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tered the river we saw a huge fortification, into the construction of which foreign ideas and foreign skill had largely entered. A little farther up the river was an arsenal, where natives, instructed and guided by foreigners, are manufacturing all kinds of large and small fire-arms. Near it is a ship-yard, where the natives are manufacturing steam and sailing vessels and gun-boats. Two fine symmetrical gun-boats, built entirely by Chinese, were lying here at anchor. As we ascend the river I see but few of the old cumbersome junks, and notice that they have been displaced by steamships, many of them owned by the "Chinese Merchants' Steamship Company." The harbor now presents quite a foreign, instead of a Chinese appearance. Along the banks of the river were beautiful villas; and when we reached the city, instead of the few bungalows and hongs of twenty-five years ago, there was a magnificent foreign city, with some as fine buildings as the eye could wish to see. To be sure, beyond this foreign city there was the old native Shanghai, shut up within its walls, as immovable, as noisy, as dirty, as ever.
The ever hospitable Lambuth welcomed the Bishop to his home in the city, and they sweetly worshiped together. That home of this beloved brother of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, like the temple of Janus, was never closed in time of war, but, unlike the temple of Janus, it also stands open in time of peace. "Fraternity" at the Shanghai mission house has been a clear, unremitting, and abundant stream. Of the mission of the Church South the Bishop says:
Our brethren of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, have a very prosperous mission, whose head-quarters are in this city. They have work in Shanghai, Kahding, Naziang, Wangdoo, Soo Chow, Fahuho, Singkyung, and Tsungsoo; four foreign missionaries and six native preachers, four deacons and two elders, nine schools, and the "Clopton Girls' Boarding School," with over a hundred children in their schools.
But the Bishop was not a sauntering, idling tourist; he had earnest work to do, and nothing but work, and in forty-eight hours he was again under way.
The Chinese steamer upon which he embarked gave considerably reduced fare to missionaries, showing how the more advanced Chinese appreciate missionaries and their work. The president of the steamship company had in early life received much education and training under Dr. Brown, a well-known missionary. They proceeded up the bold and rocky coast, all along which for seven hundred miles are missionary outstations, which were in view from the steamer, where native or foreign missionaries are laboring to evangelize this empire.
As they passed up the coast the Bishop was surprised to find that the Yellow River had changed its place of embouchure into the ocean. Years ago it' discharged its immense volume of muddy water into the Yellow Sea, a hundred miles below the great Shantung promontory; now it has cut for itself a new channel, and empties into the Gulf of Pi-chi-li, a hundred miles north of the promontory—fitting emblem, this, that Chinese immobility is passing away. "This promontory extends far out into the sea, and is a couple of hundred miles in width, and all over it are mission outstations of the American Southern Baptist, American Presbyterian, and United Presbyterian Church of Scotland." The vessel grounded in the Peiho, and, with Rev. Mr. Lowry, the Bishop forsook it for a donkey that bore him to Tientsin.
Tientsin is the great emporium for the north of China, as Canton is for the south. It extends for several miles on both sides of the river, on the banks of which are many quays and docks, with large public buildings, chief of which are the custom-house, warehouses, and temples. The stores are handsome and well furnished, but the private houses are no ornaments to the streets, being built, as in all large Chinese cities in the North, within a court inclosed by a brick wall. We find here a busy scene. All the vessels of the "Chinese Merchants' Company" were hurrying up rice to be conveyed from this port into the interior, to relieve the terrible famine. Here we see the weakness of Chinese civilization. Tens of thousands of bags of rice were piled upon the docks, with no means but donkeys and donkey-carts to convey any of it two hundred miles into the interior to touch the famine-stricken district. This was, in part, the cause of the great amount of suffering—not the lack of food, but the inability to convey it to the starving people.
During the episcopal tour in North China from this point all became Chinese. There was no alternative in travel but mule carts or Chinese boats, of which the company chose the latter, but were almost sorry they did so; yet had the decision been otherwise, it might have merely reversed their regrets. They at length reached Tung Chow, one hundred and twenty miles from Tientsin, and thence proceeded at once to Peking, the center of the North China mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church.
Having completed his duties in North China, the Bishop left the great city of Peking on the 6th of November, the cold weather threatening to close the navigation of the Peiho, and, therefore, hastening his departure. Taking chair and cart, the company, passing out of the eastern gate of the southern city, soon struck the Grand Canal, which with the Peiho extends to Tientsin and stretches thence onward across the Yellow River to the Yang-tsze-Kiang. This canal is wide and deep everywhere, and without locks, the boats being dragged with great labor up sluices to the different levels; often unloaded and loaded again at the other level. Between Tung Chow and Peking this is necessary five times. The country was beautiful, the modes of agriculture after the style of Bible times, and the road self-constructed. As they entered Tung Chow at sunset, a poor carter, whose cart had passed over his leg and broken it, was seen surrounded by a crowd in great consternation because they saw the man could not stand. The physicianBishop set the limb, but had great difficulty in persuading the friends of the poor fellow not to remove the bandages. This Christly service rendered, he passed on. From Tung Chow they had a beautiful run to Tientsin, which is "a well built city, but one of the most filthy ... in all China, and where all sanitary laws are set at defiance." All the drainage of the city finds its way into a moat ten feet wide, which surrounds the city wall, and disgusts the traveler with its stench as he crosses it to enter any one of the city gates. Dogs and pigs dispute with humans the possession of the streets. The Bishop writes:
In the western part of the city, on the river bank, we saw the ruins of the Roman Catholic cathedral, left after the massacre and fire of 1870. They have refused to rebuild it, but after receiving a large amount of indemnity, far more than they lost in money value, left these ruins standing as a monument of the persecution and the martyrdom of their priests and nuns, and went into another part of the city to erect their building. Some twenty-two persons lost their lives in this outbreak in Tientsin in 1870, most of them Catholic priests and nuns.
Thence our travelers took steamer to Shanghai. Several tedious days of detention on the bar at the mouth of the Peiho failed to convince them of the desirableness of the protection which the Chinese think is thus afforded by nature to Peking. In due time they were again amid the delightful hospitalities of the home of Kev. J. W. Lambuth. Here at Shanghai another steamer received them, and bore them five hundred miles up the Yang-tsze-Kiang to Kiukiang. • The chief city passed on this great river was Nanking, the old Ming capital. Our author describes it with his customary perspicuity and beauty of style. We indulge in extracts of greater length than usual because of the special interest of the passage:
The streets are not so broad as those of Peking, but are on the whole cleaner and better paved, and bordered with handsome shops. The ancient palaces have nearly all disappeared. The only monuments of royalty which remain are some sepulchral statues not far from the walls, and are near an ancient cemetery which the foreigners call the Tombs of the Kings, and they form an avenue leading up to the sepulchers. They consist of gigantio figures, like warriors, cased in a kind of armor, and stand on either side of the road, across which at intervals extend finely-carved Pilaus. The ruins also of colossal figures of horses, elephants and other animals may still be seen scattered about. Nothing has made Nanking more celebrated abroad than the Porcelain Tower, of which, alas! we have now to speak in the past tense, and say that it stood pre-eminent above all other buildings in China for its elegance, the quality of the material of which it was built, and the quantity of gilding with which its exterior was embellished. This building, and the report that the tower was covered with gold, and that the great gilded ball at the summit was also of solid gold, led to its destruction by the iconoclastic and avaricious rebels. Its form was octagonal, divided into nine equal stories, the circumference of the lower one being one hundred and twenty feet, and decreasing gradually to the top. Its base rested upon a solid foundation of brick work ten feet high, up which a flight of. twelve steps led into the tower, whence a spiral staircase of one hundred and ninety steps carried the visitor to the summit, two hundred and sixty-one feet from the ground. The outer surface was covered with tiles of glazed porcelain of various colors, principally green, red, yellow, and white. The body of the edifice was of brick. At every story there was a projecting roof covered with green tiles, and a ball suspended from each corner. The interior divisions were filled with a great number of little gilded images placed in niches. This remarkable structure was built in 1430, having been nineteen years in building.
Nanking has extensive manufactures of fine satin and crape, and the cotton cloth which foreigners call nankeen, but of which very little now reaches foreign coasts, derives its name from this city. Paper and ink of fine quality, and beautiful artificial flowers of pith paper, are produced here. Nanking is renowned for its schools and literary character as well as its manufactures, and in this particular still stands among the first places of learning in the country. It has large libraries and bookstores, all indicating and assisting literary pursuits, and the superior care and elegance of the editions of the classics published here combine to give it this distinguished place.
Wu-hu is a modern annex to the city of Nanking, exhibiting externally the impress of foreign civilization in its streets, architecture, stores, etc. To all the cities along the river the missionaries from Kiukiang extend their itinerations.
Kiukiang is described as a walled city, about four miles in circuit, on the south bank of the river; and our mission property is admirably located, part of it within the walls, and part without in the foreign " concession." Engrossing duties filled up the stay of the Bishop, and then he promptly retraced his steps to Shanghai, and bade Kiukiang a final adieu. The Bishop says:
Kiukiang is admirably located for a mission center, being surrounded in every direction for many miles by towns or cities, nearly all of which can be reached by rivers or lakes. The climate is very mild, and gives every indication of healthfulness. None of these cities opened on the river are fulfilling the hopes of foreigners as places of foreign trade, but are found to be very thriving and enterprising places for native manufactures and trade, and very important and promising for missionary operations. We have reason to congratulate ourselves on the success and hopeful increase of our mission on the great river. Our missionaries entered Kiukiang late in 1868. We are the only mission operating in and around the city, except an occasional itinerant visitation from representatives of the "Inland Mission."
The city of Shanghai is on the right bank of the Woosing, a branch of the Yang-tsze-kiang, about twelve miles from its mouth. It has a population of one hundred and fifty thousand, and the wall of the city is about three miles in circumference, pierced by six gates. A canal flows all around the wall, and three canals, with numerous small branches, penetrate the city. The projecting roofs of the low wooden houses overhang narrow streets that are paved with tile and are reeking with filth and vilest odors. The shops are numerous and well stocked. Our author continues:
Shanghai is really a triple city, native, foreign, and mixed. The native city is surrounded by the universal wall, dark, gloomy,