairs,) and from which there was no aptrom a pulpit placed in this square, who peal. was very well paid for the same, by a The greatest inconvenience attending contribution made among the fair- the tradesmen at this fair, was the manner keepers.
in which they were obliged to lodge in In this duddery only, it is said, that the night; their bed (if it may be so 100,0001. worth of woollen manufacture called,) was laid upon two or three boards has been sold in less than a week, exclu- nailed to four posts about a foot from the sive of the trade carried on here by the ground, and four boards fixed round it wholesale tailors from London, and other to keep them from falling out; in the parts of England, who transacted their bu- day-time it was obliged to be removed siness wholly with their pocket-books, and from the booth, and laid in the open air, meeting with their chapmen here from all exposed to the weather; at night it was parts of the country, make up their ac. again taken in, and made up in the best counts, receive money, and take further manner they were able, and they laid alorders. These, it is said, exceed the sale most neck and heels together, it being not of goods actually brought to the fair, and more than five feet long. Very heavy delivered in kind; it was frequently rains, which fall about this season, would! known that the London wholesale-inen sometimes force through the hair-cloths, have carried back orders from their deal. which were almost the only covering to ers for 10,0001. worth of goods, and some the booths, and oblige them to get up a great deal more. Once, in this duddery, again; and high winds have been known there was a booth consisting of six apart- to blow down many of the booths, pare: ments, which contained goods worth ticularly in the year 1741. 20,000l. belonging solely to a dealer in Norwich stuffs.
The trade for wool, hops, and leather, was prodigious; the quantity of wool Legislative discussion and interference only, which was sold at one fair, was said have raised a feeling of kindness towards to amount to between 50 and 60,0001., the brute creation which slumbered and and of hops to nearly the same sum. slept in our forefathers. Formerly, the
The 14th of September was the horse- costermonger was accustomed to make fair day, which was always the busiest wounds for the express purpose of proday during the time of the fair, and the ducing torture. He prepared to drive an number of people, who came from all ass, that had not been driven, with his parts of the county on this day, was very knife. On each side of the back bone, great. Colchester oysters and fresh her- at the lower end, just above the tail, he rings were in great request, particularly made an incision of two or three inches by those who lived in the inland parts of in length through the skin, and beat into the kingdom.
these incisions with his stick till they beThe fair was like a well-governed city, came open wounds, and so remained, and less disorder or confusion were to be while the ass lived to be driven to and seen here than in any other place, where from market, or through the streets of the there was so great a concourse of people metropolis. A costermonger, now, would assembled. Here was a court of justice, shrink from this, which was a common open from morning till night, where the practice between the years 1790 and 1800. mayor, or his deputy, always attended to The present itinerant venders of apples, determine all controversies in matters and other fruit, abstain from wanton bararising from the business of the fair, and barity, while coachmen and carmen are for keeping the peace ; for which purpose punished for it under Mr. Martin's act. he had eight servants to attend him, called This gentleman's humanity, though somered-coats, who were employed as con- times eccentric, is ever active; and, when stables, and if any dispute arose between judiciously exercised, is approved by nabuyer and seller, &c. upon calling out tural feelings, and supported by public red-coat there was one of them immedi- opinion. ately at hand; and if the dispute was not A correspondent has pleasantly thrown
CRUELTY TO ANIMALS.
together some amusing citations respect. John owns his ignorance of the subject, ing the ass. It is a rule with the editor of and facetiously exclaimsthe Every-Day Book not to alter commu “ Howe'er, from this time, I shall ne'er see nications, or he would have turned one
your graces, expression, in the course of the subjoined As I hope to be saved ! without thinking on paper, which seems to bear somewhat lu
asses !" dicrously upon the interference of the Which joke, by the byė, the author of member for Galway, in behalf of that class of animals which have endured more 'and thrust into the mouth of a thick
“Waverley” has deigned to make free with, persecution than any in existence, except, headed fellow, in the fourth volume of the perhaps, our fellow human-beings, the Crusaders." Jews.
says he saw one leap through a
hoop, and, at the word of command, lie (For Hone's Every-Day Book.)
down just as if he were dead.
Mahomet had an excellent creature, Poorly as the world may think of the half ass and half mule : for if we may take intellectual abilities of asses, there have his word for it, the beast carried him from been some very clever fellows among Mecca to Jerusalem in the twinkling of them. There have been periods when, far from his name being synonymous with step which is difficult," says the French
an eye in one step !--" It is only the first stupidity, and his person inade the sub- proverb, and here it is undoubtedly right. ject of the derision, the contempt, and, Sterne gives us a most affecting account what is worse, the scourge of the vulgar- of one which had the misfortune to die. (for that is “the unkindest cut of all") - «The ass," the old owner told him," he he was “respected and beloved by all who
was assured loved him. They had been had the pleasure of his acquaintance !" separated three days, during which time Leo Africanus asserts, that asses may be the ass had sought him as much as he had taught to dance to music, and it is sur sought the ass : and they had scarce prising to see the accurate manner in either eat or drank till they met.” This which they will keep time. In this, at certainly could not have assisted much to least, they must be far superior to us, poor improve the health of the donkey. I canhuman beings, if they can keep time, for not better conclude my evidence of his “time stays for r.o man,” as the proverb shrewdness and capacity than with an says. Though their vocal powers do not anecdote which many authors combine in equal those of a Bra-ham, yet we have declaring :had an undoubted proof of the sensitiveness of their ear to the sweets of har “ De la peau du lion l'âne s'étant vêtu
Etoit craint partout à la ronde; mony; Gay also tells us
Et bien qu'animal sans vertu
But most on music fixed his hopes." Un petit bout d'oreille, echappé par malAnd merry Peter Pindar thus apostro
Decouvrit la fourbe et l'erreur. phises his asinine namesake :
Martin fit alors son office," &c. “What tho' I've heard some voices sweeter;
La Fontaine Yet exquisite thy hearing, gentle Peter!
It is curious to see the same taste and
the same peculiarities attached to the Thou hast th’advantage got of many a score same family. As long as the ass was That enter at the open door.”
thought to be a lion, he was suffered to What an unfounded calumny then go on-but when he is discovered to be must it have been on the part of the Ro
an ass, forth steps Mr. Martin—then the mans, to declare these “ Roussins dé Ar- task is his ! cadie" (as La Fontaine calls them) so defi
Now for the estimation in which they cient in their aural faculties, that “to
were held. talk to a deaf ass” was proverbial for “to
Shakspeare makes the fairy queen, the labour in vain!”—Perhaps it was under lovely Titania, fall in love with a gentle the same delusion that, as Goldsmith man who sported an ass's head :says,
Methought I was enamour'd of an ass," "* John Trott was desired by two witty peers,
said the lady waking—and she thought To tell them the reason why asses had ears." right, if love be
All made of fantasy, And lastly, even when dead, his utility is “ All adoration, duty, and observance." not ended; for, as we read in Plutarch
At Rouen, they idolized a donkey in (Vita Cleomenis) the philosopher affirthe most ludicrous manner, by dressing ed, that “from the dead bodies of asses, him up very gaily in the church, dancing beetles were produced !” Tim Tims. round him, and singing, "eh! eh! eh! father ass ! eh! eh! eh ! father ass !" which, however flattering to him, was Devil's Bit Scabious. Scabiosa Succisa. really no compliment to themselves.
Dedicated to St. Lucy. The ass on which Silenus rode, when he did good service to Jove, and the other divinities, was transported up into September 20 the celestial regions. Apion affirms, that Sts. Eustachius and Companions. when Antiochus spoiled the temple at Je Agapetus, Pope, A. D. 536. rusalem a golden ass's head was found,
CHRONOLOGY. which the Jews used to worship.–To this Josephus replies with just indignation, foundation stone of the new exchange at
On the 20th of September, 1753, the and argues how could they adore the image of that, which, “when it does not Edinburgh was laid by George Drumperform what we impose upon it, we beat mond, Esq. grand master of the society with a great many stripes !" Poor beasts!
of freemasons in Scotland. The proces they must be getting used to hard usage lodge of masons, of which there were
sion was very grand and regular: each by this time! The wild ass was a very twelve or thirteen, walked in procession favourite creature for hunting, as we learn from Martial (13 Lib. 100 Ep.); and Vir- by themselves, all uncovered, amountgil sings
ing to six hundred and seventy-two,
most of whom were operative masons. “Sæpè etiam cursu timidos agitabis onagros." The military paid proper honours to Its flesh was esteemed a dainty. Xeno- the company, and escorted the prophon, in the first book of the “Anabasis," cession. The grand master, supported compares it to venison ; and Bingley says, by a former grand master and the present it is eaten to this day by the Tartars: substitute, was joined in the procession but what is more curious, Mæcenas, who by the lord provost, magistrates, and was a sensible man in other respects, pre. council, in their robes, with the city ferred, according to Pliny, the meat of sword, mace, &c. carried before them, the foal of the tame donkey!'“ de gusti- accompanied with the directors of the bus non disputandum" indeed! With scheme, &c. The foundation stone, bearits milk Poppea composed a sort of ing the Latin inscription, lay all that day paste with which she bedaubed her face, on the pavement, to be viewed by the for the purpose of making it fair; as we populace. are told by Pliny (Lib. 11. 41.) and Ju The freemasons, having caused a magvenal (Sat. 2. 107): and in their unadul- nificent triumphal arch in the true Augusierated milk she used frequently to bathe tine style to be erected at the entry of the for the same purpose (Dio. 62. 28.): place where the stone was laid, they "Propter quod secum comites educit asellas
passed through it, and the magistrates Exul Hyperboreum si dimittatur ad axem.”
went to a theatre erected for them, co
Juv. 6. 468. vered with tapestry, and decked with And in both respects she was imitated by flowers, on the west of the place where many of the Roman ladies. Of its efficacy the stone was to be laid; and directly opto persons of delicate habits there can be posite, to the east, another theatre was no doubt, and Dr. Wolcott only called it erected for the grand master and officers in question (when recommended by Dr. of the grand lodge, and being seated in a Geach,) for the purpose of making the chair placed for him, the grand master following excellent epigram :
soon after laid the stone; and put into it, And, doctor, do you really think
in holes made for that purpose, two That ass's milk I ought to drink?
medals, one of them being inscribed'Twould quite remove my cough, you say,
“ IN THE LORD IS ALL OUR TRUST." · And drive my old complaints away.
The grand master having applied the It cured yourself-I grant it true square the plumb, the level, the mallet, But then—'ıwas mother's milk to you for &c. to the stone, in order to fix the same
in its proper position, gave it three knocks St. Matthew.
This is a festival in the church of Engmason's anthem, which was played by the land calendar, and in the almanacs. music when the stone was first slung in
Mr. Audley notices of Matthew, that the tackle, was again repeated, the bre- he was also called Levi; that he was thren, &cjoining in the chorus, which the son of Alpheus, a publican, or taxbeing ended, a cornucopia, with two silver gatherer, under the Romans; and that he vessels, were handed to the grand master, is said to have preached the gospel in filled with corn, wine, and oil; he, ac, Ethiopia, and to have died a martyr there. cording to an ancient ceremony, poured Mr. A. inclines to think that he died a them on the stone, saying,
natural death. He says, it is generally, “ May the bountiful hand of heaven if not universally, agreed by the ancients, supply this city with abundance of corn; that Matthew wrote his gospel in Hebrew, wine, oil, and all other necessaries of but that several moderns think it was life.
written in Greek, and that Matthew has This being also succeeded by three
more quotations from the Old Testament huzzas, the anthem was again played; and than any of the evangelists. when finished, the grand master repeated these words :
“ May the grand architect of the uni On this day the lord mayor, aldermen, verse, as we have now laid the foundation sheriffs, and governors of the several royal stone, of his kind providence enable us to hospitals in London, attend divine service, carry on and finish what we have now and hear a sermon preached at Christ begun; and may he be a guard to this church, Newgate-street; they then repair place, and the city in general, and pre- to the great hall in Christ's hospital, where serve it fron decay and ruin to the latest two orations are delivered, one in Latin, posterity."
and the other in English, by the two seHaving closed the ceremony with a nior scholars of the grammar-school ; and short prayer for the sovereign, the senate afterwards partake of an elegant dinner. of the city, the fraternity of masons, and all the people, and the anthem having been again played, the grand master addressed himself to the lord provost and magis. Cilcated Passion Flower, Passiflora trates, &c. in a polite and learned manner,
cilcata applauding their noble design, and pray Dedicated to St. Matthew. ing that heaven would crown their endeavours, &c. with the desired success. He also made a speech to the undertakers,
September 22. . adınonishing them to observe the instructions of the directors, &c. and to do their St. Maurice, and his Companions, 4th duty as artificers, for their own honour, Cent. St. Emmeran, Bp. of Poitiers, credit, &c. Several medals struck on the A. D. 653. occasion, were distributed by the grand “ Now soften'd suns a mellow lustre shed, master to the magistrates, &c. *
The laden orchards glow with tempting red;
And with the sportsman's war the new Common Meadow Saffron. Colchicum
shorn fields resound.'
Tree Boletus. Boletus arborens. September 21.
Dedicated to St. Maurice.
St. Maura, A. D. 850. St. Lo, or
St. Linus, Pope. St. Thecla, 1st Cent. • Gentleman's Magazine,
St. Adamnan, Abbot, A. D. 705.