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nere, Jugurthae virtutem extollere laudibus ; gratia, voce, denique omnibus modis pro alieno scelere et flagitio, sua quasi pro gloria, nitebantur. At contra pauci, quibus bonum et aequum divitiis fcarius, Esubveniundum Adherbali, et Hiempsalis mortem severe vindicandam censebant: sed ex omnibus maxume Aemilius Scaurus, homo nobilis, impiger, factiosus, avidus potentiae, honoris, divitiarum ; ceterum vitia sua callide occultans. Is postquam videt regis largitionem famosam impudentemque, veritus, quod in tali re solet, ne "polluta licentia invidiam accenderet, animum a consueta lubidine continuit.

XVI. Vicit tamen in senatu pars illa, qui vero pretium aut gratiam anteferebant. Decretum fit, UTI DECEM LEGATI REGNUM, QUOD MICIPSA OBTINUERAT, INTER JUGURTHAM ET ADHERBA. LEM DIVIDERENT: cujus legationis princeps fuit L. Opimius, homo clarus, et tum in senatu potens; quia consul, *C. Gracco et M. Fulvio Flacco interfectis, acerrume 'victoriam nobilitatis in plebem exercuerat. Eum Jugurtha tametsi Romae in amicis habuerat, tamen adcuratissume recepit: dando et pollicitando perfecit, uti "fama, fide, postremo omnibus suis rebus commodum regis anteferret. Reliquos legatos eadem via adgressus, plerosque capit: paucis carior fides, quam pecunia fuit. In divisione, quae pars Numidiae Mauretaniam ad. tingit, agro, viris opulentior, Jugurthae traditur: Pillam alteram specie, quam usu, potiorem, quae portuosior et aedificiis magis exornata erat, Adher. bal possedit.

f Carius. Agreeing with aequum, the last of the preceding substantives.

g Subveniundum. An archaism for subveniendum. h Polluta licentia. Scandalous licentiousness; liberty abused.

i Qui. Referring to senatorum understood. Some other edi. tions have quæ agreeing with pars

k Gaio Gracco. Tiberius Gracchus, tribune of the people, A. U. 620, got a law passed, called an Agrarian law, prohibiting any person from possessing more than 500 acres of land; and for distributing the surplus among the poorer citizens. This ław produced much dissention and confusion, was never exe. euted, and cost the proposer his life. C. Gracchus, supported Þy his colleague, M. Fulvius Flaccus, pursued the footsteps of his brother Tiberius. Both of them suffered a violent death.

| Victoriam. In some editions vindictam.

m Adcuratissume. Very respectfully, very ceremoniously. Some editions have curatissime. It is perhaps superfluous (o observe again that adcuratissime is an archaism for accuratissime.

XVII. Res postulare videtur Africae situm paucis exponere, et eas gentis, quibuscum nobis bellum, aut amicitia fuit, adtingere. Sed quae loca et nationes ob calorem, aut asperitatem, item solitudines minus frequentata sunt, de îs haud facile compertum narraverim : cetera quam paucissumis absolvam. In divisione orbis terrae plerique 'in partem tertiam Africam posuere : Spauci tantummodo Asiam et Europam esse; sed Africam in

Fama, fiile. Some consider these as datives for famai, fidei; but though genitives in ai are not unfrequent, the dative of this form is very rare. Others think fama, fide are ablatives, and produce a similar construction in Cicero's oration for Bal. bus : libertatem civitate anteferrent. Others read famæ et fide: darives in e having been common among the ancients.

o Mauretaniam The kingdoms of Fez and Morocco com. prehend the whole country of Mauretania truly and properly so called, and divided into Tingitana, and Sitifensis. Cæsari. ens's belonged to Nur.idia, and was not accounted to Maureta. nia, ill after the death of Jugurtha, when it was given to Boc. shus in reward of his treachery.

p Illam Used for the definite article.
9 Huurt facile, &c I cannot easily speak with certainty.

r In partem. Some editions have in parte. A peculiar phraseology for Africam tertiam partem fecerunt.

s Pauci, &c. This phraseology is ambiguous. The meaning is pauci duas esse partes voluerunt, scil. Asiam et Europam, &c. They divided the earth into two parts, Asia and Europe, and comprebended Africa in Europe.

Europa. Ea finis habet, ab occidente, 'fretum nostri maris et oceani ; ab ortu solis, "declivem latitudinem, quem locum "Catabathmon incolae adpellant. Mare saevum, importuosum: ager frugum fertilis, bonus pecori, arbori infecundus : coelo, terra, penuria aquarum. Genus hominum salubri corpore, velox, patiens laborum : plerosque senectus dissolvit, nisi qui ferro, aut "bestiis interiere: nam morbus haud saepe quemquam superat. Ad hoc, 'malefici generis plurima animalia. Sed qui mortales initio Africam habuerint, quique postea accesserint, aut quomodo inter se permixti sint ; quamquam ab ea fama, quae plerosque obtinet, diversum est ; tamen, uti ex libris Punicis, qui regis Hiempsalis dicebantur, interpretatum nobis est, utique rem sese habere cultores ejus terrae putant, quam paucissumis dicam. Ceterum Yfides ejus rei penes auctores erit.

XVIII. AFRICAM initio habuere ?Gaetuli et 'Li

i Fretum, &c. By fretum here must be meant the fretum Gaditanum or Herculeum, the straits of Gibraltar. By nostri maris is to be understood the Mediterranean sea, to which the Romans claimed a right, as being almost enclosed by their dominions. By oceani is meant the Atlantic ocean. Fretum maris, &c. the strait between our sea and the ocean.

Sallust's geogra. phy will not bear a critical examination.

u Declivem latitudinem- -Catabatbmon. A wide or large tract or valley sloping towards Egypt; hence called Catabathmos, a Greek word signifying descent. This description does not accord with the present boundaries of Africa, which reaches to the Red Sea, and includes Egypt.

v Mare sævum, &c. A boisterous sea without harbours.

w Bestiis. In some editions a bestiis. The reading in the text is preferable.

* Malefici, &c. Serpents, lions, hyænas, tigers, &c.

y Fides ejus, &c. Let the authors of this account be responsible for its credibility. Its credit must rest with the authors. z Gætuli

. A wandering set of people living in the interior of Africa, to whom different authors assign different places o residence.

a Libyes. Libya was a part of Africa, from which the whole was frequently denominated. It was distinguished by different additions, according to the part of the country intended to be described : Marmarica, which had Egypt on the east, Cyrene on the west, part of the Mediterranean on the north, and Ethiopia superior on the south ; Libya interior, which had mount Atlas on the north, Barbary and Cyrenaica on the east, Libya, Marmarica, and part of Ethiopia superior, or the Abyssinian empire on the south, Ethiopia inferior, Negroland, and the Atlantic ocean on the west, &c. There is nothing in our author positively to determine what people he intended by the name Libyes.

byes, asperi, inculti; quîs cibus erat caro ferina atque humi pabulum, uti pecoribus. Hi neque moribus, neque lege, neque imperio cujusquam regebantur: vagi, palantes, qua nox coëgerat, fe. des habebant. Sed, postquam in Hispania "Her- . cules, sicuti Afri putant, interiit, exercitus ejus, compositus ex variis gentibus, amisso duce, ac pas. sim multis, sibi 'quîque, imperium petentibus, brevi dilabitur. Ex eo numero Medi, &Persae et "Armenii, navibus in Africam transvecti, prox

b Neque. In some editions, instead of neque, we find aut, very improperly.

ç Qua. In some editions quas, referring to sedes.

d Hercules. There were many of this name, all whose achievements were attributed to one.

e Quique. In the ablative, the same with quoque. Some edi. tions have quisque.

f Medi. Media, bounded on the east by Parthia, and part of Hyrcania, on the west by Armenia major, and part of As. syria, on the north by the Caspian sea, and a part of Armenia major, now included in Georgia, on the south by Persia.

Persæ. Persia was bounded east by India, west by Media, Assyria and Chaldæa, north by Tartary, and south by the

h Armenii. Armenia was distinguished into major and mis nor: the former bounded east by Media, and part of the Caspian sea, west by the Euphrates, which divides it from Armenia minor, north by Colchis or Mingrelia, and south by Meso. potamia, and

part of Assyria. Armenia minor, a part of Ana. tolia, or Asia minor, and bounded east by the Euphrates, which separates it from Armenia major, south by mount Taurus, which divides it from Cilicia, west and north by a chain of hills,

ocean.

umos nostro mari locos occupavere.

Sed Persae intra oceanum magis: iique alveos navium inversos pro tuguriis habuere, quia neque materia in agris, neque ab Hispanis emundi, aut mutandi copia erat: mare magnum et ignara lingua commercia prohibebant. Hi paullatim per connubia Gaetulos kmiscuere: et, quia saepe tentantes agros, alia, deinde alia loca petiverant, semet ipsi 'Numidas adpellavere. Ceterum adhuc aedificia Numidarum agrestium, quae mapalia illi vocant, oblonga, incurvis lateribus tecta quasi navium carinae sunt. Medis autem et Armenis accessere Libyes (nam hi propius mare Africum agitabant; Gaetuli "sub sole magis, haud procul ab ardoribus) "hique mature oppida habuere; nam, ofreto divisi ab Hispania, mutare res inter se instituerant. Nomen eorum paullatim Libyes corrupere, barbara lingua Mauros pro Medis adpellantes. Sed res Persarum brevi adolevit: ac postea Pnomine Numidae, propter multitudinem a parentibus digressi, possidere ea

called in different places Mons Scordiscus, Amænus, or Antitau. rus, which divides it from Cappadocia, of which it was once a part, till conquered by the Armenians.

i Intra oceanum, &c. More upon the ocean, i. e. on the coast of Africa, without the straits of Gibraltar, where the land, bending outwards, the Atlantic seems to embrace, and enfold the country in its arms.

* Miscuere. Secum understood; in some editions it is expressed.

1 Numidas. The Numidians must have been originally a pastoral people, as appears from their name; youn signifying pasture, from yeuw, pasco.

m Sub sole. Rather more under the sun, i. e. nearer to the equator.

1 Hique. Hi here refers to the more remote antecedents, Medi et Armenii.

Freto. Tantum being understood; by the strait only.

P Nomine, &c. That is, Persians called Numidians, or, who had assumed the name of Numidians.

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