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Numidiam procedit: ubi, contra belli faciem, tuguria plena hominum, pecora cultoresque in agris: ex oppidis et "mapalibus praefecti regis obvii procedebant, parati frumentum dare, 'commeatum portare, postremo omnia, quae imperarentur, facere. Neque Metellus idcirco minus, sed pariter ac si hostes adessent, munito agmine incedere, late explorare omnia, illa deditionis signa ostentui credere, et insidiis locum Ptentare. Itaque ipse cum expeditis cohortibus, item funditorum et sagittariorum delecta manu, apud primos erat: in postremo C. Marius legatus cum equitibus curabat: in utrumque latus auxiliarios equites tribunis legionum et praefectis cohortium dispertiverat, uti cum his permixti "velites, quacumque accederent, equitatus hostium propulsarent. Nam in Jugurtha tantus dolus, tantaque peritia locorum et militiae erat, uti, absens, an praesens, pacem, an bellum gerens, perniciosior esset, in incerto haberetur.

XLVII. ERAT haud longe ab eo itinere, quo Metellus pergebat, oppidum Numidarum, nomine 'Vaga, 'forum rerum venalium totius regni maxume celebratum; ubi et incolere, et mercari consueve

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Mapalibus. Huts, cottages; but here perhaps villages. o Commeatum portare. To bring provision, or perhaps to convey or transport the provisions of his army from place to place.

p Tentare. Either he examined the place to discover an am. bush; or hostes is understood, and the meaning is, that the enemy sought to find a place proper for an ambuscade. But if the latter meaning be adopted, tentari would rather be used, to be governed by credere, which is the opinion of Gronovius. The meaning, however, is obvious: for both these modes of explanation ultimately amount to the same thing.

9 Velites. Light-armed troops, who fought in front of the army, or on the wings ; so called a volando, from vaulting be. hind the cavalry for the sake of expedition, and leaping from the horses when they approached the enemy.

s Forum, &c. A mart for buying and selling commodities.

rant Italici generis multi mortales. Huc consul, simul tentandi gratia, si spaterent opportunitates loci, praesidium imposuit; praeterea imperavit frumentum, et alia, quae bello usui 'forent: ratus id, quod res monebat, frequentiam negotiatorum et commeatum (juvaturum exercitum] etiam paratis rebus munimento fore. Inter haec negotia Jugurtha impensius modo legatos supplices mittere, pacem orare; praeter suam liberorumque vitam, omnia Metello dedere. Quos item, uti priores, consul illectos ad proditionem domum dimittebat: regi pacem, quam postulabat, neque abnuere, neque polliceri, et inter eas moras promissa legatorum exspectare.

XLVIII. JUGURTHA ubi Metelli dicta cum factis composuit, ac se suis artibus tentari animadvortit; quippe cui verbis pax nunciabatur, ceterum re bellum asperrumum erat, urbs maxuma alienata, ager hostibus cognitus, animi popularium tentati; coactus rerum necessitudine, statuit armis certare. Igitur explorato hostium itinere, in spem victoriae adductus ex opportunitate loci, quas maxumas copias potest omnium generum parat, ac per tramites occultos exercitum Metelli antevenit. Erat in ea parte Numidiae, quam Adherbal in divisione possederat, flumen oriens a meridie, nomine Muthul;

s Paterent. Should be free for his use, i.e. if he should be permitted freely to enjoy the advantages which the place afforded. Other editions have paterentur, which will perhaps be generally preferred.

* Forent. After this word we find in some editions compor. tare, which appears necessary neither to the sense nor to the construction.

u Commeatum. Must here signify the intercourse they maintained, or the great resort of people to the town. will have it commeatu, with provision.

Quas. In some editions quam, which is certainly the common mode of expression in similar cases even in our author.

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a quo aberat mons ferme millia passuum xx. "tractu pari, *vastus ab natura et humano cultu: sed ex eo medio quasi collis oriebatur, in immensum pertinens, vestitus oleastro ac mirtetis, aliisque generibus arborum, quae ?humi arido atque arenoso gig. nuntur. Media autem planicies deserta, penuria aquae, praeter Aumini propinqua loca: ea consita arbustis, pecore atque cultoribus frequentabantur.

XLIX. Igitur in eo colle, quem, Ctransvorso itinere, porrectum docuimus, Jugurtha, dextenuata suorum acie, consedit: elephantis et parti copiarum pedestrium Bomilcarem praefecit, eumque edocet, quae ageret: ipse propior montem cum omni equitatu 'pedites delectos collocat: dein singulas turmas atque manipulos circumiens monet atque obtestatur, uti memores pristinae virtutis et victoriae seque regnumque suum ab Romanorum avaritia defendant: cum his certamen fore, quos antea victos sub jugum miserint: ducem illis, non animum mutatum : quae ab imperatore fdecuerint, omnia suis provisa; locum superiorem, uti &prudentes cum imperitis, ne pauciores cum pluribus, aut rudes cum bello melioribus manum consererent: proinde parati intentique essent, signo dato, Romanos in

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w Tractu pari. Extending in a course parallel to the river.

* Vastus. Waste or desolate by nature, and left uncultivated by the industry of man.

y Quasi collis, &c. A sort of hill arose, extending in immen. sum, scil. spatium.

2 Humi arenoso, &c. Solo understood.
a Flumini. In some editions fluminis.
b Consita. Grown up, overgrown.
c Transvorso itinere. Across the line of his march.

Extenuata, &c. Having extended his army into a thin rank. e Pedites, &c. In some editions & peditibus delectis. f Decuerint. Scil. provideri.

8 Prudentes. Either those acquainted with the country might contend with strangers to the ground; or those who were aware of, and expected an engagement with persons taken unaware.

vadere: illum diem aut omnis labores et victorias confirmaturum, aut maxumarum aerumnarum ini. tium fore." Ad hoc viritim, ut quemque, ob militare facinus, pecunia aut honore extulerat, commonefacere beneficii sui, et eum ipsum aliis ostentare: postremo, pro cujusque ingenio, pollicendo, minitando, obtestando, alium alio modo excitare : cum interim Metellus, ignarus hostium, monte degrediens cum exercitu "conspicitur: primo dubius, quidnam insolita facies ostenderet, (nam inter virgulta 'equi Numidaeque consederant, neque plane occultati humilitate arborum, et tamen Wincerti, quidnam esset ; cum natura loci, tum dolo, ipsi atque signa militaria, obscurati) dein, brevi cogni. tis insidiis, paullisper agmen 'constitit : ibi mcommutatis ordinibus, in dextero latere, quod prozu. mum hostis erat, "triplicibus subsidiis aciem in. struxit : "inter manipulos funditores et sagittarios dispertit: equitatum omnem in cornibus locat: ac pauca pro tempore milites hortatus, aciem, sicuti instruxerat, Ptransvorsis principiis, in planum de. ducit.

L. Sed, ubi Numidas quietos, neque colle de gredi animadvortit, veritus ex anni tempore et in.

h Conspicitur. In some editions conspicatur, which must then be taken in a passive sense.

i Equi Numideque. The Numidians, both cavalry and infantry: thus equi virique signify horsemen and footmen.

k Incerti. Cum cerni non possent, not clearly to be distinguished, so as to determine what it was. Or thus: erat aliquid incerti, &c.

I Constitit. Some editions have constituit; but constitit is sometimes taken actively; he halted.

m Commutatis, &c. Having changed the disposition of his troops.

Triplicibus, &c. With three bodies of reserve ; with three lines behind his foot to serve as reserves.

o Inter manipulos. In the vacant spaces between the maniples

* Transvorsis, &c. Having turned the front into the Aank.

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opia aquae, ne siti conficeretur exercitus, Rutilium legatum cum expeditis cohortibus et parte equitum 9praemisit ad flumen, uti locum castris antecaperet; existumans, hostis crebro impetu et "transvorsis praeliis iter suum remoraturos, et, quoniam ar. mis diffiderent, “lassitudinem et sitim militum tentaturos. Dein ipse pro re atque loco, sicuti monte descenderat, paullatim procedere: Marium 'post principia habere: ipse cum sinistrae alae equitibus esse, qui in agmine "principes facti erant.

At Jugurtha, ubi extremum agmen Metelli "primos suos praetergressum videt, praesidio quasi duûm millium peditum montem occupat, qua Metellus descenderat; ne forte cedentibus advorsariis receptui, ac post munimento foret: dein, repente signo dato, hostis invadit. Numidae alii postremos caedere ; pars a sinistra ac dextera tentare: infensi adesse atque instare: omnibus locis Romanorum ordines conturbare ; quorum etiam qui firmioribus animis obvii hostibus fuerant, ludificati incerto praelio, ipsi modo eminus sauciabantur, neque contra feriundi, aut manum conserendi copia erat. Antea jam docti ab Jugurtha equites, ubicumque Romanorum turba insequi coeperat, non confertim, neque in unum sese recipiebant, sed alius alio quam maxume divorsi. Ita numero priores, si ab persequendo hostis deterrere nequiverant, disjectos ab tergo, aut lateribus circumveniebant: sin opportunior fugae collis, quam campi fuerant, Wea vero

9 Premisit. In some editions premiserat.

Transvorsis, &c. By attacks on his flanks. s Lassitudinem, &c. Would try the effect of weariness and thirst on his, Metellus's men.

Post principia. Behind the first line. Principes. The foremost. v Primos. The foremost of his men; those nearest to the mountain, and of course first met by Metellus.

* Ea. Fuga understood. In some editions eo.

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