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St. Eustochium, A.D. 419. St. Ez- under the immediate spiritual protection uperius, Bp. of Toulouse, A. 409. and personal government of God, who
calls them his peculiar people. How then
can Michael preside over them? This Evergreen Golden Rod. Solidago sem- festival will not loose any dignity by the pervirens.
adoption of such an interpretation, but Dedicated to St. Eustochium, V. will demand a more conscientious ob
servance from those, who celebrate in it, September 29. not only the host of friendly angels, but, The Dedication of St. Michael's Church, Christ the common Lord both of angels
likewise (under the title of Michael) Jesus or The Festival of St. Michael and all and men.” A well-informed expositor of the holy Angels. St. Theodota, A. D.
the “ Common Prayer-book,” Wheatley, 642.
says that the feast of St. Michael and all St. Michael.
angels is observed, that the people may This saint is in our almanacs and in know what benefits are derived from the calendar of the church of England. the ministry of angels. The day is a great festival in the Romish church. The rev. Edward Barnard, of The accompanying engraving is from Brantinghamthorpe, in “ The Protestant an ancient print emanating from the Beadsman," an elegantly written “series "contemplations” of catholic churchmen, of biographical notices and hymns, com. among whom there is diversity of opinion memorating the saints and martyrs whose concerning the number of archangels. holidays are kept by the church of Their inquiries have been directed to the England,” says, “The rank of arch- subject, because it is an article of the ca. angel is given in scripture to none but tholic faith that angels, as well as saints, Michael, who is represented as the guar. intercede for men, and that their intercesdian and protector both of the Jewish sion may be moved by prayers to them. church, and the glorious church of Christ, In conformity with this persuasion pain which the former merged. On this ac tron - saints and angels are sometimes count he is celebrated by name, while the drawn for, by putting certain favourite rest of the holy angels are praised col- names together, and selecting one, to lectively. St. Michael is mentioned in whom, as the patron-saint or angel, the seripture five times, and always in a invocations of the individual are from that military view; thrice by Daniel, as fight- time especially addressed. ing for the Jewish church against Persia; In the great army of angels the archonce by St. John, as fighting at the head angels are deemed commanders. The of his angelic troops against the dragon angels themselves are said to be divided and his host; and once by St. Jude, as into as many legions as there are archfighting personally with the devil, about angels; whether these are seven or nine the body of Moses; for the very ashes of does not appear to be determined; but God's servants have angelic protection. Michael, as in the present engraving, is It has been thought by many, that there is always represented as the head or chief no other archangel but Michael. An archangel, he is here accompanied by six author of great name, who has not given only. his reasons or authority, inclines to this Dr. Laurence, regius professor of Heopinion; and adds, that he succeeded brew at Oxford, and now archbishop of Lucifer in this high dignity. Others Cashel, recently printed at the Clarendon imagine, and not without strong pro- press, the long lost “ Book of Enoch." bability, that Michael is the Son of God This celebrated apocryphal writing of anhimself. The interpretation of his name, cient times calls“ Michael one of the and the expression (used by St. John) of holy angels, who, presiding over human his angels, strengthen this supposition; virtue, commands the nations.” It says, for to whom can the angels belong but to that Raphael “presides over the spirits God, or Christ? The title, by which of men;" that Uriel “presides over clamGabriel spoke of him, when he required our and terror;" and Gabriel, “over bis assistance, (* Michael your prince") paradise and over the cherubims.”. is likewise brought forward, by bishop Our old heraldie friend, Randle Holme, Horsley, in confirmation of this opinion says, Michael is the head of the order of Besides, the Jews always claimed to be archangels ;" his design is a banner hango
ing on a cross, and he is armed, as re “ order of seraphims ;" his ensign is a presenting victory with a dart in one faming heart and a cross-staff. Gabriel hand, and a cross on his forehead. He he nakes governor of the “ order of enstyles Raphael as leader of the “ order of gels,” and his ensign a book and a staff
. powers,” with a thunderbolt and a flam- Of the other three archaagels in the print, ing sword to withstand the power of evil it would be difficult to collect an account angels. Uriel, he says, commands the immediately.
Our forefathers were told by the pre: flee about us as flies; they are ionumerdecessor of Alban Butler, that Michael able, and like flies they fill the air without bore the banner of the celestial host, number; and philosophers and doctors are chased the angel Lucifer and his follow- of opinion, that the air is as full of devils ers from heaven, and enclosed them in and wicked spirits “as the sonne bemes dark air unto the day of judgment, not iu ben full of small motes which is small the upper region, because there it is clear dust or poudre.”* and delightful, nor upon the earth, because there they could not torm nt mankind, but between heaven and earth, that Bishop Hall, in his “ Triumphs of when they look up they may see the joy Rome,"mentions a red velvet buekler to they have lost, and when they look down- have been preserved in a castle in Nor. ward, may see men mount to heaven from whence they feil. The relation says, they
• Golden Legend.
mandy which Michael wore in his combat departed to the distance necessary to the with the dragon.
work. “ This removing the rock," says Bishop Patrick who wrote subsequent- bishop Patrick, “ is a pretty stretcher l? ly, in 1674, says " I hope that the precious piece of St. Michael's red cloth is forthcoming--his dagger and his shield Michaelmas were to be seen at the beginning of this
It is noticed by Mr. Brand in his age, though one of their historians says, that five years before he came thither, in of the circumstances presently referred to,
“ Popular Antiquities,” which cites most 1607, the bishop of Avranches had for- that—“It has long been and still continues bidden his shield to be any more showed: the custom at this time of the year, or but who knows but some of the succeed- thereabouts, to elect the governors of ing bishops may have been better natured, and not have denied this gratification the peace of men, perhaps, as Bourne
towns and cities, the civil guardians of to the desires of their gaping devotees.”
supposes, because the feast of angels
naturally enough brings to our minds the Bishop Patrick cites a Roman catholic old opinion of tutelar spirits, who have, litany, wherein after addresses to God, or are thought to have, the particular, the Trinity, and the virgin Mary, there are charge of certain bodies of men, or disinvocations to St. Michael, St. Gabriel, tricts of country, as also that every man and St. Raphael, together with all the or- has his guardian angel, who attends him ders of angels, to“ pray for us." He from the cradle to the grave, from the also instances that in the old Roman moment of his coming in, to his going missal, and in the Sarum missal, there is a out of life.” proper mass to Raphael the archangel, as Mr. Nichols notices in the « Gentlethe protector of pilgrims and travellers, man's Magazine,” that on Monday, and a' skilful worker with medicine. October 1st, 1804,-“ The lord mayor Likewise an office for the continual inter- and alderman proceeded from Guildhall, cession of St.
Gabriel, and all the heaven- and the two sheriffs with their respective ly militia. In these catholic services St. companies from Stationers'-hall
, and Michael is invoked as a most glorious having embarked on the Thames, his and warlike prince," “chief officer of lordship in the city barge, and the sheriffs paradise," " captain of God's hosts,” in the stationers' barge, went in aquatic
the receiver of souls," " the vanquisher state to Palace-yard. They proceeded to of evil spirits,” and “ the admirable gene- the court of Exchequer: where, after the ral." After mentioning several miracles usual salutations to the bench (the cursiattributed by the Romanists to St. Mi- tor baron, Francis Maseres, Esq. presia chael, the bishop says, “ You see from ding) the recorder presented the two this legend, that when people are mad sheriffs; the several writs were then read, with superstition, any story of a cock and and the sheriffs and the senior unders a bull will serve their turn to found a sheriff took the usual oath. The cerefestival upon, and to give occasion for the mony, on this occasion, in the court of further veneration of a saint or an angel, Exchequer, which vulgar error supposed though the circumstances are never so to be an unme
meaning farce, is solemn and improbable.” He relates as an instance, impressive ; nor have the new sheriffs the that in a Romish church-book, Michael least connection either with chopping of is said to have appeared to 'a bishop, sticks, or counting of hobnails. The whom he required to go to a hill-top, tenants of a 'manor in Shropshire are**, where if he found a bull tied, he was to directed to come forth to do their suit
found a church, and dedicate it to God and service; on which the senior alderata Į and St. Michael. The bishop found the man below the chair steps forward, and
bull, and proceeded to found the church, chops a single stick, in token of its having but a rock on each side bindered the been customary for the tenants of that work, wherefore St. Michael appeared to manor to supply their lord with fuel." a man, and bade him go and put away The owners of á forge in the parish of the rock, and dread nothing ; so the man St. Clement (which formerly belonged to went, and a sette to his shoulders," and the city, and stood in the high road from hade the rock go away in the name 'o the Temple to Westminster, but now no God and St. Michael ; and so the rocks longer exists,) are then called forth to do
their suit and service; when an officer of place used to be purchased, but when the the court, in the presence of the senior late Mr. Cotterel died, who gave I bealderman, produces six horse-shoes and lieve upwards of 7000l. for it, and could sixty-one hobnails, which he counts over have parted with it for 9000l. but was in form before the cursitor baron ; who, prevented by the corporation, it was on this particular occasion, is the imme- made a gift place, and given to Mr. diate representative of the sovereign. Smith of the chamberlain's office, who
“The whole of the numerous company now holds it subject to an annual eles then again embarked in their barges, and tion. This has placed the office on a returned to Blackfriars-bridge, where the very different, less independent, and less state carriages were in waiting. Thence respectable footing, than it used to be. they proceeded to Stationers’-hall, where The predecessor of Mr. Cotterel, Heron a most elegant entertainment was given Powney, Esq., who enjoyed the office by Mr. Sheriff Domville.”
thirty-three years, exercised great authority throughout the house, and used, with
great form, to attend the lord mayor every To the Editor of the Every-Day Book. morning to instruct him in any necessary Sir,
ceremonial; and on all public occasions, I have no doubt but many thousands assisted by two yeomen, of the water of my fellow-citizens were unaware of the side, robed his lordship:
this is now perexistence and very recent destruction of formed by servants. There are four the baronial establishment of their chief swords the black, used on Good Friday, magistrate ; and that, therefore, by re- 30th of January, fire of London, and ali cording a few particulars you will endea- fast days, when his lordship ought to go vour to mark the era, when, perhaps, the to St. Paul's: on these days he wears his last of these gentlemanly households, once livery gown. The common sword, to go to be found in every knightly and 'noble to the sessions, courts of aldermen, comfamily, was destroyed in England. It is mon council, &c.; the Sunday sword; and I perhaps an unavoidable consequence of the pearl sword, which used to be carried change of manners; but to those who on very rare occasions only, but is now exdelight in contemplating those of their hibited at every turn. This gentleman, ancestors, to witness the wreck of what in the olden times, had apartments at the appears almost consecrated by ancient Old Bailey, and derived emolument from usage, affords any thing but a pleasur- granting admission to two galleries during able sensation. In former days those of the sessions. He wears a black silk darank considered it a degradation to have mask gown, and a cap of maintenance, menials officiate about their persons, and and chain upon state days. He sits at therefore created officers in their house- the head of the table which goes by his holds, which were looked upon as initia- pame, at which the gentlemen of the tory schools to every thing gallant or household diped when they were in waitpolite, and were consequently eagerly ing; but now they only dine together billed by noble youths and aspiring cadets. fourteen days in the year, on public oc' In imitation of those with whom for a casions. The lord mayors were latterly brief period he ranked, the lord mayor allowed 1500l. per annum for the main of London had an establishment arranged tenance of this table, which supplied for him, consisting of the following that in the servants' hall; but the latter officers :
have long been on board wages, to the Four Squires.
great loss of many an exhausted pauper.
The second squire was Mr. Common 1st. The sword-bearer, whose duty Hunt : his principal office is indicated by it was to advise his lordship of the ne- his title; but he was likewise master of cessary etiquette to be observed on stated the ceremonies. He was in waiting every occasions. To some it may appear very Monday and Wednesday, and every third animportant whether the lord mayor has Sunday while the house was in waiting. on a violet or a scarlet gown; whether the The last who held this office was Mr. mace is always carried before him or not, Charles Cotterel, brother to the late and strictly speaking it is so; but while sword-bearer, at whose death in 1807 it old customs are harmless, and tend to was abolished, and the duty of master of preserve dignity and good order, why the ceremonies has since been performed should they not be observed ? This by Mr. Goldham, one of the serjeants of
the chamber. The common hunt's house silver, nearly similar in form. - The used to be at the Dog-house-bar in the pewter one was used in the servants' bali City-road.
until it was rendered useless by the introThe third squire is Mr. Common Crier, duction of board wages. Except the whose duty it is to attend his lordship squires, attornies, and marshals, the with the mace to the courts of aldermen household now all wear black gowns, in and common council, common halls, and form like those of the 'livery, made of courts of hustings: he is in waiting every prince's stuff faced with velvet, though Tucsday and Thursday; and whenever formerly they were curious enough. Dis the lord mayor wears his searlet robes, vided as if by a herald into two parts, attends him with the mace. His dress dexter and sinister, one side was formed is a damask gown and counsellor's wig: of the colours distinguishing the lord he had apartments at Aldersgate. For- mayor's livery, and the other those of the merly this place was purchased, but not two sheriffs.
Nyd within the memory of man.
On Plough Sunday his lordship goes The fourth squire is the water-bailiff, to church to qualify, when two of the who is empowered by the lord mayor to yeomen of the water-side attend, that they act as sub-conservator of the Thames and may depose to this fact at the next sesMedway. He is in waiting every Friday sions. On the Monday, his lordship and Saturday, every third Sunday, and keeps wassail with his household, and all public days. Dress, damask gown. with his lady presides at the head of their Had apartments at Cripplegate. This is table. This used indeed to be a gala day; now likewise a gift place.
but elegance now takes place of profusion The four attornies used to attend his and hilarity. Formerly they could scarcely lordship in turn, weekly, to advise him in see their opposite neighbour for the piles his magisterial capacity; but this part of of sweetmeats; but these have disap their duty has now become obsolete, and peared to make way for the city plate and has devolved to Mr. Hobler.
artificial Aowers. The lady mayoress is To the lord mayor's household also generally accompanied by two or three properly belong three serjeant carvers, ladies, to obviate the unpleasantness of three serjeants of the chamber, one sere finding herself the only female among so jeant of the channel, one yeoman of the many strangers : the chaplain on that day chamber, two marshals, four yeomen of takes the lower end of the table. The the water-side, one yeoman of the chan- yeoman of the cellar is stationed behind nel, one under water-bailiff, six young his lordship, and at the conclusion of the
dinner produces two silver cups filled with The members of the household, with negus, and giving them to his lord and the exception of the four squires, at- lady, proclaims with a loud voice, “Mr. tornies, and marshals, had the privilege Sword-bearer, squires, and gentlemen of alienating their places on payment of all! my lord mayor and lady, mayoress 501. to the corporation; but if they died drink to you in a loving cup, and bid without paying this fine, their places you all heartily welcome !" After drinklapsed to the city, and the value of them ing, they pass the cups down each side of was consequently lost to their family. the table, for all to partake and drink But let the one who sold hold what situa- their healths. When the ladies retire the tion he might in this little republic, the chaplain leads her ladyship, and after a purchaser was admitted to only the few songs his lordship follows. lowest rank, that of junior young man, mighty silver bowl of punch was introthat all below the one who sold mighé duced, and a collection amounting to
nearly 251, used to be made for the serThe gentlemen were in waiting on vapts, They were all introduced, from fixed days; sometimes the whole num- the stately housekeeper to the kitchen ber, at others only a part, and at these girl, in merry procession to accept the times were entitled to a dinner, and on largess,, taste the punch, and perhaps any extra occasion when the sword was the cook or a pretty housemaid did not carried: there was a bill of fare for each escape without a kiss. This was not the day. At table, the marshals were the only day on which the servants partook lowest above the salt. This was formerly of the bounty of the gentlemen. Every made of pewter, but in the year Saturday there was a collection of three a carver presented the table with one of shillings and sixpence from the sword.
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