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2. Mention any salient points of agreement, and of

difference, between the philosophy of Descartes and that of Locke.

3. Distinguish between the destructive and construc

tive aspects of Berkeley's idealism. 4. How did Berkeley deal with the distinction taken by

previous philosophers between the primary and

the secondary qualities ? Add any comments. 5. It was remarked by Hume that “the writings of

the ingenious Dr. Berkeley form the best lessons of scepticism which are to be found either among the ancient or modern philosophers.” Consider

the justice of this criticism. 6. What was Hume's position on the subject of Human

Personality ? Add any comments. . 7. Kant compared his new departure in philosophy to

the Copernican explanation of the movements of the heavenly bodies. Explain the meaning of this statement, mentioning those characteristics of the Kantian philosophy which make the com

parison relevant. 8. Mention different meanings which, in modern

philosophy, have been attached to "Substance.

m

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.-PART I.

Professor Andrew. 1. Quote Newton's Laws of Motion, and give the

66

substance of the Scholium to the third. Comment on the following quotation :-“We now know that if a motion of the earth through an infinitesimal space is all that is required, we may dispense with the lever which Archimedes proposed to use, for the motion is produced every

time a man jumps from the ground." 2. State the law of universal gravitation and the

principle of Archimedes. Comment on the following quotation from Dr. Johnson's Rasselas :

_“The labour of rising from the ground by wings, said the artist, will be great, as we see in the heavier domestic fowls, but as we mount higher, the earth's attraction and the body's gravity will be gradually diminished, till we shall arrive at a region where the man will float in the air without any tendency to fall: no care will then be necessary to move forwards, which

the gentlest impulse will effect." 3. At the ordinary examination of this term in this

subject, candidates were asked to explain the method of determining the specific gravity of a piece of light varnished wood. Some correctly answered that a “sinker” was employed, and proceeded to state that “the specific gravity of the wood is the difference between that of the sinker and of the compound mass made up of sinker and wood.” Shew that this is correct

s'

o' only when

= 2 where v, ú are the volumes, s, s' the specific gravities of the wood and the sinker respectively.

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4. Describe any two methods of mechanically magnifying very small instrumental displacements, and a practical application of one of them to determining the relative coefficients of linear dilatation of solid bodies. Shew that the coefficient of surface dilatation is approximately twice that of the linear dilatation of a solid.

5. Explain the cause of the fixed lines in the Solar

Spectrum, and describe the process of Spectrum
Analysis. Illustrate your answer by rough dia-
grams, arranged for comparison, of the Solar
Spectrum, shewing the lines A, B, C, D, E, F,
G, H, and of the spectra of Sodium, Lithium,
Phosphorus, Hydrogen.

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6. What is the origin of Watt's practical unit of

activity, the Horse-Power? How did it lead to an erroneous estimate of the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat by Rumford ? What is the value of Joule's equivalent in terms of the foot and degree Fahr.? How much work in foot-pounds is done when a pound of water is converted into a pound of steam?

Given that the pressure is 14 lbs. weight per sq. in.; a cubic ft. of water weighs 62.5 lbs.; a cubic inch of water produces a cubic ft. of steam.

7. Define unit magnetic pole. A pole of 90 units

strength is at a distance of 15 cmrs. from a similar pole of 60 units strength. Find the force

of repulsion between them. 8. Enunciate Ohm's law. Assuming that it follows

as a consequence from the law that for a maximum current the grouping of cells must be such as to make the internal equal to the external resistance, find the best mode of arranging 100 cells, each having a resistance of 2 Ohms when the resistance of the circuit is 50 Ohms.

9. Describe the construction and action of the po

larised relay, and explain the general principles of any method of duplex telegraphy.

10. Write brief essays on

(a) Ventilation.
(6) The earth, as a magnet.

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.-PART II.

Professor Andrew.

1. State the third law of motion. State grounds for

accepting its truth. Give Newton's experiment as described by Maxwell in “Matter and Motion." A shot of m Ibs. is fired from a gun of M lbs. placed on a smooth horizontal plane and elevated

at an angle a. Find the angle of projection. 2. Describe the construction and mode of using

Kater’s Pendulum, and prove the principle involved. Shew that there may be four points in the same straight line through the centre of mass of a lamina about which the periods of oscillation in a vertical plane are the same.

Illustrate your answer by the case of a uniform cylindrical rod. 3. Define simple Harmonic motion, and state the

principle of Archimedes. A right circular cylinder of height h, and specific gravity s, floats with its axis vertical in a liquid of specific gravity s.

The cylinder is then depressed. Shew that the time it takes to rise to its highest position is constant and equal to an (hs) / (gs').

4. Explain the phenomenon of a film of water be

tween the surface of two vertical clean glass plates, inclined at a small angle, and find the form of the surface of the film. What would be the effect of heating the water?

5. A piece of glass rod whose coefficient of linear

dilatation is 8.08 x 10 - loses 17 grains weight in water at a temperature of 10° C., and 16.5 grains weight when the temperature of the water is raised to 80° C. Find the coefficient of volume dilatation of water.

6. Describe in detail Regnault's method of deter

mining the relation between the pressure and the temperature of vapour of water at high temperatures; also his method of combining and interpreting the results of observation.

7. Describe fully, giving the necessary calculations,

the method of determining H when the deflecting magnet is “ Broad-side on.

8. Find the law of electrical density on the surface of

an oblate spheroid and the whole charge for a given potential. Deduce the capacity of a thin circular plate freely electrified. How may a uniform distribution be obtained on such a plate, and what practical use is made of the method ?

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