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misisse ad eam multitudinem, quam ad capiunda arma paraverat ; item alios in alia loca opportuna, qui initium belli facerent; seque ad exercitum proficisci cupere, si prius Ciceronem oppressisset: eum suis consiliis multum obficere."

XXVIII. IGITUR, perterritis ac dubitantibus ceteris, C. Cornelius, eques Romanus, operam suam pollicitus, et cum eo L. Vargunteius, senator, constituere ea nocte paullo 'post, cum armatis hominibus, sicuti salutatum, introire ad Ciceronem, ac de improviso domi suae imparatum confodere. Curius, ubi 'intellegit quantum periculi consuli impendeat, propere per Fulviam, dolum qui parabatur, enunciat. Ita illi, janua prohibiti, tantum facinus frustra susceperant. Interea Manlius in Etruria plebem sollicitare, egestate simul, ac dolore injuriae, novarum rerum cupidam, quod, Sullae domi. natione, agros bonaque omnia amiserat; praeterea latrones cujusque generis, quorum in ea regione magna copia erat; nonnullos ex "Sullanis colonis, quibus lubido atque luxuria ex magnis rapinis nihil reliqui fecerant.

XXIX. Ea cum Ciceroni nunciarentur, Xanci, piti malo permotus, quod neque urbem ab insidiis privato consilio longius tueri poterat, neque exercitus Manlii quantus, aut quo consilio foret, satis compertum habebat, Yrem ad senatum refert, jam antea volgi rumoribus exagitatam. Itaque, quod plerumque in atroci negotio solet, senatus decrevit, DARENT OPERAM CONSULES, NE QUID RESPUBLICA DETRIMENTI CAPERET. 2Ea potestas per senatum, more Romano, magistratui maxuma permittitur ; exercitum parare, bellum gerere, coërcere omnia bus modis socios atque civis; domi militiaeque imperium atque judicium summum habere: aliter, sine populi jussu, nulli earum rerum consuli jus est. XXX. Post paucos dies L. Saenius, senator, in

Obficere. An archaism for officere. u Post. A preposition used adverbially by enallage.

Intellegit. An archaism for intelligit : thus in the next chapter, volgi for vulgi.

w Sullanis colonis. The soldiers of Sylla settled as colonists on the lands of the Tuscans, who had embraced the party of Marius.

* Ancipiti malo. By the double danger, both within and without the city.

y Rem ad senatum, refert. Lays the matter before the senate, proposes it to the senate. Referre senatui, to relate to the senate.

. senatu litteras recitavit, quas Faesulis adlatas sibi dicebat; in quibus scriptum erat, C. Manlium arma cepisse, cum magna multitudine, aante diem via Kalendas Novembris. Simul, id quod in tali re solet, alii portenta atque prodigia nunciabant; alii conventus fieri, arma portari, “Capuae atque in Apulia servile bellum moveri. Igitur 'senati decreto Q. Marcius Rex Faesulas, Q. Metellus Cree ticus in Apuliam 'circumque loca missi: ii utrique “ad urbem imperatores erant; impediti, ne trium. pharent, calumnia paucorum, quibus omnia "honesta atque inhonesta vendere mos erat. Sed praetores, Q. Pompeius Rufus Capuam, Q. Metellus Celer in agrum Picenum ; iisque permissum, " uti pro tempore atque periculo exercitum compara, rent.” Ad hoc, si quis indicavisset de conjura

can sea.

2. Ed. This word is in the ablative: and the sentence may be supplied thus : Ea formula decreti, potestas, &c.

a Ante diem sextum dalendas. For diem sextum ante kalendas. b Capuce. At Capua, a noble city of Campania, on the Tus

c Senati. All nouns of the fourth declension had formerly their genitives in i.

d Circumque. Circum is here taken for circumjacentia.

¢ Ad urbem. At or near the city. Generals who expected a triumph were not allowed to enter the city before their triumph.

f Honesta. Honestus rarely signifies honest in good authors; generally, virtuous, honourable.

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tione, quae contra rempublicam facta erat, praemium servo libertatem et sestertia centum ; libero impunitatem ejus rei, et sestertia ducenta:" item [decrevere] “uti "gladiatoriae familiae Capuam et in cetera municipia distribuerentur, pro cujusque opibus ; Romae per totam urbem vigiliae haberentur, iisque "minores magistratus praeessent.'

XXXI. Quibus rebus permota civitas, atque immutata urbis facies: ex summa laetitia atque lascivia, quae diuturna quies pepererat, repente omnis tristitia invasit: festinare, trepidare; neque loco, nec homini cuiquam satis credere ; neque bellum gerere, neque pacem habere ; suo quisque metu pericula metiri. Ad hoc, mulieres, quibus, 'reipublicae magnitudine, belli timor insolitus, kadflictare sese, manus supplices ad coelum tendere ; mi. serari parvos liberos; rogitare, omnia pavere; superbia atque deliciis omissis, sibi patriaeque diffidere. At Catilinae crudelis animus eadem illa mo

g Sestertia centum. The common computation of money among the Romans was by sestertii and nummi. The sesterdius, sesterce, was a silver coin worth two asses and a half, marked by the letters L. L S. for libra, libra, semis, two pounds and a half of brass; sometimes abbreviated by contracting L L into H, thus, H. S. The sestertius was worth one penny 3 farthings sterling. Sestertium is one thousand sestertii : therefore, decem sestertii is just ten sesterces, whereas, decem sestertia means ten thousand sesterces. When a numeral adverb is joined to sestertium, it expresses so many hundred thousand : thus, decies sestertium make ten hundred thousand

sesterces.

h Gladiatoriæ familie. Gladiators were kept and maintained in schools by persons called Lanistæ, who purchased and trained them. The whole number under one Lanista was called familia. The lesser magistrates were the Questors, Ædiles, Tribunes, and Triumvirs.

i Reipublice magnitudine. Some editions have pro reipublice magnitudine timor insolitus incesserat. Cortius's text is preferable.

* Adflictare. An archaism for afflictare, which is the fre. quentative used for the primitive nfligere.

vebat, tamen etsi praesidia parabantur, et ipse "lege Plautia interrogatus ab L. Paullo. Postremo, dissimulandi caussa, "atque sui expurgandi, sicuti jurgio lacessitus foret, in senatum venit. Tum M. Tullius consul, sive praesentiam ejus timens, seu ira commotus, orationem habuit luculentam atque utilem reipublicae ; quam postea scriptam edidit. Sed, ubi ille 'adsedit, Catilina, ut erat paratus ad dissimulanda omnia, demisso voltu, voce supplici postulare, “ Patres conscripti ne quid de se temere crederent: ea familia ortum, ita ab adolescentia vitam instituisse, ut omnia bona in spe haberet: ne Paestumarent, sibi patricio homini, cujus ipsius, atque majorum plurima beneficia in plebem Romanam essent, perdita republica opus esse, cum eam servaret M. Tullius, 'inquilinus civis urbis Romae." Ad hoc maledicta alia cum adderet; obstrepere omnes, hostem atque parricidam vocare. Tum ille furibundus: “ Quoniam quidem circumventus," inquit, “ ab inimicis praeceps ågor, incendium meum ruina restinguam.'

XXXII. Dein se ex curia domum proripuit: ibi multa secum ipse volvens ; quod neque 'insidiae consuli procedebant, et ab incendio intellegebat ur

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1 Tamenetsi. Afterwards contracted into tametsi.

m Lege Plautia A law proposed by Plautius, tribune of the people, for the punishment of those who should plot against the senate, magistrates or private men, or should offer violence to them.

n Atque sui. Some editions have et quasi sui &c. o Adsedit. An archaism for assedit.

P Æstumarent. For estimarent. Other editions have ex. istimarent.

9 Inquilinus. From incolinus, a derivative of incola, a tenant, or rather a citizen, whose right of citizenship was derived from his habitation, not from his birth. Cicero as born at Arpinum.

r Insidiæ consuli. Factæ being understood. It is, however, nothing extraordinary to see a dative governed by a substantive

noun.

bem vigiliis munitam, Soptumum factum credens, exercitum augere, ac prius, quam legiones scriberentur, antecapere quae bello usui forent; nocte in. tempesta cum paucis in Manliana castra profectus est. Sed Cethego atque Lentulo, 'ceterisque quorum cognoverat promtam audaciam, mandat, quibus rebus possent, opes factionis confirment, insidias consuli maturent, caedem, incendia, aliaque belli facinora parent: sese "prope diem cum magno exercitu 'ad urbem accessurum.

Dum haec Romae geruntur, C. Manlius ex suo numero ad Marcium Regem mittit, cum mandatis hujuscemodi:

XXXIII.“ Deos hominesque testamur, imperator, nos arma neque contra patriam cepisse, neque quo periculum whomini faceremus, sed uti corpora nostra ab injuria tuta forent; qui miseri, egentes, violentia atque crudelitate foeneratorum, plerique patriae, sed omnes fama atque fortunis, expertes sumus : neque cuiquam nostrum licuit, more ma. jorum, *lege uti; neque, amisso patrimonio, 'libe

s Optumum factum. Some editions have factu, which at first sight seems the preferable reading Factum is, however, defensible, and the sentence will then run thus: Credens augere exercitum esse optimum factum, believing the increase of his army to be his best measure; or that to increase, &c.

Ceterisque. In Cortius's edition this word is always written with an e; and not æ in the first syllable.

u Prope diem. These words are sometimes united, sometimes separate, and signify the same thing with brevi, statim.

v Ad urbem accessurum. Accedo, followed by ad, signifies, I go or come to; with a dative, I assent or agree to, or with; but in the third person singular, with the dative, it signifies, it is added to.

w Homini. Cuivis being understood. Some editions exhibit aliis instead of bomini: bomini appears more elegant.

* Lege. The Papirian law, enacted to prevent the cruelty of creditors against their debtors.

y Liberum corpus. To have their persons at liberty, not bound with chains, nor confined to a prison; practices, which, if we are to credit the remonstrance of Manlius, were not wholly disused, though illegal.

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