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Not that these essays show any lack of wide reading, or of keen critical insight. On the contrary, the range of Mr. Bagehot's reading and the catholicity of his taste are surprising. lie wrote almost equally well of Beranger's Songs and of Butler's Analogy; and the pithy criticism upon men of widely different ages which is scattered incidentally through these volumes—upon Homer, Plato, Voltaire, Dante, Goethe, and Dryden, for example—show that he had somehow found time to familiarize himself with what is best in all the great European literatures. But his reading did not warp his originality nor make him hookish. Upon the most wellworn themes—Shakspeare, for instance—he had something new to say, and a fresh and forcible way of saying it. Few collections of essays contain so little second-hand opinion, so much that is new and yet true.
As for his acumen we have seen nothing in recent English criticism to equal it. But it never led him into fanciful or laborious analysis. It was constantly held in check by the practical temper of his thought. To use a phrase he was fond of, he could always tell you what a thing "came to;" and that is the office of criticism. By its easy rapidity, its manifold suggestiveness, and its versatility, the writing of Mr. Bagehot reminds one of that rare thing, the talk of a really good talker. It is uncommon to find so much depth and power of thought combined with such vigorous plainness of expression and felicity of illustration. Indeed, Mr. Bagehot seemed sometimes curiously rather afraid of his own penetration. After stating some principle of conduct or opinion discovered in the life or writings of the author under criticism, he had a way of saying, "}fow, this may seem to many people like nonsense, but in reality it isn't. For,"—and then would follow some homely but conclusive examples of the principle in common life.
It is largely to this union of the speculative and the practical temper that we ascribe the humor which constantly played about Mr. Bagehot's pen. For humor, if any thing more than easy goodfellowship or the gush of animal spirits, depends upon the quick perception of contrasted relations. And this perception Mr. Bagehot had in a remarkable degree. The philosopher and the banker in him were always laughing at each other. Very suggestive of the nature and the source of his humor is such a passage as this :—
There seems an unalterable contradiction between the human mind and its employments. How can a sotU be a merchant? What relation to an immortal being have the price of linseed, the fall of butter, the tare on tallow, or the brokerage on hemp? Can an undying creature debit " petty expenses" and charge for "carriage paid?" All the world's a stage;—"the satchel and the sliming morning race,"—the "strange oatlis,"—the "bubble reputation,"—the
Eyes severe and beard of formal out,
Can these things be real? Surely tliey are actmg. What relation have they to the truth as we see it in theory? What connection with our certain hopes, our deep desires, our craving and infinite thought? "In respect of itself, it is a good life; but in respect it is a shepherd's life, it is naught." The soul ties its shoe; the mind washes its hands in a basin. AW is incongruous.
The essays are remarkably even. If we mistake not, however, those which deal largely with the relations of philosophy and religion to practical life are written with greater zest than the others. Those on Huxley, Coleridge, Arthur Hugh Clough, and Milton are excellent, but the best of the series is the essay on Butler. We do not remember to have seen in so brief compass such a clear and satisfactory statement of the character and limitations of Butler's work. c. T. W.
The Popular Science Monthly. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1819.
First, it maintains the absolute settlement of the question in favor of the reality of quaternary man. And the remains of this epoch are found as truly in the East, in Assyria, in Egypt, both lower and upper, as in America. It notices with peremptory contradiction the claim made by Mr. Southall that no traces of paleolithic man are found in Egypt and the Orient; maintaining that they have been discovered in positions decisive of their genuine geological antiquity. And of the vastness of the quaternary age he thus speaks: "All geologists are agreed that the duration of the period in which we live is as nothing compared with that of the quaternary period. It is as a day compared to ages, as a drop of water in a stream. All paleontologists understand what a length of time is requisite for the rise and decline of animal species—species which, while they have been upon the earth, have been lavishly distributed over an enormous area."—Page 795. On this we remark that, positive as paleontologists are of this stupendous length of time, the physicists as positively maintain that no snch time can be allowed. As yet the physicists possess the field.
But Mortillet is also Bure not only of the tertiary man anterior to the stupendous quaternary, but even of the miocene. We do not quote his proofs, our main object being the certain discriminations above hinted. Was the fossil man the complete man of our present humanity? Or was he, in fact, a lower species; an anthropoid, and not a man. If so, the Adamic man may have no genetic connection with the pre-Adamite, aud our race may have begun with Adam. On this point we adduce the following passages :—
But first let us understand what ia meant by the terms quaternary man and tertiary man.
The fauna of the mammals serves clearly to determine the limits of these later geological periods. The tertiary is characterized by terrestrial mammals entirely different from extant species; the quaternary by the mingling of extant with extinct species; the present period by the extant fauna. The man of the early quaternary, he who made the St. Aclieul hatchets aud used them, is the man of Neanderthal, of Canstatt, of Enggisheim, of La Naulette, of Denise. Ho is indubitably a man, but differing more widely from the Australian and the Hottentot than the Australian and Hottentot differ from the European. Hence unquestionably he formed another human species, the word species bring taken in the setise given to it by naturalists who do not accept Oie transformation doctrine.
Tertiary man, therefore, must hav^s been still more distinct—of a species still less like the present human species—indeed, Bo different as to entitle it to bo regarded as of distinct genus. For this reason I have given to this being the name of man's precursor. Or ho might be called anthropopithecus—the man-monkey. The question of tertiary man should therefore be expressed thus: Did there exist in the tertiary age beings sufficiently intelligent to perform a part of the acts which are characteristic of man?
So stated, the question is settled most completely by tho various series of objects sent to the Anthropological Exposition. . . .
It results, therefore, from the Abbe^ Bourgeois' researches, that during the middle tertiary there existed a creature, precursor of man, an anthropopithecus, which was acquainted with tire and could make use of it for splitting flints. It also knew how to trim the flint-flakes thus produced, and to convert them into tools,—Pp. 797, 798.
But if even quaternary "man" was not of the same species with our present man, then there properly is no quaternary man. And inasmuch as even "the man of Neanderthal, of Canstatt, of Enggisheim, of La Naulette, of Denise," is of very questionable character, how do we know that the being intelligent enough to split flints by fire or by tapping had a human form at all, even rudimentally? Quantitatively, the beaver and the bee have as great an amount of intelligence, although qualitatively in different direction. We are, therefore, unable to be sure that the flint-splitter was "the precursor of man." But even admitting his precursorship, he was still an animal, with animal body and intellect. The higher nature, the spirit, was wanting. The being may have possessed an animal body, and an animal soul, but have lacked the nvEvfia, the transceudant humanity. For man was not only made of "dust" and "became a living soul," but he "became" so by the inbreathing of the Divine. We are still left, then, on this scientific admission, ample room to deny that the Mosaic history 'of the Adamic man is contradicted. The view of Tayler Lewis, and later of Mivart, is left unrefuted. Or, rather, we may say that the genetic connection between Adam and the geologic man remains entirely unproved.
fht West African Reporter. Four folio pages. VoL V, No. 68. Siorra Leone. April, 1879.
We have received and looked over with interest a few numbers of
this paper that have flowed as if by spontaneity from Africa into
our office. In the present number, in refuting the existence of
"caste in literature," the editor says :—
Professor Blyden, in his writings above referred to, has been recognized and welcomed ns a eo-worker by the ablest writers. His articles have been quoted and copied, and what is, perhaps, a greater compliment, plagiarized by periodicals in England and America. The Edinburgh, Contemporary, and Saturday Reviews in England have quoted from and reviewed them. Littoll's Living Ago and the Methodist Quarterly Review in the United Suites have copied some of them entire.—Ed. W. A. F.
The Methodist Quarterly Review has copied none of Mr. Blyden's articles from English periodicals entire. Our Quarterly was the first to discover Mr. Blyden; and his article in our Quarterly was the first of his ever published, and, doubtless, the first article in any review or magazine from a man of his race. He has been contributor to our Quarterly ever since, and an article of his will be found in this, our January, number. The only article of his ever partially republished from England in our pages was written by him for our Quarterly, bat intercepted in England and published in Frazer's Magazine.
The Lemon Commentary on the International Sunday-School Lessons for 1880. By
Rev. John H. Vincent, D.D., and Rev. J. L. Huklbut, M.A. 8vo., pp. 252.
New York: Phillips & Hunt. Cincinnati: Hitchcock & Walden. 1879. The Senior Lesson Book (Berean Series, No. 1) on the International Lessons for
1880. 16mo., pp.166. New York: Phillips & Hunt. Cincinnati: Hitchcock
& Walden. 1879.
T7ie Berean Question Book (Berean Series, No. 2) on the International Lessons for 1880. 16mo., pp. 165. New York: Phillips & Hunt. Cincinnati: Hitchcock & Walden. 1879.
The Berean Beginner's Book (Berean Series No. 3) on the International Lessons for 1880. 16mo., pp. 160. New York: Phillips & Hunt. Cincinnati: Hitchcock & Walden. 1879.
The Boys' Rocket Library. Volume III. 24mo., pp. 288. New York: Phillips & Hunt. Cincinnati: Hitchcock & Walden. 1879.
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The Boys' Pocket Library. Vol. V. Strange Stories about Strange People. 24rno., pp. 268. New York: Phillips & Hunt. Cincinnati: Hitchcock & Walden. 1879.
Conrad. A Tale of Wiclif and Bohemia. By Emma Leslie, author of "Flavia," "Elfreda," etc. Four Illustrations. 12mo., pp. 293. New York: Phillips & Hunt. Cincinnati: Hitchcock & Walden. 1879.
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The Princess IdLcirays. A Fairy Story. By Mrs. W. J. Hats. Illustrated. 16mo., pp.124. New York: Harper k Brothers. 1880.
The Life of Rev. Thomas M. Eddy, D.D. By Charles N. Sims, D.D. With an Introduction by Rev. Bishop Simpson, D.D., LL D. 12mo., pp. 592. New York: Phillips & Hunt. Cincinnati: Hitchcock & Walden. 1879.
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Young folks' History of Rome. By Charlotte M. Yonge, author of "The Heir of Redcliffe," " Little Lucy's Wonderful Globe," "Book of Golden Deeds," "Young Folks' History of Germany," "Greece," "France," "England," etc. 12mo., pp.443. Cincinnati: Hitchcock & Walden. New York: Phillips & Hunt. 1879.
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The Illustrated Catholic Family Annual for 1880. New York: The Catholic Publication Society Co.
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English Men of Letters. Edited by John Morley.^- Edmund Burke. By John Morley. 12mo., pp. 214. 1879.—John Milton. By Mark Pattison, B.D. 12mo., pp. 215. New York: Harper k Brothers. 1880.
Art in America. A Critical and Historical Sketch. By S. G. W. Benjamin. Illustrated. 8vo., pp. 214. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1880.
The Boy Travelers in the Far East. Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey to Japan and China. By Thomas W. Knox. Illustrated. 8vo., pp. 421. New York: Harper k Brothers. 1880.
An Involuntary Voyage. By Lucien Biart. Translated by Mrs. Cashel Hoey and Mr. John Lillie. illustrated. 12mo., pp. 200. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1880.
A True Republic. By Albert Sticeney. 12mo., pp. 271. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1879.
Lessons from My Masters: Carlyle, Tennyson, and Ruskin. By Peter Baynk,
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New York: Harper & Brothers. 1879. The Telep/igne, the Microphone, and the Phonograph. By Count Du Moncel.
With 70 Illustrations. 12mo., pp. 277. New York: Harper k Brothers. 1879. The American Bookseller for Christmas. 1879. Paper Covers. 8vo., pp. 592.
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