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6. Two beams of the same length and material are
fixed horizontally at one end. Their breadths are as 3 : 5; their depths as 5: 3. Compare their breaking weights.
HEAT. 1. Define heat and temperature. Is temperature heat?
2. Mention some of the corrections which must be
applied to the readings of a mercurial thermometer in order to get true temperatures.
3. A vessel contains air at 0° Centigrade and at atmo
spheric pressure. It is heated to 50° Centigrade, and during the process one ounce of air escapes. Given that the coefficient of expansion of air at constant pressure is it, and neglecting the expansion of the vessel, find how many ounces
of air the vessel originaily contained. 4. If you dip your hand into lukewarm water, and
then expose it to the air, the hand feels cold. If you make the same experiment with ether, the hand feels much colder on exposure. Explain these facts.
5. Explain why the grass in a garden is frequently
noticed to be wet in the morning, although there has been no rain, while the gravel paths are dry.
6. A weight of a ton is lifted by a steam-engine to
a height of 386 feet. Taking J = 772, show that the work done represents a consumption of heat that would raise 10 lbs. of water through 112° F.
SOUND AND LIGHT. 1. Find the velocity of sound if there are 132 vibra
tions per second, and the wave-length is 2.55 metres.
2. Prove that the intensity of a sound varies inversely
of the distance from the source of its origin; and explain the fact that practically intensity diminishes more quickly than according
to the preceding law. 3. State the four laws which connect the nature of
the vibrations of a string with its properties, and give a proof of any one of them.
4. Why are the rays of the sun more powerful at noon
than in the morning or evening, and in summer than in winter?
5. What do you understand by an image ? Draw a
figure showing the way in which an image is
formed by a plane reflecting surface. 6. Explain the plienoinenon of total internal reflexion;
and define the critical angle.
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 1. Why is electricity found only on the surface of
conductors ? What prevents its escape from the surface ?
2. Two equal insulated metallic balls have unequal
charges of the same or of opposite electricities. What will happen if they are made to touch ? Supposing that the original charges were + 8 and — 4, what will be the final charges ?
3. Two small equal conducting balls, which are charged
respectively with + 3 and + 9 units of electricity, are placed at a given distance apart. They are next made to touch each other, and then they are separated by half their former distance. Io what ratio is the repulsion which they exert on each other changed ?
4. Prove that the heating effect produced by the dis
charge of a Leyden jar is directly proportional to the square of the quantity of electricity and
inversely proportional to the surface of the jar. 5. If a disc coloured with the colours of the spectrum
in their proper proportions be made to rotate rapidly, the disc appears white in ordinary light. But if the disc be viewed by an electric spark, the colours are not blended. Account for this difference.
6. Explain the principle of magneto-electrical machines.
The Board of Examiners.
1. Describe the lymphatic system of vessels.
2. Describe the appearance, structure and functions of
the auriculo-ventricular valves.
3. Explain as fully as you can the conversion of venous
into arterial blood in the lungs.
4. Describe the structure and functions of the skin,
and draw rough sketches to illustrate your answer.
5. Describe the appearance, structure and functions of
6. Describe the chief forms of perfect joints and give
7. State what you know concerning the functions of
8. Describe the
The Boaríl of Examiners.
(Candidates are instructed not to answer more than
six questions. All answers must, as
1. What is the “root” of a plant? Give some descrip
tion, with examples, of the different forms of the structures known as “roots.”
2. Describe the flower of either the bean plant or the
3. How do (1) the yeast plant and (2) the tree fern
obtain their food ?
4. Describe any three, but not more, of the_fol
lowing orders :-Cruciferæ, Droseracea, Epa
crideæ, Myrtacee, Liliacea, Proteaceæ. 5. Give some account of the way in which the fern
6. Describe the fruit of the following plants :- Apple,
currant, plum, oak, strawberry, and acacia.
7. How does a sea-weed differ in structure from a
8. Describe the essential process of fertilization of a
flower. What difficulties are introduced by the varying structure of flowers, and how are these
overcome by natural agencies ? 9. Describe, with examples, the different forms of
hairs found on the leaves of plants.
10. What do you understand by the following terms :
dichlamydeous, diclinous, perianth, perigynous, exogen, apocarpous ?