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66 pairs of piles) were kept apart, and also secured in the opposite direction. Quibus disclusis relates to what has already been described in haec utraque distinebantur. The two pairs of piles inclining towards each other were prevented from inclining too far by the cross pieces or ties inserted in the two acute angles which the large connecting beam made with those piles. The action implied by in contrariam partem revinctis has not been described, because it is at once apparent. As the opposite pairs of piles inclined towards each other, the whole weight of the bridge tended to bring them nearer together. This tendency was just the opposite of the action denoted by disclusis, and is accordingly well expressed by in contrariam partem revinctis.

20. Haec... contexebantur, these were connected by timbers placed in the direction of the length of the bridge. Caesar, having first described one pier, now proceeds to show how the several piers were connected, and how the bridge was covered.

23. Quae... exciperent; G. 497, 1.

24. Aliae item. . . spatio, others also at a small distance above the bridge. The brevity of the description does not enable us to decide positively whether these were connected with the bridge or not. The words mediocri spatio render it somewhat doubtful, but they may refer merely to the lower end of the pile. Colonel August Von Cohausen, of the Prussian Corps of Engineers, in an elaborate and carefully prepared work upon this bridge, takes this view of the subject, and accordingly connects the piles with the bridge itself. See plan.

XVIII., XIX. Caesar makes an Incursion into


28. Diebus; G. 429. — Quibus ... coepta erat, after the materials began to be collected. G. 430, note 2; 297, I., 1.

35. Quos ex Tencteris. This refers to the cavalry, who had taken refuge among the Sigambri. See p. 65, lines 15 to 20.

37. In solitudinem. The accusative is necessary to imply that they first went into the desert before they concealed themselves in it.

67 5. Suebos; subject of dimisisse.

7. Uti demigrarent; G. 497, II.

9. Hunc esse... . regionem, that this place had been selected near the centre of those regions. — Medium agrees with hunc and governs regi


G. 399.

11. Ibi, there; i., e., in the same place.


13. His rebus; explained by the clauses ut injiceret, ut ulcisceretur, etc.

17. Profectum; from proficio, not from proficiscor.

XX.-XXII. Caesar prepares to invade Britain.


23. Et si tempus. . . deficeret, even if the season should be insuffi- 67 cient; i. e., too short.

28. His ipsis; i. e., mercatoribus.

30. Gallias. Observe the force of the plural referring to the several divisions. See Dict.

31. Quanta esset; Indirect Question depending upon reperire. G. 529. 33. Neque qui; construe with portus.

36. Ad... cognoscenda; construe with praemittit.

37. Idoneum . . . arbitratus, thinking him to be a suitable person. 1. Ad se; G. 449, 1. — Quam primum; G. 170, 2.

3. Huc; construe with convenire.

4. Quam. The antecedent is classem. Ad Veneticum bellum. See p. 48, line 27.

7. Qui polliceantur; G. 497.

G. 537,


8. Dare; for daturos esse. 11. Commium; object of mittit. — Atrebatibus superatis ; i. e., in the great battle of the Sambre. See p. 39, line 35.

12. Ibi, there; i. e., among the Atrebates.

14. Magni, of great weight, or value. G. 403.

15. Quas possit. Supply adire.-Adeat; G. 499, 2.- Ut fidem sequantur, to seek (follow) the alliance.

16. Se; i. e., Caesarem.

17. Quantum facultatis, so far as the opportunity; lit., as of opportunity. Quantum; subject of potuit. - Facultatis; Partitive Genitive. - Ei qui, to him who; i. e., to one who.

21. In his locis; i. e., among the Morini. See line 2 above.

23. De... consilio, for their past conduct. See p. 57.

24. Homines; in apposition with the omitted subject of fecissent. G. 363, 2. Consuetudinis; G. 399, I., 2.

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25. Imperasset; Fut. Perfect in the Direct Discourse. G. 525, 2. 29. Has... occupationes, engagements in these trifling affairs. 30. Britanniae, to Britain; i. e., to the invasion of Britain. G. 386. 31. Iis; G. 384, II.

32. Coactis contractisque, collected and brought together. Contractis is more specific than coactis, and refers to the final assembling of the vessels at the place of embarkation.

34. Quod navium; G. 397, 3.

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35. Praefectis. These were commanders of the auxiliaries. Huc accedebant, to this number of vessels (lit., hither) were to be added. 2. In Menapios; construe with ducendum.





XXIII. - XXVI. Caesar lands in Britain.

8. Solvit, set sail. Supply naves. Caesar probably sailed from the port Itius, which is expressly mentioned as the place from which he embarked on his second expedition into Britain. See p. 77, line 5; also Dict. Itius. 9. Ulteriorem portum, the farther port; i. e., farther to the east referring to the place where the eighteen vessels assigned to the cavalry had been detained. See p. 68, lines 36 to 38.


11. Hora quarta, about the fourth hour; i. e., about ten o'clock in the morning, probably on the 16th of August. G. 645.

16. Dum convenirent; G. 519, II., 2.

19. Ex Voluseno cognosset. See p. 68, lines 17 to 20.

20. Monuit... administrarentur, admonished them that all things should be performed, etc.— Ut rei... haberent explains ad nutum... administrarentur.

21. Ut quae ... haberent, since they had; lit., as (things) which had. G. 517, 3, 1).

22. Ad nutum et ad tempus, at the word of command (i. e., instantaneously), and at the proper moment.

24. Secundum; construe with ventum and aestum.

25. Aperto... constituit, he anchored off an open and level shore; probably on the coast of Deal. G. 425, II., 1.

28. Quo genere, which kind (of force). G. 421, I.

32. Militibus; construe with erat desiliendum. G. 388.

35. Illi, they; i. e., the enemy.

36. Omnibus... expediti, with the free use of all their limbs. G. 424. 38. Insuefactos, accustomed to this work; i.e., to this mode of warfare. 70 4. Naves longas; construe with removeri jussit.

5. Motus... expeditior, their movement easier to use; lit., for (to) use; i. e., they were more easily managed.

6. Removeri, submoveri. Removere means to remove, referring simply to a change of position, while submovere means to dislodge, to take out of the way.

9. Quae res, which movement. - Usui nostris; G. 390.

13. Qui, he who. This refers to the chief centurion, who bore the

eagle; i. e., the standard of the legion.

16. Aquilam ... prodere. The loss of the eagle would be a great disgrace.

17. Praestitero; G. 473, 1.

19. Cohortati inter se, having exhorted one another. G. 448, note.

21. Conspexissent. Supply milites as subject.

23. Nostri; subject of perturbabantur.


25. Alius alia ex navi, one from one vessel and another from another. 70

G. 459, 1.

29. Plures, several; i. e., of the enemy.

30. In universos, against our assembled forces, opposed to aliquos singulares.

34. Simul = simul ac, as soon as.

36. Neque potuerunt, but were not able.-Equites. The cavalry had embarked in eighteen transports. See p. 68, line 36. tered a storm, and had not been able to reach the island. 21 to 29.

They encounSee p. 71, lines

XXVII. The Britons surrender to Caesar.


et quae.

3. Daturos. Supply esse and se. — - Quaeque 5. Supra demonstraveram. See p. 68, line 11. For the pluperfect, see note on dixeramus, p. 30, line 4.

6. Oratoris modo, in the character of an envoy.-Illi, they; i. e., the enemy, subject of comprehenderant.

8. Remiserunt. Supply eum.

9. Ejus rei, of this; lit., of this thing; i. e., of the imprisonment of Commius.

11. In continentem, to the continent; i. e., to Gaul.

12. Ignoscere imprudentiae. Supply subject se. G. 385.

16. Remigrare in agros, to return to their fields; i. e., to their homes and usual occupations, as the war was at an end.

XXVIII., XXIX. Caesar's Fleet encounters a severe

19. Post diem... quam, on the fourth day after. G. 430, note 1.
21. Supra. See p. 68, Chap. XXII.

22. Superiore portu, the upper port; called, also, ulterior portus. See note on ulteriorem portum, p. 69, line 9.

23. Britanniae; G. 336.

26. Quae... occasum, which is farther to the west. G. 437, 1. They were carried toward the south-west.

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27. Sui; Objective Genitive with periculo. G. 393, note.ancoris jactis, yet casting anchor; i. e., notwithstanding the violence of the storm.

30. Luna plena. According to astronomical calculation, this was on the night of the 30th of August, 55 B. C.-Qui dies, which period. 36. Administrandi, of managing them.

1. Id quod; G. 445, 7.






4. Erant usui; G. 390, note 2.- Quod ... constabat, because it was manifest to all.

XXX.-XXXVI. The Britons attack Caesar, but are defeated. Caesar returns to Gaul.

7. Principes; subject of duxerunt in line 13.

11. Quae refers to castrorum.— Hoc, on this account, viz., quod . transportaverat.

13. Factu; G. 547, 1.

14. Rem producere, to protract the war.


17. Rursus here does not mean strictly a second time, but implies that the Britons were resuming their former hostility. - Ex castris, i. e., of Caesar.

18. Ex agris deducere. This refers to the assembling of the forces, as remigrare in agros refers to the disbanding of them. See p. 71, line 16. 20. Ex eventu... ex eo quod, from the fate of his ships, and from the fact that.

24. Quae naves, earum = earum navium, quae. G. 445, 8.

28. Reliquis ut... effecit, he made it possible to set sail with the rest in safety.

31. Frumentatum; G. 546.

32. Appellabatur septima, was called the seventh; i. e., septima was the name of the legion. The legions were numbered as they were raised, and were afterwards known by the numbers then assigned to them. Caesar had under his command in all eight legions, two in Britain, the seventh and tenth, and six in Gaul, the eighth, ninth, eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth and fourteenth.

33. Hominum, of the men; i. e., of the Britons. - Etiam in castra, even into our camp.

35. Quam consuetudo ferret, than usual; lit., than custom bore. G. 524.

37. Id, quod erat, that which was actually the case, explained by aliquid... consilii.

38. Cohortes, quae . . . erant. One cohort guarded each of the four gates of the camp. See note on castris, p. 6, line 28. -Cohortes; construe with proficisci jussit.

1. Ex reliquis . . . succedere, two of the other (six) cohorts to take their places on guard. He could spare only two cohorts to guard the gates.

4. Conferta legione; G. 431.

7. Pars una, only one part; i. e., only one place from which grain could be obtained.

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