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him; he even ventured upon harsh and abusive language against Cicero, but his voice was at once drowned with cries of “Enemy! “ Traitor!" from the whole assembly. That night he left the city.

On the following day, the eighth of November, Cicero delivered his Second Oration against Catiline before the people in the Forum. His object was to justify the course which he had pursued in relation to the conspiracy, to allay the general excitement, and to intimidate the conspirators who had not yet left the city.

In the mean time, Catiline had repaired to the camp of Manlius, and had assumed the fasces and other insignia of consular power. The senate accordingly declared him an outlaw, ordered new levies of troops, and dispatched able leaders to different parts of the country where danger was apprehended. Cicero was directed to guard the city, and Antonius was appointed to the command of the army destined against Catiline.

According to the plan which Catiline unfolded to his associates before his departure, Cethegus was to assassinate the consul Cicero, the praetor Lentulus was charged with the general management of the affairs of the conspiracy in the capital, Gabinius and Statilius were to fire the city, and, in the midst of the general confusion attendant upon the conflagration, the conspirators were to open communication with Catiline. But, while the execution of the bloody plot was delayed, a deputation from the Allobroges in Gaul visited Rome, to present certain complaints against the provincial government. Lentulus, taking advantage of their disaffection, endeavored to interest them in the conspiracy, but Cicero finally succeeded in securing their coöperation, and, seeing that they could be made very useful to the government, encouraged them to continue their negotiations with the conspirators, and obtain from them a written statement of the proposition, which they were to make to their people. The experiment was perfectly successful. The required statement, bearing the signatures of Lentulus, Cethegus, and Statilius, was readily obtained. The Gallic ambassadors, having finished their work, left Rome on the night of the second of December, accompanied by Titus Volturcius, the bearer of dispatches for Catiline; but they had proceeded only a short distance beyond the city gate when they fell into the hands of an armed force in the employ of the government. Lentulus, Cethegus, Statilius, and Gabinius, were arrested the next morning. Later in the day, the prisoners were all brought before the bar of the senate, then assembled in the


Temple of Concord. The evidence of their guilt was overwhelming, and was finally confirmed by their own confessions.

After the adjournment of the senate, Cicero addressed the people on the great events of the day in his Third Oration against Catiline. The indignation against the conspirators became almost ungovernable ; execrations were heaped upon Catiline ; Cicero was the hero of the hour.

On the fifth of December, the senate met in the Temple of Concord, to decide the fate of the prisoners. D. Junius Silanus, consul-elect, recommended the punishment of death, but C. Julius Caesar, praetor-elect, objected to capital punishment as illegal, and recommended imprisonment for life. It was in the course of this debate that Cicero pronounced his Fourth Oration against Catiline. The sentence of death was decreed by the senate, and executed that very night, under the direction of the consul himself.

In the mean time, Catiline was in Etruria at the head of a formidable force, where, in the ensuing spring, he was defes in a desperate contest, and fell in the thickest of the fight.





1.- IV. Introduction. The Powers of Man, and their

The Work of the Historian.

proper Use.


77 1. Sese; the subject of praestare, expressed for emphasis. Observe

that it is also in the reduplicated form and in an emphatic position, before student.

2. Ne transeant; Negative Purpose. G. 497.- Silentio, in obscurity ; lit., in silence; i. e., without being spoken of, without doing anything worthy of mention.

3. Pecora; subject of transeunt, to be supplied. - Prona, grovelling, inclined downward, bowed to the ground, while man stands erect. - Ventri oboedientia, slaves to appetite ; lit., obeying, etc.

4. Nostra vis, our strength, in distinction from that of the lower animals,

5. Animi . ., utimur=animo imperatore, corpore servo magis utimur, we employ the mind more as our ruler (lit., the rule or sway of the mind), the body as our servant (lit., the service of the body). G. 421, I.

6. Alterum - alterum; i. e., animi imperium --corporis servitium. - Nobis; G. 391.

7. Quo rectius videtur, wherefore it seems so much more proper. Quo may mean, 1) wherefore, i. e., because the mind is the God-like part of our nature; and 2) so much, by so much, i. e., as much as the mind is superior to the body. Here it seems to unite both meanings. – Virium, of physical powers.

8. Vita ipsa; in contrast with memoriam nostri. -Qua fruimur; G. 421, I.

9. Memoriam nostri, the remembrance of us. G. 184, foot-note 3. -Quam maxime longam, as long as possible ; lit., as the longest. G. 170, 2.

10. Formae gloria, the glory derived from beauty; lit., the glory of form. — Fluxa, fleeting ; i. e., in its very nature. - Fragilis, easily destroyed; 1. é., by a force from without.

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11. Clara ... habetur, is a glorious and eternal possession. Ha- 77 betur, is possessed; i. e., is a possession.

12. Sed, introduces the inquiry whether military life is an exception to the general statement contained in the last two sentences. – Vine

procederet; Indirect Question. G. 529, I. 13. Magis procederet, depended more for success; lit., proceeded


14. Incipias; G. 520, I., 2. Observe the force of the person in incipias and consulueris to denote an indefinite subject. G. 460, 1, note 2.Consulto, facto; G. 414, IV.; 414, IV., note 3. - Consulueris; Potential Subj. G. 518, 2.

15. Utrumque, each, the neuter used substantively referring to vis corporis and virtus animi ; the subject of eget. Indigens, eget. See Syn. L. C. 239. - Alterum; in apposition with utrumque.

16. Aųxilio; G. 414, I.

17. Igitur; a common position in Sallust, though in Caesar and Cicero igitur seldom stands at the beginning of a sentence. — Nomen imperii primum, the first title of a ruler ; imperii=imperatoris.

18. Diversi, with diverse tastes, or pursuing different courses. Pars, alii; in partitive apposition with reges. G. 364.

19. Etiam tum, still.

20. Sua cuique placebant; lit., his own things pleased every one ; i. e., every one was pleased with his own possessions. G. 449, 2; 385. - Postea quam; G. 518, foot-note 2.

21. Cyrus. Cyrus the Great, the founder of the Persian Empire. Lacedaemonii, Athenienses. Lacedaemon, or Sparta, and Athens, were the two leading states in Greece.

22. Dominandi; G. 542, I.

1. Habere, to consider. This is not, however, entirely synonymous 78 with putare. It involves the idea not only of holding the opinion, but also of acting upon it. — Gloriam. In rendering, supply esse, which Sallust regularly omits with putare.

2. In bello . posse. Thus was decided the vexed question, magnum certamen, mentioned in chapter 1.

3. Si valeret, haberent; G. 510.

4. Aequabilius sese haberent, would be more uniform; lit., would have themselves, etc.

6. Aliud alio, one thing in one direction, another in another. G. 459, 1.- Mutari ac misceri omnia; language especially applicable to political revolutions.

7. Initio; Abl. of Time. G. 429.

9. Invasere, have come upon them. - Fortuna; their fortune ; i. B., their position and influence.

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78 10. Ad optimum quemque, to him who is best ; lit., every best one.

12. Quae . ... arant; a circumlocution for aratio, agriculture; the ploughing which men do; i. e., the cultivation of the land. Sallust proceeds to show that the virtus animi, so essential to the success of rulers, both in war and in peace, is equally important in all the affairs of life.

14. Sicuti peregrinantes, as if travelling in a foreign land ; i. e., not at home in life, and so without any appreciation of its duties and privileges.

15. Quibus voluptati. G. 390. — Anima. Observe the significance of the word instead of animus, implying that in these persons the soul is so imperfectly developed that we are obliged to call it anima rather than animus.

16. Juxta, equally lov.
18. Negotio ; Abl. of Means, with intentus.
22. Clarum fieri licet, it is lawful for one to become illustrious.
23. Qui, qui. The antecedent is multi.

25. In primis ... videtur, it seems especially difficult. The subject of videtur is res gestas scribere.

27. Facta ... exaequanda; lit., the deeds must be equalled by the words ; i. e., the style must be worthy of the subject. - Quae ... reprehenderis, those things which you have censured as faults. Supply ea.

28. Dicta, have been so called. Supply esse.

29. Ubi memores ; Potential Subj. G. 518, 2. —Quae; Object of putat. The omitted antecedent ea is the object of accipit.

30. Sibi facilia factu, easy for him to do. G. 391 ; 547.- Supra ea=quae supra ea sunt, whatever is above that; lit., above those things.

32. Sed ego adulescentulus. Sallust now refers briefly to his own political experience. He was elected quaestor at the age of 27.Ad rem publicam; i. e., into political life.

33. Ibique, and in this; lit., and there.

34. Audacia, largitio, avaritia. Observe that these words are not arranged in the same order as those with which they are contrasted ; audacia is the opposite of pudor, largitio of virtus, and avaritia of abstinentia.

35. Quae, these vices ; lit., which things, referring to audacia, etc.

36. Insolens malarum artium, unacquainted with evil arts. G. 899. There is reason to think that Sallust was not at this time a young man of such artless simplicity and purity as he would have us think. - Imbecilla, weak, yielding, because of his youth.

37. Ambitione . . . tenebatur, was held by the seductions of ambition ; lit., corrupted, misled by ambition. — Me; Emphatic. G. 561

Cum dissentirem; Subj. of Concession. G. 515, III.

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