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Cambridge Term ends. St. Irenaeus, Bp. of Sirmium, A. D. 304. St. Simon, an Infant, Martyr. St. IP'illiam of Norwich. St. Simon, an Infant. The Jews are said to have murdered this infant in 1472. After having deliberated at their synagogue in the holy week, on the preparations for their passover, they came to the resolution of crucifying a child on Good Friday, and having stolen Simon, they made him the victim, and sung around his body while elevated. Whenever an act of cruelty was to be perpetrated on the Jews, fables like these were forged, and the brutal passions of the moblet loose upon the life and wealth of fugitive Israelites. St. William of Norwich, A. D. 1137, Was another of these pretended martyrs to Jewish hatred. Weever states, that “the Jews in the principal cities of the kingdom, did use sometimes to steal away, and crucify some neighbour's male child," as if it were a common practice. Since protestantism, no such barbarities have been imputed to the Jews.
CHRoNology. 1580. The first bombs were thrown upon the town of Wachtendonck in Guelderland. The invention is commonly attributed to Galen, bishop of Munster.
The Roman Catholic festival of the Annunciation is commonly called in England LADY DAY, an abridgement of the old term Our Lady's Day, or the Day of our blessed Lady.
This is a “gaudy day” in the Romish church. Deeming the mother of Christ an intercessor and mediatrix, it offers innumerable honours and devotions to her. Hail Mary 1 resounds in the masses to her praise; and the worshippers of her shrines and resemblances, are excited to a fervour of devotion which would astonish, if it were not known that sculpture, painting, poetry, vocal and instrumental music, have been added to revive the recollection of monkish fables, and early impressions in her behalf.
to the 60lben Mrgent, a book formerly read instead of the New Testament, but now, in degree, supplanted by Butler's more voluminous and almost equally miraculous “Lives of the Saints,” there is a story in honour of the virgin, concerning a noble and ignorant knight, who, to amend his life, entered an abbey, but was so incapable of learning, that he could say nothing but Ave Maria, which words he continually repeated wherever he was. When this knight died he was buried in the church-yard of the abbey, and there afterwards grew out of his grave a fair fleur de lis, and in every flower grew, in letters of gold, the words Ave Maria; and at the miracle, the brethren marvelled, and opened the sepulchre, and found the root of the fleur . de lis came out of the mouth of the said knight; and then they understood that he was to be honoured for his great devo
tion to the virgin, by using the words Ave Muria. There is another story in the “Golden Legend” of “another knyght.” “He had a fayre place bisyde the hye waye where moche people passed, whome he robbed,” and so he did all his life; yet he had “a good custom” of saluting the virgin every day, by saying Ave Maria, and so he went on committing highway robberies, and saluting the virgin day by day, till his people having put “a holy man” in bodily fear and robbed him, the said “holy man” desired to be brought before their master,the knight, and seeing him, required him to summon all his attendants, which the knight did; but the “holy man” objected that one of them was not present. Then the knight perceived that his chamberlain was not there, and called for him; and when the holy man saw the chamberlain, he conjured him to declare who he was, and the chamberlain being so enforced answered, “I am no man, but am a devil in the form of a man;” and he acknowledged that he had abided with the knight fourteen years, and watched him night and day, hoping the knight might leave off saying the salutation Ave Maria, that so he might strangle him, “and brynge him to hell,” because of his evil life; but, because there passed no day without the knight saying Ave Maria, the devil could not have him for all his long waiting. Then the knight fell down at the feet of the holy man, and demanded pardon of his sins, and the “holy man” commanded the devil to depart; wherefore says the “Golden Legend,” “let us o to the gloryous virgyn Mary, that she kepe us from the devyll.” The festival of the annunciation is kept at Rome by sumptuous shows. The author of “Rome in the nineteenth Century” relates the pope's proceedings on the occasion: “We drove through streets lined with expecting crowds, and windows hung with crimson and yellow silk draperies, and occupied by females in their most gorgeous attire, till we made a sto near the church before which the pope's horse-guards, in their splendid full-dress uniforms, were stationed to keep the ground; all of whom, both officers and men, wore in their caps a sprig of myrtle, as a sign of rejoicing. After waiting a short time, the procession appeared, headed by another detachment of the guards, mounted on prancing black
chargers, who rode forward to clear the way, o by such a flourish of trumpets and kettle-drums, that it looked at first like any thing but a peaceable or religious proceeding. This martial array was followed by a bareheaded priest, on a white mule, bearing the host in a gold cup, at the sight of which every body fell upon their knees. The so used formerly to ride upon the white mule himself, and all the cardinals used to follow him in their magnificent robes of state, mounted either on mules or horses; and as the Eminentissimi are, for the most part, not very eminent horsemen, they were generally fastened on, lest they should tumble off. This cavalcade must have been a very entertaining sight. Pius VI., who was a very handsome man, kept up this custom, but the (then) }. pope (Pius VII.) is far too infirm or such an enterprise; so he followed the man on the white mule, in a state coach ; at the very sight of which, we seemed to have made a jump back of two hundred years at least. It was a huge machine, composed almost entirely of plate-glass, fixed in a ponderous carved and gilt frame, through which was distinctly visible the person of the venerable old pope, dressed in robes of white and silver, and incessantly giving his benediction to the people, by a twirl of three fingers; which are typical of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; the last being represented by the little finger. On the gilded back of this vehicle, the only part that was not made of glass, was a picture of the pope in his chair of state, and the virgin Mary at his feet. This extraordinary machine was drawn by six black horses, with superb harness of crimson velvet and gold; the coachmen, or rather postillions, were dressed in coats of silver stuff, with crimson velvet breeches, and full bottomed wigs well powdered, without hats. Three coaches, scarcely less antiquely superb, followed with the assistant cardinals, and the rest of the train. In the inside of the church, the usual tiresome ceremonies went on that take place when the pope is present. He is seated on a throne, or chair of state; the cardinals, in succession, approach and kiss his hand, retire one step, and make three bows or nods, one to him in front, and one on the right hand, and another on the left; which are intended for him (as the per
sonification of the Father,) and for the
Son, and for the Holy Ghost, on either
side of him; and all the cardinals having gone through these motions, and the inferior priests having kissed his toe— that is, the cross, embroidered on his shoe—high mass begins. The pope kneels during the elevation of the host, prays in silence before the high altar, gets up and sits down, reads something out of a great book which they bring to him, with a lighted taper held beside it; and, having gone through many more such ceremonies, finally ends as he began, with giving his benediction with three fingers, all the way he goes out. During all the time of this high mass, the pope's military band, stationed on the platform in front of the church, played so many clamorous martial airs, that it effectually put to flight any ideas of religious solemnity.” In England, Lady Day is only remembered as the first quarter-day in the year, and is therefore only kept by tenants who truly pay rent to their landlords. A few years ago a country gentleman wrote a letter to a lady of rank in town, and sent it through the general post with the following address: 44 To “The 25th of March, “Foley-place, London.”
The postman duly delivered the letter at the house of Lady Day for whom it was intended.
1688. Parochial charity schools, for the education of the children of poor persons, were instituted” in London and its vicinity.
1748. A fire broke out at one o'clock in the morning in 'Change-alley, Cornhill, London, which raged for ten hours, consuming all the buildings in 'Changealley and Birchin-lane; and in Cornhill, from 'Change-alley to St. Michael's-alley, including several celebrated taverns and coffee-houses, and many valuable shops, including five booksellers. There were eighty houses destroyed by this conflagration.
1809. Anna Seward, the friend of Dr. Darwin, and recollected for her life of him, and for her poetry, and correspondence, died in the bishop's palace at Lichfield, aged 66. She was born at Eyan, in Derbyshire. Her poetry is easy, rather than vigorous.
ceeded to consecrate them by a prayer, and the people strewing palms before it.
commencing “I conjure thee, thou creature of flowers and branches, in the name of God the Father,” &c. This was to displace the devil or his influences, if he or they lurked or were hidden in or about the “creature of flowers and branches.” Then followed a prayer wherein he said, with crosses, “We humbly beseech thee that thy truth may + sanctify this creature of flowers and branches, and slips of palms,or boughs of trees,which we offer,” &c. Then the “creature of flowers and branches '' was fumed with smoke of frankincense from the censers, and there were other prayers with crossings, and they were sprinkled with holy water with this supplication: “Bless + and sanctify + these branches of palms, and other trees and flowers,” &c. en the sacrists distributed the palms to the abbots, priors, and nobler persons, and the flowers and leaves to the others. When this was done the procession moved, and afterwards ... a stand while two priests brought a Pascal in which the crucifix was laid ; afterwards the banner and cross-bearers filed off to the right and to the left, and the boys and monks of the convent arranged themselves, and, after a short service, the priests with the tomb, headed by the banner and cross, passed between the monks, who knelt as they passed. When they came to the citygates they divided again on two sides, and the shrine being put on a table, was covered with cloth. Above the entrance of the gates, in a place handsomely prepared with hangings, were boys with other singers whom the chanter had appointed, and these sang, “Gloria, Laus,” “Glory, praise,” &c. After having made a procession through the city, they returned to the convent-gate, where the shrine was laid on the table and covered with cloth, and a religious service was performed. The monks then returned to the church, and stood before the crucifix uncovered, while mass was performed ; and after they had communicated, the deacon first and the rest afterwards, they offered their palms and flowers, at the altar.” It was also an old Roman catholic custom on Palm Sunday, to draw about the town a wooden ass with a figure on it, representing Christ riding into Jerusalem,
* Fo-broke's British Monaco Brand's
Googe's Naogeorgus says:—
A woodden Asse they have, and Image great that on him rides, But underneath the Asse's feete a table broad there slides, Being borne on wheeles, which ready drest, and al things meete therfore, The Asse is brought abroad and set before the churche's doore: The people all do come, and bowes of trees and Palmes they bere, Which things against the tempest great the Parson conjures there, And straytwayes downe before the Asse, upon his face he lies, Whome there an other Priest doth strike. with rodde of largest sise: . He rising up, two lubbours great upon their faces fall, In straunge attire, and lothsomely, with filthie tune, they ball : Who, when againe they risen are, with stretching out their hande, They poynt unto the wooden knight, and, singing as they stande, Declare that that is he that came into the worlde to save, And to redeeme such as in him their hope assured have: And even the same that long agone, while in the streate he roade, The people mette, and Olive-bowes so thicke before him stroade. This being soung, the people cast the braunches as they passe, Some part upon the Image, and some part upon the Asse: Before whose feete a wondrous heape of bowes and braunches ly: This done, into the Church he strayght is drawne full solemlv : The shaven Priestes before them marche, the people follow fast, Still striving who shall gather first the bowes that downe are cast: For falsely they beleeve that these have force and vertue great, Against the rage of winter stormes and thunders flashing heate. In some place wealthie citizens, and men of sober chere, For no small summe doe hire this Asse with them about to bere, And manerly they use the same, not suffering any by To touch this Asse, nor to presume unto his presence ny. For they suppose that in this thing, they 8. do lightly serve, And well of him accepted are, and great rewardes deserve.
When the wooden ass had performed