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Eorum ego

retinetur, quibus initio partum est. Verum, ubi pro "labore desidia, pro 'continentia et aequitate lua bido atque superbia invasere, fortuna simul cum moribus immutatur. Ita imperium semper ad optumum quemque a minus bono transfertur. Quae homines Warant, navigant, aedificant, virtuti omnia parent. Sed multi mortales, dediti ventri atque somno, indocti incultique vitam, sicuti peregrinantes, transegere ; quibus, profecto contra naturam, corpus voluptati, anima oneri fuit. vitam mortemque juxta aestumo, quoniam de utraque siletur. Verum enim vero is demum mihi vi. vere atque frui anima videtur, qui, aliquo negotio intentus, praeclari facinoris, aut artis bonae famam quaerit. Sed, 'in magna copia rerum, Zaliud alii natura iter ostendit.

III. PULCHRUM est bene facere reipublicae: etiam bene dicere haud absurdum est. Vel pace, vel bello, clarum fieri licet: et qui fecere, et qui facta aliorum scripsere, multi laudantur. Ac mihi quidem, atamen etsi haudquaquam par gloria sequatur scriptorem et bauctorem rerum, tamen in primis arduum videtur 'res gestas scribere: primum, quod facta ddictis sunt exaequanda: dehinc, quia plerique, quae delicta reprehenderis, malivolentia et invidia put tant: ubi de magna virtute et gloria "bonorum memores, quae sibi quisque facilia factu putat, aequo animo accipit; supra ea, veluti ficta, pro falsis ducit. Sed ego adolescentulus, initio, sicuti pleri. que, Estudio ad rempublicam latus sum ; bibique mihi advorsa multa fuere. Nam pro pudore, pro abstinentia, pro virtute, audacia, largitio, avaritia vigebant. Quae tametsi animus aspernabatur, insolens malarum artium ; tamen, inter tanta vitia, imbecilla aetas ambitione corrupta tenebatur: ac me, cum ab ireliquorum malis moribus dissentirem, nihilo minus honoris cupido, eadem, quæ ceteros, fama atque invidia vexabat.

u Pro labore. Labor is here taken for a disposition to labour.

v Pro continentia, &c. Instead of moderation and equity, passion and pride.

w Arant, &c. An unusual mode of writing, for arando, navigando, &c. parant.

* Juxta. Alike. A preposition used adverbially by enallage. y In magna copia rerum. In the great variety of employments. 2 Aliud alii. To comprehend this mode of expression, which often occurs, see note s in the preceding page.

a Tamen etsi. Afterwards contracted into tametsi.

b auctoren. In other editions is found actorem. If the latter reading be adopted, actorem rerum will be a pleonasm.

c Res gestas. A history: which in those days was little more. than a description of the exploits, or gallant actions of military commanders.

d Dictis. By the language or style.

IV. IGITUR, ubi animus ex multis miseriis atque periculis requievit, et mihi reliquam aetatem a republica procul habendam decrevi, non fuit consi. lium, secordia atque desidia bonum otium conterere; neque vero agrum colendo, aut venando, servilibus officiis intentum, aetatem agere : sed, a quo incepto kstudio me ambitio mala detinuerat, eodem regressus, statui res gestas populi Romani

e Putant. In some editions dicta is inserted before putant; but the reading in the text is preferred, because the word re. prehensa evidently appears from the context to be understood.

f Bonorum. So highly was military glory prized both among the Greeks and Romans, that the same term in both languages signified both virtue and bravery. Vir fortis in Latin is often equivalent to a man of worth, and bonus here and in many other instances signifies brave, as is clear from the context.

& Studio, &c. I was led by inclination to engage in public business.

h Ibique. Ibi is used for in eo, or in ea, referring to studio, or rempublicam.

i Reliquorum. In some editions we find reliquis, and if fama be taken for a desire of fame, the latter reading will be most

onsonant to the sense ; but fama may be taken for fama mala, or infamia, obloquy.

* Studio. Some read studioque, making incepto a substantive. The reading in the text is most simple.

Scarptim, ut quaeque memoria digna videbantur, perscribere: eo magis, quod mihi a spe, metu, "partibus reipublicae animus liber erat. Igitur de Catilinae conjuratione, quam verissume potero, "paucis absolvam: : nam id facinus in primis ego memorabile existumo, sceleris atque periculi novitate. De cujus hominis moribus pauca prius explananda sunt, quam initium narrandi faciam.

V. Lucius CATILINA, 'nobili genere natus, magna vi et animi et corporis, sed ingenio malo pravoque. Huic ab adolescentia bella intestina, caedes, rapinae, discordia civilis, grata fuere ; Pibique juventutem suam exercuit. Corpus patiens inediae, vigiliae, algoris, supra quam cuique credibile est ; animus audax, subdolus, "varius, cujus rei libet fsi. mulator ac dissimulator: alieni appetens, sui profusus, ardens in cupiditatibus : satis 'loquentiae, sapientiae parum. Vastus animus immoderata, incredibilia, nimis alta semper cupiebat. Hunc, post dominationem "Lucii Sullae, lubido maxuma invaserat reipublicae capiundae ; neque, id quibus modis adsequeretur, dum sibi regnum pararet, "quid. quam pensi habebat. Agitabatur magis magisque in

Carptim. By pieces or parcels, piecemeal. Others read strictim, briefly.

m Partibus reipublice. Political factions or parties. The copulative, to avoid flatness, is frequently omitted by our author.

n Paucis absolvam. Narrationem or historiam understood. o Nobili. Cataline was a Patrician of an ancient family. p Ibi. Taken for in eis, or in illis rebus:

9 Patiens. An adjective noun, able to endure; patiens, a participle, suffering.

r Varius. Capable of assuming any shape or character.

s Simulator, &c. Simulare, to pretend to be what one is not ; dissimulare, to dissemble.

i Loquentia. · A better reading than eloquentie, found in some editions.

u Lucii Sulla. Lucius Sulla usurped and enjoyed the perpetual dictatorship. Quidquam pensi, &c. Nor did he regard.

V

dies animus ferox, inopia rei familiaris, et consci. entia scelerum ; quae utraque his artibus auxerat, quas supra memoravi. Incitabant praeterea cor. rupti civitatis mores, quos pessuma ac "diversa inter se mala, luxuria atque avaritia, vexabant. Res ipsa hortari videtur, quoniam de moribus civitatis "tempus admonuit, supra repetere, ac, paucis, instituta majorum domi militiaeque; quomodo rempublicam habuerint, quantamque reliquerint ; ut paullatim immutata, ex pulcherruma, pessuma ac flagitiosissuma facta sit, disserere.

VI. URBEM Romam, sicuti ego accepi, condidere atque habuere initio Trojani, qui, Aenea duce, profugi, sedibus incertis vagabantur; cumque his ? Aborigines, genus hominum agreste, sine legibus, sine imperio, liberum atque solutum. Hi postquam in una moenia convenere, dispari genere, dissimili lingua, aalii alio more viventes; incredi. bile memoratu est quam facile coaluerint. Sed, postquam res eorum civibus, moribus, agris aucta, satis prospera, satisque pollens videbatur; dsicuti pleraque mortalium habentur, invidia ex opulentia orta est. Igitur reges populique finitimi bello 'tentare: pauci ex amicis auxilio esse ; nam ceteri, metu 'percussi, a periculis aberant. At Romani, domi militiaeque intenti, sfestinare, parare, alius alium hortari; hostibus obviam ire ; libertatem, patriam, parentesque armis tegere: post, ubi peri. cula virtute propulerant, sociis atque amicis auxilia portabant; magisque dandis quam accipiundis bene. ficiis, amicitias parabant. Imperium legitimum, nomen imperii regium habebant: delecti, quibus corpus annis infirmum, ingenium sapientia validum, reipublicae consultabant: hi, vel aetate, vel curae similitudine, PATRES appellabantur. Post, ubi re. gium imperium, quod, initio, conservandae libertatis, atque augendae "reipublicae fuerat, in superbiam dominationemque convertit; immutato more, annua imperia, binosque imperatores sibi fecere: eo modo minume posse putabant per licentiam insolescere animum humanum.

» Diversa. Opposite.
* Res ipsa. The subject itself.
y Tempus. The occasion.

2 Aborigines. The original inhabitants : some think Aborigines to be the proper name of some people.

a Alii. Other editions have alius. That in the text is the most simple construction; though alius being a partitive, may be connected to a plural noun.

b Res. Here taken for respublica.

c Civibus--aucta. In conformity with the idiom of the Latin language, aucta will apply to all these nouns; though each of them in English requires a different participle. Increased in number of citizens, improved in manners, and enlarged in territory.

d Sicuti pleraque, &c. As is the case for the most part among

e Tentare, esse. The infinitive for the perfect indicative; a practice more frequent with Sallust than with any other author.

inen.

VII. Sed ea tempestate kcoepere se quisque extollere, magisque ingenium in promptu habere. Nam regibus boni, quam mali, suspectiores sunt, semperque his aliena virtus formidoiosa est.

Sed civitas, incredibile memoratu est, 'adepta libertate, quantum brevi creverit: tanta cupido gloriae incesse

f Percussi. Other editions have perculsi. Either of the words is admissible.

8 Festinare, parare. The infinitive again for the perfect indi. cative. This observation need not be again repeated.

't Reipublicæ fuerat. An unusual construction. Causa may be understood ; in some editions it is expressed. Fuerat must then be taken for constitutum fuerat. The sentence may be completed otherwise thus : quod initio fuerat conservandæ libertatis, i. e. ad conservandam libertatem paratum.

i Dominationem. Tyranny.

k Coepere se quisque extollere. Other editions have magis magisque extollere. Quisque, being a partitive pronoun, admits a plural verb.

Adepta libertate. Adipiscor, being a common verb, is used in a passive, as well as in an active sense.

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