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legibus ambitus interrogati, poenas dederant. Post paullo Catilina, pecuniarum repetundarum reus, prohibitus erat consulatum petere, quod intra legitimos dies profiteri nequiverit. Erat eodem tempore Cn. Piso, adolescens nobilis, summae daciae, egens, factiosus, quem ad perturbandam rempublicam inopia atque mali mores stimulabant. Cum hoc, Catilina et Autronius, consilio communicato, parabant in Capitolio, Kalendis Januariis, L Cottam et L. Torquatum consules interficere ; ipsi, sfascibus correptis, Pisonem cum exercitu ad obtineridas duas "Hispanias mittere. nita, rursus in Nonas Februarias consilium caedis transtuleránt. Jam tum non consulibus modo, sed plerisque senatoribus perniciem machinabantur.

Ea re cog

¢ Autronius. After this word are inserted in some editions circiter nonas decembr.

f Kalendis, or Calendis. From the old verb calo, originating from the Greek xanew voco. The first day of every month was called the Calends ; because, being the first day of the moon, or the day of new moon, it was necessary for the priests, who had the charge of the Calendar, to have the first day of the month publicly proclaimed to the people. The nones were so called because there were nine days, counting inclusively, be. tween them and the ides, which were so named from the old verb iduare, to divide, because they nearly divided the month. The nones of the months of March, May, July, and October, fell on the 7th, and the ides on the 15th day of the month. In the other months the nones fell on the 5th, and the ides on the 13th. The Romans counted backwards: the day before the calends, nones and ides being called pridie Calendas, nonas, idus, ante being understood ; and the day preceding that, tertius Kalendas, &c. The word Kalende is the only Latin word, except proper names, in which k is used. The Greeks divided their months very differently from the Romans.

& Fascibus. The fasces were a bundle of rods with an axe tied in the middle of them, which were carried before the kings, and afterwards before the consuls, as an emblem of their power,

h Hispanias. Hither and thither Spain, called by the Ro. mans Citerior & Ulterior,

i Transtulerant. In other editions transtulerunt, which seems Preferable.

Quod ni Catilina maturasset "pro curia signum sociis dare, eo die, post conditam urbem Romanam, pessumum facinus patratum foret. Quia nondum frequentes armati convenerant, ea res consilium diremit.

XIX. Postea Piso in citeriorem Hispaniam quaestor pro praetore missus est, adnitente Crasso, quod eum infestum minimicum Cn. Pompeio cog. noverat. Neque tamen senatus provinciam invi. tus dederat: quippe foedum hominem a republica procul "esse volebat: simul, quia boni quam plures praesidium in eo putabant: et jam tum potentia Cn. Pompeii formidolosa erat. Sed is Piso, in provinciam, ab equitibus Hispanis, quos in exercitu ductabat, iter faciens, occisus est. ita dicunt, imperia ejus injusta, superba, crudelia, barbaros nequivisse pati : alii autem, equites illos, Cn. Pompeii veteres fidosque clientes, voluntate ejus Pisonem 'adgressos; numquam Hispanos Ppraeterea tale facinus fecisse, sed imperia saeva multa

Sunt qui

senate met.

k Pro curia. Before the senate house, or place where the

1 Quæstur pro prætore. With prætorian power. The quæstors had charge of the public money, and of its disbursement, and of the share of the plunder taken by the army, which belonged to the public; for which reason one attended every army. It was the lowest office that gave admission into the senate. The prætors superintended the courts of justice; they were also sent out as governors of provinces, and of course commanded armies,

m Inimicum. An inveterate enemy. To some editors inimie cum after infestum has appeared superfluous, and is, therefore, emitted.

n Esse. In some editions abesse.

o Ailgressos. An archaism for aggresso® : so adpellare afterwards for appellare. Adgressos esse is gove. nied by equites, horsemen, who, according to Sallust, were old and faithful adhes, rents of Pompey

P Præterea. In any other instance.

antea perpessos. Nos eam rem in medio relinquemous. De superiore conjuratione satis dictum.

XX. CATILINA ubi eos, quos paullo ante memoravi, convenisse videt; tametsi cum singulis multa saepe egerat, tamen 'in rem fore credens universos adpellare et cohortari, in abditam partem aedium 'secedit; atque ibi, omnibus arbitris procul amotis, orationem hujuscemodi habuit. “ Ni virtus fides que vestra 'spectata mihi forent, nequidquam opportuna res cecidisset ; spes magna, "dominatio, in manibus frustra fuissent: neque 'ego, per ignaviam, aut vana ingenia, incerta pro certis captarem. Sed, quia multis et magnis tempestatibus vos cognovi fortes fidosque mihi, eo animus Wausus maxumum atque pulcherrumun facinus *incipere: simul, quia vobis, eadem 'mihi, bona malaque intellexi; nam idem velle ?atque nolle, ea demum firma amicitia est. Sed ego quae

mente agitavi, omnes jam antea diversi audistis.. Ceterum mihi in dies magis animus accenditur, cum considero, quae conditio vitae futura sit, nisi nosmet ipsi vindicamus in libertatem. Nam, postquam respublica in paucorum jus atque ditionem concessit, semper illis reges, 'tetrarchae vectigales esse ; 'populi, nationes stipendia pendere ; ceteri omnes, strenui, boni, nobiles atque ignobiles, vulgus fuimus, sine gratia, sine auc. toritate, his obnoxii, quibus, si respublica “valeret, formidini essemus. Itaque omnis gratia, potentia, honos, divitiae apud illos sunt, aut ubi illi volunt: repulsas nobis reliquere, pericula, judicia, egesta, tem. Quae quousque tandem patiemini, fortissumi viri ? Nonne demori per virtutem praestat, quam vitam miseram atque inhonestam, ubi alienae superbiae ludibrio fueris, per dedecus amittere? Verum enim vero, pro deûm atque hominum fidem! victoria nobis in manu: viget aetas, animus valet : contra illis, annis atque divitiis, omnia consenue. runt. Tantum modo incepto opus est: "cetera res expediet. Etenim quis mortalium cui virile ingenium, tolerare potest, illis divitias superare, quas profundant in extruendo mari et montibus . coae. quandis; nobis rem familiarem etiam ad necessaria deesse? illos binas, aut famplius, domos continu. are; nobis blarem familiarem nusquam ullum esse? Cum tabulas, signa, toreumata emunt; "nova diruunt, alia aedificant; postremo omnibus modis pecuniam trahunt, vexant: tamen *summa lubidine divitias vincere nequeunt. At nobis domi inopia, foris aes alienum ; mala res, spes multo asperior : denique, quid reliqui habemus, praeter miseram animam? Quin igitur expergiscimini? En illa, illa quam saepe optastis, libertas, praeterea divitiae, decus, gloria, in oculis sita sunt! fortuna omnia victoribus praemia posuit. Res, tempus, pericula, egestas, belli spolia magnifica magis, quam oratio, hortentur. Vel imperatore, vel milite me utimini : neque animus, neque corpus a vobis aberit. Haec ipsa, ut spero, vobiscum consul agam; nisi forte animus fallit, et vos servire, quam imperare, parati

9 Relinquemus. Some editions have relinquimus. In medie relinquere, to leave undetermined.

r In rem. For his interest, advantage, or purpose.

s Secedit. In other editions secessit, which is certainly preferable, because babuit is connected to it by atque; unless secedit be considered as the old præterperfect tense of the verb.

Spectata. In some editions we find satis spectata. 1 Dominatio. In some editions dominationis, fuisset.

v Ego. Both in this and the next sentence is used emphati: cally, and therefore elegantly expressed.

w Ausus. In most editions sum is expressed after ausus, whereas in that of Cortius, sum, est and csse are constantly and elegantly understood.

* Incipere Used for suscipere. y Eadem mibi. In most editions eadem que mibi, which pleases me better.

2 Atque. In some editions the words are atque idem. The last idem appears superfluous.

a Tetrarcha. A tetrarch was governor of the fourth part of a province.

6 Populi, nationes. Natio denotes the whole people, gens a family, and populi tribes, several of which go to compose a nation.

c Valeret. Were vigorous.

d Emori. To die outright. N.B. Less important variations, especially in the order of the words, are generally unnoticed.

e Cetera res expediet. A phrase which will hardly admit of a literal translation: the meaning is, the rest will follow of

course.

f Aut amplius.. Amplius is precisely the word applicable to the verb continuare. Aut plures would have been less elegant. Continuare binas domos, &c. They erect two houses together, or contiguous, or even continue their building farther.

8 Larem. Lar properly signifies a family god; sometimes ay Meton. a house or hearth,

estis.”

XXI. POSTQUAM accepere ea homines, quibus mala abunde omnia erant, sed neque 'res, neque spes bona ulla; tamen etsi illis quieta movere, magna merces videbatur, tamen postulare plerique, uti proponeret, quae conditio belli foret; quae praemia armis peterent; quid "ubique opis aut spei haberent. Tum Catilina polliceri "tabulas novas, oproscriptionem locupletium, magistratus, sacerdo

h Nova. Aedificia must be understood.

i Trahunt, vexant, They scrape together, they squander. Some suppose trabunt to be used for distrabunt, they dissipate.

k Summa, &c. T'hey cannot exhaust their riches by the greatest extravagance. N. B. In Corti us's edition, the pronouns not emphatical, nor absolutely necessary to the sense, are constantly and elegantly omitted.

Property. m Quid ubique. Sallust both here and elsewhere uses ubique for et ubi. n Tabulas novas.

An abolition or remission of debts. The Romans kept their accounts on tables covered with wax, and when the debts were discharged, the former marks were smoothed over with the flat side of the stilus, and the tables were ready for a new score.

Proscriptionem. Proscription, a pernicious practice intro

i Res

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