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6. Two beams of the same length and material are

fixed horizontally at one end. Their breadths are as 3 : 5; their depths as 5: 3. Compare their breaking weights.

HEAT. 1. Define heat and temperature. Is temperature heat?

2. Mention some of the corrections which must be

applied to the readings of a mercurial thermometer in order to get true temperatures.

3. A vessel contains air at 0° Centigrade and at atmo

spheric pressure. It is heated to 50° Centigrade, and during the process one ounce of air escapes. Given that the coefficient of expansion of air at constant pressure is it, and neglecting the expansion of the vessel, find how many ounces

of air the vessel originaily contained. 4. If you dip your hand into lukewarm water, and

then expose it to the air, the hand feels cold. If you make the same experiment with ether, the hand feels much colder on exposure. Explain these facts.

5. Explain why the grass in a garden is frequently

noticed to be wet in the morning, although there has been no rain, while the gravel paths are dry.

6. A weight of a ton is lifted by a steam-engine to

a height of 386 feet. Taking J = 772, show that the work done represents a consumption of heat that would raise 10 lbs. of water through 112° F.

SOUND AND LIGHT. 1. Find the velocity of sound if there are 132 vibra

tions per second, and the wave-length is 2.55 metres.

as the

2. Prove that the intensity of a sound varies inversely


of the distance from the source of its origin; and explain the fact that practically intensity diminishes more quickly than according

to the preceding law. 3. State the four laws which connect the nature of

the vibrations of a string with its properties, and give a proof of any one of them.

4. Why are the rays of the sun more powerful at noon

than in the morning or evening, and in summer than in winter?

5. What do you understand by an image ? Draw a

figure showing the way in which an image is

formed by a plane reflecting surface. 6. Explain the plienoinenon of total internal reflexion;

and define the critical angle.

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 1. Why is electricity found only on the surface of

conductors ? What prevents its escape from the surface ?

2. Two equal insulated metallic balls have unequal

charges of the same or of opposite electricities. What will happen if they are made to touch ? Supposing that the original charges were + 8 and — 4, what will be the final charges ?

3. Two small equal conducting balls, which are charged

respectively with + 3 and + 9 units of electricity, are placed at a given distance apart. They are next made to touch each other, and then they are separated by half their former distance. Io what ratio is the repulsion which they exert on each other changed ?

4. Prove that the heating effect produced by the dis

charge of a Leyden jar is directly proportional to the square of the quantity of electricity and

inversely proportional to the surface of the jar. 5. If a disc coloured with the colours of the spectrum

in their proper proportions be made to rotate rapidly, the disc appears white in ordinary light. But if the disc be viewed by an electric spark, the colours are not blended. Account for this difference.

6. Explain the principle of magneto-electrical machines.


The Board of Examiners.

1. Describe the lymphatic system of vessels.

2. Describe the appearance, structure and functions of

the auriculo-ventricular valves.

3. Explain as fully as you can the conversion of venous

into arterial blood in the lungs.

4. Describe the structure and functions of the skin,

and draw rough sketches to illustrate your answer.

5. Describe the appearance, structure and functions of

the stomach.

6. Describe the chief forms of perfect joints and give


7. State what you know concerning the functions of

the retina.

8. Describe the


of voice.


The Boaríl of Examiners.

(Candidates are instructed not to answer more than

six questions. All answers must, as
possible, be illustrated by rough sketches.]

far as

1. What is the “root” of a plant? Give some descrip

tion, with examples, of the different forms of the structures known as “roots.”

2. Describe the flower of either the bean plant or the


3. How do (1) the yeast plant and (2) the tree fern

obtain their food ?


4. Describe any three, but not more, of the_fol

lowing orders :-Cruciferæ, Droseracea, Epa

crideæ, Myrtacee, Liliacea, Proteaceæ. 5. Give some account of the way in which the fern

reproduces itself.

6. Describe the fruit of the following plants :- Apple,

currant, plum, oak, strawberry, and acacia.

7. How does a sea-weed differ in structure from a

fern ?

8. Describe the essential process of fertilization of a

flower. What difficulties are introduced by the varying structure of flowers, and how are these

overcome by natural agencies ? 9. Describe, with examples, the different forms of

hairs found on the leaves of plants.

10. What do you understand by the following terms :

dichlamydeous, diclinous, perianth, perigynous, exogen, apocarpous ?

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