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G. Cockburn, M.P., sir R. Wilson, M.P., hill, and executed by Messrs. Green, Mr. T. Wilson, M.P., Mr. W. Williams, Ward, and Green, in which firm he is M.P., Mr. Davies Gilbert, M. P., Mr.W. partner. Mr. Jones, on presenting it to the Smith, M. P., Mr. Holme Sumner, M.P., lord mayor, thus addressed his lordship: with several other persons of distinction, “ My lord, I have the honour to inform and the common sergeant, the city pleaders, you, that the committee of management and other city officers.
has appointed your lordship, in your chaThe lord mayor took his station by the racter of lord mayor of London, to lay the side of the stone, attended by four gentle- first stone of the new London-bridge, and men of the committee, bearing, one, the that they have directed me to present to glasscut bottle to contain the coins of the your lordship this trowel as a means of present reign, another, an English inscrip- assistance to your lordship in accomplishtion incrusted in glass, another, the mallet, ing that object.” and another, the level.
The lord mayor having signified his The sub-chairman of the committee, consent to perform the ceremony, Henry bearing the golden trowel, took his station Woodthorpe, esq., the town clerk, who on the side of the stone opposite the lord has lately obtained the degree of L. L. D., mayor.
held the copper plate about to be placed The engineer, John Rennie, esq., took beneath the stone with the following inhis place on another side of the stone, scription upon it, composed by Dr. Cople. and exhibited to the lord mayor the plans stone, master of Oriel-college, Oxford :and drawings of the bridge.
quum propter crebras nimis interiectas moles The members of the committee of
impedito cvrsv Arminis management, presented to the lord mayor
non levi saepe iactvra et vitae pericvlo the cut glass bottle which was intended
per angvstas favces to contain the several coins.
praecipiti aqvarvm impetv ferri solerent
Civitas Londinensis The ceremony commenced by the chil
his incommodis remidivm adhibere volens dren belonging to the wards' schools, Can
et celeberrimi simvl in terris emporii
vtilitatibvs consvlens dlewick, Bridge, and Dowgate, singing
regni insvper senatvs avctoritate “ God save the King.” They were sta
ac munificentia adivta
pontem tioned in the highest eastern gallery for
sitv prorsvs novo that purpose; the effect produced by their amplioribvs spatiis constrvendvm decrev
ea scilicet forma ac magnitvdine voices, stealing through the windings
quae regiae vrbis maiestati caused by the intervening timbers to the
Neque alio magis tempore depth below, was very striking and pecu
tantum opus inchoandvm duxit liar.
qvam cvm pacato ferme toto terrarvm orbe The chamberlain delivered to his lord
fama opibus myltitvdine civivm et concordia pollens ship the several pieces of coin: his lord
item gavderet ship put them into the bottle, and de
artivm favtore ac patrono posited the bottle in the place whereon
cvies svb avspiciis the foundation stone was to be laid.
novvs indies aedificiorvm splendor vrbi accederet. The members of the committee, bearing
Primum operis lapidem
posvit the English inscription incrusted on
Ioannes Garratt armiger glasses, presented it to the lord mayor.
praetor His lordship deposited it in the subjacent
anno regis Georgii Quarti sexto stone.
a, s. m.d.ccc.xxv. Mr. Jones, sub-chairman of the Bridge
loanne Rennie S.R.S. architecto. Committee, who attended
in purple gowns and with staves, presented the lord mayor, on behalf of the committee,
Translation. with an elegant silver-gilt trowel, em
The free course of the river bossed with the combined arms of the
being obstructed by the numerous piers “ Bridge House Estate and the City of
of the ancient bridge,
and the passage of boats and vessels London," and bearing on the reverse an
through its narrow channels inscription of the date, and design of its being often attended with danger and loss of life presentation to the right hon. the lord by reason of the force and rapidity of the current, mayor, who was born in the ward, and is desirous of providing a remedy for this evil,
and at the same time consulting a member of the guild wherein the new
the convenience of commerce bridge is situated. This trowel was de in this vast emporium of all nations,
under the sanction and with the liberal aid of signed by Mr. John Green, of Ludgate
xv. die Ivnii
resolved to erect a bridge
barking in national improvements, it must upon a foundation altogether new, with arches of wider span,
be the present, governed as we are by a and of a character corresponding
sovereign, patron of the arts, under whose to the diguity and importance of this royal city :
mild and paternal sway (by the blessing nor does any other time seem to be more suitable of divine providence) we now enjoy pro
for such an undertaking thaa when in a period of universal peace
found peace; living under a government the British empire,
by whose enlightened and liberal policy flourishing in glory, wealth, population, and domestic union,
our trade and manufactures are in a flouis governed by a prince,
rishing state ; represented by a parliament the patron and encourager of the arts, under whose auspices
whose acts of munificence shed a lustre the metropolis has been daily advancing in upon their proceedings : thus happily elegance and splendour,
situated, it is impossible not to hail such
advantages with other feelings than those The first stone of this work was laid
of gratitude and delight. I cannot conby Jolin Garratt, esquire;
clude these remarks without acknowledg. lord mayor, on the 15th day of June,
ing how highly complimentary I feel it io in the sixth year of king George the Fourth, the honourable office I now fill, to view and in the year of our Lord m.d.ccc.xxv.
such an auditory as surrounds me, among
whom are his majesty's ministers, several John Rennie, F.R.S. architect.
distinguished nobles of the land, the ma
gistrates and commonalty of this ancient Dr. Woodthorpe read the Latin in- and loyal city, and above all, (that which scription aloud, and the lord mayor, turn must ever enlighten and give splendour ing to the duke of York, addressed his to any scene,) a brilliant assembly of the royal highness and the rest of the com other sex, all of whom, I feel assured, pany.
will concur with me in expressing an Lord Mayor's Speech.
earnest wish that the new London-bridge,
when completed, may reflect credit upon “ It is unnecessary for me to say much the architects, prove an ornament to the upon the purpose for which we are assem- inetropolis, and redound to the honour of bled this day, for its importance to this its corporation. I offer up a sincere and great commercial city must be evident; fervent prayer, that in executing this great but I cannot refrain from offering a few work, there may occur no calamity ; that observations, feeling as I do more than in performing that which is most partiordinary interest in the aceomplishment cularly intended as a prevention of future of the undertaking, of which this day's danger, no mischief may occur with the ceremony is the primary step. I should general admiration of the undertaking." not consider the present a favourable The lord mayor's address was received moment to enter into the chronology or with cheers. His lordship then spread detailed history of the present venerable the mortar, and the stone was gradually structure, which is now, from the increased lowered by two men at a windlass. When commerce of the country, and the rapid finally adjusted, the lord mayor struck it strides made by the sciences in this king on the surface several times with a longdom, found inadequate to its purposes, handled mallet, and proceeded to asbut would rather advert to the great ad- certain the accuracy of its position, by vantages which will necessarily result placing a level on the top of the east end, from the execution of this national work. and then to the north, west, and south; Whether there be taken into consideration, his lordship passing to each side of the the rapid and consequently dangerous stone for that purpose, and in that order. currents arising from the obstructions oc- The city sword and mace were then placed casioned by the defects of this ancient on it crossways; the foundation of the edifice, which have proved destructive to new London-bridge was declared to be human life and to property, or its difficult laid ; the music struck up “God save the and incommodious approaches and accli. King;" and three times three excessive vity, it must be a matter of sincere con- cheers, broke forth from the company; gratulation that we are living in times the guns of the honourable Artillery Comwhen the resources of this highly favoured pany, on the Old Swan Wharf, fired a country are competent to a work of such salute by signal, and every face wore great public utility. If ever there was a smiles of gratulation. Three cheers were period more suitable than another for em- afterwards given for the duke of York;
three for Old England; and three for the ceived a notice to do him further honour architect, Mr. Rennie.
for the general festivity of his mayoralty. It was observed in the coffer-dam,
remarkable circumstance, that as the day advanced, a splendid sun
His lordship's name is Garratt; he is a
tez-dealer. Stow mentions that one of beam, which had penetrated through an accidental space in the awning above, similar name, and a grocer, was comme
morated by an epitaph in our lady's gradually approached towards the stone as the hour for laying it advanced, and chapel, in the church of St. Saviour's, during the ceremony, shone upon it with Southwark; which church the first pier dazzling lustre.
of the proposed bridge adjoins. He says, At the conclusion of the proceedings, Upon a fuire stone under the Grocers'
arms, is this inscription :the lord mayor, with the duke of York, and the other visitors admitted to the Garret some cal'd him, floor of the coffer-dam, retired; after
but that was too hye, which, many of the company in the gal
His name is Garrard, leries came down to view the stone, and
who now here doth lye;
Weepe not for him several of the younger ones were allowed
since he is gone before to ascend and walk over it. Some ladies
To heaven, where Grocers were handed up, and all who were so in
there are many more.* dulged, departed with the satisfaction of being enabled to relate an achievement honourable to their feelings.
It is supposed that the first bridge of
London was built between the years 993 Among the candidates for a place upon and 1016; it was of wood. There is a the stone, was a gentleman who had wit- vulgar tradition, that the foundation of dessed the scene with great interest, and the old stone bridge was laid upon woolseemed to wait with considerable anxiety packs : this report is imagined to have for an opportunity of joining in the plea- arisen from a tax laid upon wool towards sure of its transient occupants. This gen- its construction. The first stone-bridge tleman was P.T. W., by which initials he began in 1176, and finished in 1209, is known to the readers of the Morning was much injured by a fire in the Herald, and other journals. The light- Borough, in 1212, and three thousand ness and agility of his person, favoured people perished. On St. George's day, the enthusiasm of his purpose; he leapt 1395, there was a great justing upon it, on the stone, and there
between David, earl of Crawford, of Scot-toeing it and heeling it,
land, and lord Wells of England. It had With ball-room grace, and merry face,
a drawbridge for the passage of ships with Kept livelily quadrilling it,
provisions to Queenhíthe,with houses upon till three cheers from the spectators an
it, mostly tenanted by pin and needle
makers : nounced their participation in his merri- and a tower, whereon the heads of un
there was a chapel on the bridge, ment; he then tripped off with a graceful fortunate partisans were placed : an old bow, amidst the clapping of hands and map of the city, in 1597, represents a terother testimonials of satisfaction at a per- rible cluster ; in 1598, Hentzner the Gerformance wholly singular, because unpre
man traveller, counted above thirty poles cedented, unimitated, and inimitable.
with heads. Upon this bridge was placed
the head of the great chancellor, sir The lord mayor gave a grand dinner Thomas More, which was blown off the in the Egyptian-ball, at the Mansion- pole into the Thames and found by a wahouse, to 376 guests; the duke of York, lerman, who gave it to his daughter; she being engaged to dine with the king, kept it during life as a relic, and directed could not attend. The present lord mayor at her death it should be placed in her has won his way to the hearts of good arms and buried with her. livers, by his entertainments, and the Howel, the author of " Londinopolis," court of common council commenced in a paraphrase of some lines by Sanits proceedings on the following day by nazarius, has thishonourable mention of him for this entertainment especially, and complacently re
* $tow's Survey, 1633, page 886.
Encominn on London-bridge.
Thus has commenced, under the most held in the operations of to-day; the furfavourable auspices, a structure which is ther results are in the bosom of time; but calculated to secure from danger the do- from the spirit with which the work has mestic commerce of the port of London. been commenced, we have no doubt but That such a work has not long since been they will tend no less to the benefit, than executed, is attributable more to the the glory, of the citizens of London.* financial difficulties under which the cor There is something peculiarly imposporation of London has been labour- ing and impressive in ceremonies of this ing for the last quarter of a century, description, as they are usually conducted, than to any doubts of its being either and we certainly do uot recollect any preexpedient or necessary. A similar de- vious spectacle of a similar nature, which sign to that which is now in course of can be said to have surpassed in general execution, was in contemplation more interest, grandeur of purpose, or splendid than thirty years ago; and we believe effect, than that just recorded. that many of the first architects of the day It is at all times agreeable to a philosent in plans for the removal of the old sophical mind, and an understanding bridge, and the construction of a new which busies itself, not only with the surpridge in its place. A want of funds to face and present state of things, but also complete such an undertaking compelled with their substance and remote tendenthe projectors of it, to abandon it for a cies, to contemplate the exercise of hutime; but the improved condition of the man power, and the triumphs of human finances of the corporation, the increasing ingenuity, whether developed in physical commerce of the city of London with the or mental efforts, in the pursuit of obinternal parts of the country, the growing jects which comprehend a mixture of prosperity of the nation at large, and we both. And perhaps, it is in a good demay also add, a more general conviction gree attributable to this secret impulse of derived from longer experience, that the our nature, which operates in some depresent bridge was a nuisance which de- gree upon all, however silent and imperserved to be abated, induced them to re- ceptible in its operation, that the mass of sume it, and to resume it with a zeal pro- mankind are accustomed to take such an portionate to the magnitude of the object eager interest in ceremonials like the prewhich they had in view. Application sent. It is true, that show, and preparawas made to parliament for the grant of tion, and bustle, and the excitement cona sum of money to a purpose which, when sequent upon these, are the immediate considered with regard either to local or and apparent motives; but it does not to national interests, was of great import- therefore follow that the other reasons ance. That application was met with a are inefficient, or that because they are spirit of liberality which conferred as less prominent and apparent, they are much honour upon the party who re- therefore inoperative. The erection of a ceived, as upon the party who gave, the bounty. The first results of it were be
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bridge, without reference to the immediate fresh vein through which that commerce, object or the extent of its design, is per which is the life-blood of our national se a triumph of art over nature-a con- prosperity and greatness will have to quering of one of these obstacles, which flow. the latter, even in her most bountiful and propitious designs, delights to present to This is one of those public occurrences man, as if for the purpose of calling his which may be cor.sidered as an event in a powers into exercise, and affording him man's life, and an epoch in the city's histhe quantity of excitement necessary to tory—a sort of station in one's worldly the happiness of a sentient being. But journey, from which we measure our disif we do not entertain these sentiments, tances and dates. To witness the manand give them utterance in so many words, ner and the moment, in which is laid we nevertheless feel and act upon them. the first single resting stone of a grand We delight to attend spectacles like the national structure—the very origin of the present, where the first germ of a stu- existence of a massive and magnificent pendous work is to be prepared. We pile, which will require years to complete, look round on the complicated apparatus, and ages to destroy, has an elevating and and the seemingly discordant and unor- sul lime effect on the mind. ganized beams and blocks of wond and
Great public works are the truest signs granite, and then we think of the simple of a nation's prosperity and power; oristructure, the harmonious and complete gina:ly ils grandest ornaments, and itti. whole to which these confused elements mately the strongest proofs of its exiswill give birth. Such a structure is preg- tence. Its religion, language, arts, scinant with a multitude of almost indetin- ences, government, and history, may be able thoughts and anticipations. We be- swept into nothingness; but yet its na. think ourselves of the stream of human tional buildings will remain entire through life, which, some five years hence, will the lapse of successive ages-after their flow over the new London-bridge as
very founders are forgotten-after their thickly, and almost with as little cessa- local history has become a mere matter tion, as the waters of the Thames below: of conjecture. The columns of Palmyra and then we reflect upon the tide of hopes stand over the ashes of their framers, in a and fears which that human stream will desert as well of history as of sand. The carry in its bosom! One of our first re- palaces of imperial Rome are still existing, flections will necessarily be of its adap- though her religion, her very language, is tation to trade and commerce, of which it dead; and the history of the man-wrought will then constitute a new and immense miracles of Egypt, had been looked at conduit. Trade, and science, and learn- but as the very dreamings of philosophy ing, and war, (Providence long avert it!) long before Napoleon said to his Egypwill at various periods pass across it. tion army—“ From the summits of these Next we consider what will be the imme- pyramids, forty centuries are looking diate and individual destiny of the struc- down upon you." ture:
-is it to moulder away after the Of ali public edifices, a bridge is the lapse of many ages, under the slow but most necessary, the most generally and effectual influence of time, or to suffer frequently useful-open at all hours and dilapidation suddenly from the operation to all persons. It was probably the very of some natural convulsion ? Will it fall first public building. Some conjecture, before the wrath or wilfulness of man, or is that the first hint of it was taken from an it to be displaced by new improvements uprooted tree lying across a narrow curand discoveries, in like manner as its old rent. What a difference between that and many-arched neighbour makes way first natural bridge, and the perfection of for it—and as that once superseded its pontifical architecture-the vast, solid, narrower and shop-covered predecessor ? and splendid Waterloo the monumentum These are questions which the imagi- si quæras of John Rennie. We feel pleanative man may ask himself; but who is
sure in learning, that the new Londonto answer? However, even the man of bridge has been designed by the same business may be well excused in indulg- distinguished architect. It falls to the ing some speculations such as these, upon lot of the son to consummate the plans of the occasion of the erection of a structure, the father we hope with equal success, which is to constitute a new artery to and fro in the mighty heart of London-a
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