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rat. Jam primum juventus, "simul laboris ac belli patiens erat; in castris per usum militiam discebat: magisque in decoris armis et militaribus equis, quam in scortis atque conviviis, lubidinem habebant. Igitur talibus viris non labos insolitus, non locus ullus asper, aut arduus erat, non armatus hostis formidolosus: 'virtus omnia domuerat. Sed gloriae maxumum certamen inter ipsos erat: Psese quisque hostem ferire, murum adscendere, conspici dum tale facinus faceret, properabat : eas divitias, eam bonam famam magnamque

nobilitatem putabant: laudis avidi, pecuniae liberales erant: gloriam ingentem, divitias honestas volebant. Memorare possem, quibus in locis "maxumas hostium copias populus Romanus parva manu fuderit; quas urbes, natura munitas, pugnando ceperit; 'ni ea res longius ab incepto traheret.

VIII. SED profecto Fortuna in omni re dominatur: ea 'res.cunctas, ex lubidine magis quam ex vero, celebrat obscuratque. Atheniensium res gestae, sicuti ego 'aestumo, satis amplae magnificaeque fuere; verum aliquanto minores tamen, quam fama feruntur. Sed, quia provenere ibi 'scripto. rum magna ingenia, per terrarum orbem Athenien, sium facta pro maxumis celebrantur.

m Simul, &c. For simul ac, which are the words in some editions, in which laboris ac are omitted,

n Belli. The Roman' youth were liable to be called into military service at 17 years of age, and were exempted at 46. Afterwards they continued to serve till they were 50 years of age.

o Virtus: Fortitude.

p. Sese. For se. This pronoun is omitted in most editions : sese ferire is a pleonasm, similar to sese præstare.

4 Eas divitias-putabant. An uncommon mode of expression: instead of in iis rebus divitias, &c. posita esse putabant ; or, eas divitias esse veras divitias, eam famam bonam esse famam,

&c. r Maxumas. An archaism frequent in this author, for maximas.

s Ni ea res. For ni id, a mode of expression frequent in. Sallust. t Res cunctas.

For cuncta. U Æstumo. An archaism for æstimo. Other editions have cxistimo.

Ita eorum qui fecere, virtus tanta habetur, quantum verbis "eam potuere extollere praeclara ingenia. At popula Romano numquam %ea copia fuit : quia prudentis. simus quisque negotiosus maxume erat ; ingenium nemo sine corpore exercebat ; Yoptumus quisque facere, quam dicere; sua ab aliis benefacta laudari, quam ipse aliorum narrare, malebat.

IX. IGITUR domi militiaeque boni mores colebantur; concordia maxuma, minuma avaritia erat; jus bonumque apud eos, non legibus magis quam natura, valebat. Jurgia, discordias, simultates, cum hostibus exercebant: cives cum civibus de virtute certabant: in 'suppliciis deorum magnifici, domi parci, in amicis fideles erant. Duabus his artibus, audacia in bello, ubi pax evenerat, aequitate, seque remque publicam curabant. Quarum rerum ego maxuma documenta haec habeo ; quod sæpius vindicatum est in eos, qui contra imperium in hostem pugnaverant, quique tardius, revocati, bello excesserant, quam qui signa relinquere, aut,

Scriptorum. Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, and others. w Eam. Referring to virtutem. In some other editions we find' ea, agreeing with ingenia.

* Ea copia. That advantage. y Optumus. An archaism for optimus: thus minuma for minima in the next sentence. This use of u for i is common in Sallust, and requires no further notice.

2 Bonum. A substantive, goodness or virtue : bona in the plural signifies goods or effects.

a Suppliciis. Sacrifices, worship. Supplicium signifies both punishment and supplication, worship or sacrifice; because the subject of punishment was supposed both to avert the wrath of the gods, by suffering, or bearing the penalty on behalf of the people; and to engage the deities to listen to their prayers, by being offered as a sacrifice for their guilt. The goods of criminals were also made an offering to the offended deity.

V

pulsi, loco cedere ausi erant; in pace vero, quod beneficiis, quam metu; imperium cagitabant, et, accepta injuria, ignoscere, quam persequi, malebant.

X. Sed, ubi labore atque justitia respublica crevit, reges magni bello domiti, nationes ferae, et dpopuli ingentes vi subacti, Carthago, aemula imperii Romani, ab stirpe interiit, cuncta maria terraeque patebant; saevire Fortuna, ac miscere omnia, coepit. Qui labores, pericula,, dubias atque asperas res facile toleraverant, iis otium, divitiae foptandae aliis, oneri miseriaeque fuere. Igitur primo pecuniae, deinde imperii cupido crevit: ea quasi &materies omnium malorum fuere. Namque avaritia fidem, probitatem, ceterasque "artis bonas subvertit; pro his, superbiam, crudelitatem, deos ineglegere, omnia venalia habere, edocuit : ambitio multos mortalis falsos fieri subegit; aliud clausum in pectore, aliud in lingua promptum habere ; amicitias inimicitiasque, non ex *re, sed ex commodo, aestumare; magisque vultum, quam ingenium bonum habere. Haec primo paullatim crescere, interdum vindicari: 'post, ubi, contagio quasi, pestilentia invasit, civitas immutata, imperium, ex justissumo atque optumo, crudele intolerandumque factum.

b Quam. Magis being understood: in some editions it is expressed.

c Agitabant. For agebant; the frequentative for the primitive verb.

d Populi. This word in the plural signifies tribes, &c.

e Carthago. Once a famous and flourishing city in Africa, not far from the present city of Tunis.

f Optandæ. Agrees with divitiæ, the noun nearest to it.

& Materies. Of the fifth declension; sometimes materia, of the first.

h Artis. For artes.

i Negłegere. An archaism for negligere. Deos negligere, for negligentiam deorum.

According to their real value. 1 Post. By enallage for postea. Contagio quasi, by a sort of contagion, contagio being the ablative.

* Ex re.

XI. Sed primo magis ambitio, quam avaritia, animos hominum exercebat: quod tamen vitium propius "virtutem erat. Nam gloriam, honorem, imperium, "bonus, ignavus, aeque sibi exoptant: sed ille 'vera via nititur; huic quia bonae artes de sunt, dolis atque fallaciis contendit. Avaritia pecuniae Pstudium habet, quam nemo sapiens concupivit: ea, quasi venenis malis imbuta, corpus animumque virilem effeminat : semper infinita, insatiabilis, neque copia, neque inopia, minuitur. Sed, postquam L. Sulla, armis recepta republica, bonis initiis malos eventus habuit; rapere omnes, trahere, domum alius, alius agros cupere; neque modum, neque modestiam, victores habere, foeda crude. liaque in civibus facinora facere. Huc accedebat, quod L. Sulla exercitum, quem in Asiam ductaverat, quo sibi fidum faceret, contra morem majorum, luxuriose nimisque liberaliter habuerat; loca amoena, voluptaria, facile in otio ferocis militum animos molliverant. Ibi primum insuevit exe ercitus populi Romani "amare, potare; signa, tabulas pictas, vasa caelata mirari; ea 'privatim ac

- m Virtutem. Governed by ad understood.

n Bonus. Used for fortis, as appears by its being contrasted with ignavus.

Vera via. By lawful means; vera being used for legitima. P Studium habet. For studium est, or, in se complectitur studium.

9 Recepta republica. For recuperata; having recovered, or delivered the state from the tyranny of Marius and Cinna; or recepta, may be used for potitus, having got possession of the government.

f Huc accedebat. To this was added.

s Ductaverat. For duxerat. The frequentative again used for the primitive. In Asiam, for intra Asiam: so in chap. xix. in provinciam, for intra provinciam. Some editions have in Asia.

¢ Amæna. Jucundus commonly refers to the mind, amænus to the sight, and voluptarius generally denotes corporeal plear sures, particularly lust.

u Amare, potare. Amare is here taken in a bad sense for Scortari. Bibere, to drink; potare, to tipple.

Privatim ac publice. They carried them off by violence, publice rapere; delubra spoliare; sacra profanaque omnia polluere. Igitur hi milites, postquam victoriam adepti sunt, nihil reliqui victis fecere. Quippe secundae res sapientium Wanimos fatigant: *ne illi, corruptis moribus, victoriae temperarent.

XII. POSTQUAM divitiae honori esse coepere, et eas gloria, imperium, potentia sequebatur; hebescere virtus, paupertas probro haberi, innocentia pro 'malivolentia duci coepit. Igitur, ?ex divitiis, juventutem luxuria atque avaritia, cum superbia invasere: rapere, consumere; sua parvi pendere, aliena cupere; pudorem, pudicitiam, divina atque humana promiscua, nihil pensi atque moderati habere. Operae pretium est, quum domus atque villas cognoveris in urbium modum exaedificatas, visere templa deorum, quae nostri majores, religiosissumi mortales, fecere. aVerum illi delubra de. orum pietate, domos sua gloria decorabant; neque victis quidquam, praeter injuriae licentiam, eripiebant. At hi contra, ignavissumi homines, per summum scelus, omnia ea sociis adimere, quae fortissumi viri (victores reliquerant: proinde quasi injuriam facere, id demum esset imperio uti.

whether they belonged to private persons or to the public; or rather they pilfered them privately, or carried them off publicly by the authority of their generals. Rapere is almost always taken in a bad sense.

w Animos fatigant. Corrupt, or enervate the minds.

x Ne. Used for nedum, much less, which is the reading in some editions.

y Malivolentia. More commonly written malevolentia. Not from a principle of integrity, but through spite and opposition.

2 Ex divitiis. In consequence of riches.

a Verum. Refers to the sentiment naturally occurring to the mind, on observing the contrast between the simplicity of the ancient temples, and the splendid decorations of the modern; but not expressed in the text.

b Sua. In other editions suas, which enfeebles the sense.

c Victores. In most editions is followed by bostibus, which renders the thought more forcible, but wholly changes the sense.

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