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10. Incertis ordinibus, as their places were uncertain. In the con- 73 fusion of the moment they could not readily find their places in the ranks.

12. Hoc est, is as follows.

13. Perequitant; G. 467, II. - Ipso terrore equorum, by the very terror caused by their horses ; lit., dread of their horses.

22. Sustinere, to rein in; construe with consuerint. -Brevi ... flectere, quickly to control and turn them.

23. Per temonem percurrere, to run along the pole ; i. e., to run out on the pole of the chariot, between the two horses.

25. Perturbatis nostris; G. 431. – Novitate pugnae, by the strange mode (newness) of fighting.

29. Suo loco, in a favorable position. G. 425, II., 1.

32. Qui ... reliqui, the rest (of the Britons), who were in the fields, departed ; i. e., joined the army.

33. Quae continerent; G. 500.

37. Sui liberandi, of freeing themselves ; i. e., from the Roman invaders. G. 542, I., note 1. — Daretur depends upon demonstraverunt. G. 529, I.

38. Castris; G. 434, note 1. — Expulissent; G. 525, 2. 3. Idem quod, the same thing, which, explained by ut effugerent. 74 6. Ante dictum est. See pp. 68, 71. 10. Spatio; G. 379, 2.

16. Propinqua ... equinoctii, as the equinox was near at hand. G. 431. The autumnal equinox is meant. Caesar remained in Britain about three weeks.

17. Hiemi ... subjiciendam, that the voyage should be exposed to the storm ; i. e., should be made at the stormy season, as might be the case if he should wait for the hostages. 20. Eosdem ... portus, to reach the same port as the rest.

The reference seems to be to the two ports mentioned on p. 69, lines 5 and 9.

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XXXVII., XXXVIII. War with the Morini and the


23. Quibus ex navibus, from these ships ; i. e., from the two transports.

26. Non ita magno, not so very large.
27. Circumsteterunt, surrounded them ; i. e. the three hundred.

28. Orbe facto, having formed a circle. Thus, though surrounded, they presented a front to the enemy on every side.

29. Ad clamorem, in response to a shout ; lit., to a shout. 31. Suis auxilio; G. 390, note 1.

74 34. Postea ... quam=posteaquam ; G. 636, V., 3.
75 1. Qui cum, since they ; i. e., the Morini.

2. Siccitates paludum, the dryness of the marshes. The plural of the abstract siccitates is explained by the plural paludum. G. 130, 2. — Quo se ... non haberent, had no place to which (had not whither) they could betake themselves.

3. Quo perfugio, which refuge ; i. e., the marshes.
9. Eo, thither ; i. e., to his winter quarters.
1. Ex litteris . supplicatio. See note on p. 44, line 37.






L. SERGIUS CATILINE, the conspirator, belonged to a patrician family which had become greatly impoverished. He was, therefore, the heir to a noble name, but to no large estates. Unprincipled and reckless, he early perverted to the basest uses the remarkable powers of body and mind with which he had been endowed by nature. As a zealous partisan of Sulla, he acted a conspicuous part in the bloody proscriptions which followed the triumph of the dictator. Among the victims who perished at his hands was his own brother-in-law, Quintus Caecilius.

Catiline held the office of praetor in the year 68 B. C., was governor of Africa in 67, and returned to Rome in 66 to canvass for the consulship, but being accused of maladministration in his province, he was compelled to relinquish his suit. Burning with rage and unable to brook disappointment, he at once entered into an alliance with On. Calpurnius Piso, a young but profligate patrician, and P. Autronius Paetus, who, having been convicted of bribery, was disqualified from entering upon the duties of the consulship to which he had been elected. The plan of the conspirators was to murder the consuls on the first of January, during the ceremonies of inauguration, after which Catiline and Autronius were to seize the consular power, and Piso to take possession of the Spanish provinces. The execution of the plan was, how

ever, subsequently deferred to the fifth of February, when it was · fortunately frustrated by a mistake on the part of Catiline, who

gave the signal before his accomplices were ready for action.

In June, 64 B. C., Catiline resumed his revolutionary schemes on a larger scale and with renewed energy. Rome at that time furnished him abundant materials for such a work in the throngs of luxurious spendthrifts, desperate insolvents, and reckless adventurers, who filled her streets. He soon numbered among his accomplices eleven senators, four members of the equestrian order, and several men of position and influence in the provincial towns. Thus strengthened, he boldly presented himself as a candidate for the consulship, but defeat awaited him. Marcus Cicero the orator and Gaius Antonius were elected consuls, the former by an overwhelming majority.

This was a severe disappointment for Catiline, but it only rendered him more reckless than ever in his revolutionary designs. He had entered upon a desperate game, and he resolved to hazard everything, to win or die. He established the headquarters of his movement at Faesulae, in Etruria, under the command of Gaius Manlius, an insolvent and revolutionist, who had served as a centurion under Sulla. He raised money upon his own credit and that of his friends, collected stores of arms at convenient centres in different portions of Italy, and endeavored to enlist in his cause the desperate and abandoned of both sexes and of all ranks. His audacity aimed at nothing less than the overthrow of the government. He proposed to seize all the offices of trust and emolument, to cancel debts, to confiscate the property of the rich, and, in fine, to reënact the bloody scenes of Sulla's proscriptions.

It was at such a crisis that, on the first of January in that memorable year, 63 B. C., Cicero, the accomplished orator and scholar, entered upon the arduous and perilous duties of the consulship. A base and nefarious conspiracy against the government was rapidly consummating its work, a bloody revolution was imminent, and even his own colleague in the consulship, Gaius Antonius, was supposed to be more or less in sympathy with the treasonable movement. But Cicero proved himself equal to the emergency. He secured the passive coöperation of Antonius by. offering, at the outset, to transfer to him the rich province of Macedonia at the expiration of his term of office. He, moreover, opened communication with Quintus Curius, one of the accomplices of Catiline, and, by means of large promises, engaged him to keep the government informed in regard to all the movements of the conspirators. Curius proved a faithful and trustworthy agent.

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When the consular election for 62 B. O. approached, Catiline, once more a candidate, determined not to suffer another defeat. He accordingly adopted the bold project of murdering the presiding consul, and, if need be, the rival candidates, and of carrying the election by force of arms. In view of these dangers, the election was deferred until the twenty-first of October, and, afterward, until the twenty-eighth. On the twenty-first of that month the senate assembled to consider the state of the nation, and at that session Cicero, in the presence of Catiline, exposed the revolutionary designs of the conspirators, whereupon the senate clothed the consuls with dictatorial powers for the safety of the republic. On the twenty-eighth, the comitia met according to appointment; Cicero appeared in the Campus Martius, surrounded by a strong body-guard of armed men. The resolute bearing of the consul and his formidable guard so overawed the conspirators that no disturbance was made. Catiline was again defeated; Decimus Silanus and Lucius Murena were elected consuls for the ensuing year.

In the mean time, civil war had already commenced; Manlius was in arms against the republic. On the night of the fifth of November, Catiline met the most prominent of his partisans at the house of Marcus Laeca. He announced his purpose to join the army at the earliest possible date, assigned to the leaders their several parts in the work of the conspiracy, and urged upon them the importance of taking the life of Cicero. Two of his agents at once promised to call upon the consul the next morning and assassinate him in his own house; but Cicero, forewarned in regard to their purpose, refused to admit them.

On the seventh of November, the senate met, for greater se•curity, in the Temple of Jupiter Stator, which was guarded by Roman knights. Catiline, contrary to the expectation of all, had the effrontery to present himself at the meeting, but no greeting welcomed him to his accustomed place; the seats in his vicinity were instantly vacated; the traitor sat alone, an object of scorn and contempt. It was then that Cicero, the consul, giving utterance to his indignation in a torrent of invective, pronounced his First Oration against Catiline.

The effect was perfectly electrical. Catiline was for the moment paralyzed, but, quickly recovering his self-possession and assuming the tone of injured innocence, he implored the senate not to trust the base slanders which the consul had heaped upon

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