« IndietroContinua »
ing a disciple of Theodas, an acquaintance of Paul. All the ancient Church writers represent him as a man of great genius. Valentinus founded a school which spread not only in Egypt and Rome, but also in Syria and Gaul, and maintained itself especially in the East for more than a century. The doctrinal system of the master was partly developed, partly transformed by some of his scholars. Irenaeus, who treats very fully of Valentinianism, refers chiefly to the schools of Ptolemy and of Marcus, between which he found considerable disagreement. Irenaeus, however, is himself more an opponent of, than a reporter on, the Gnostics, who in general appear different in their own writings from what the writers of the early Church represent them to be. The works of Valentinus are lost, but many fragments are preserved in other writings. They were collected by Grabe in the first volume of his Spicilegium SS. Patrum ut et haereticorum seculi post Christum natum, I, II, III. (Oxford, 1700.) One of these fragments which is taken from Adamantii Dial de secta in deum fide, sec. iv, (Origenis Opp. i, 840, sq.,) does not seem to be a fragment, of Valentinus at all, but rather part of a dialogue in which a Valentinian is introduced. On the other hand, Grabe did not yet know the celebrated work, entitled Philosophumena sive omnium haeresium refutatio, which has been handed down to us under the name of Origen, but was probably compiled by Hippolytus, and which was for the first time published from a Parisian manuscript by Miller, (Oxford, 1851,) and again with a Latin translation by Duncker, (Goettingen, 1859.) In this work Hilgenfeld finds two fragments of works of Valentinus, one of which he believes to have been part of a work called X<xpla, which is mentioned by Tertullian, while the other is a part of the Psalms of Valentinus, which are likewise mentioned by Tertullian. Neither of the Xwfr'ta nor of the Psalms of Valentinus had Grabe been able to give any fragment. Hilgenfeld publishes the complete text of all the fragments, both the old and the new, explains them, and then concludes his article by an attempt to construct from these fragments an outline of the system of Valentinus. He believes that the fragments give us a more faithful picture of the remarkable man than the writings of his opponents. The chief points in the Valentinian system were, according to Hilgenfeld, as follows:
impressions from him. Valentinus subsequently taught himself at Alexandria very successfully without falling into the reputation of being a heretic. According to Epiphamus, Valentinus found many adherents in different parts of Egypt without being regarded as a heretic. It is less probable that, as the same Epiphanius states, Valentinus taught even in Rome for some time without giving offense, and that he did not apostatize from the Orthodox faith until he took up his residence in Cyprus. Valentinus arrived in Rome, according to the testimony of Irenaeus, under Bishop Hyginus, (between 136 and 140.) He taught there acceptably during the episcopate of Pius, (between 140 and 155,) and remained un til the time of Bishop Anicetus, (about 155 or 156.) It if likely that in Rome he soon fell out with the ruling Churcl for in the writings of Justin, about 147, he is mentioned as heretic. Tertullian commits an obvious blunder when 1 places the arrival of. Valentinus at Rome in the episcopate Eleutherus, (between 175 and 189,) but he confirms the repf that Valentinus was not yet a heretic when he arrived at Ron It is even by no means impossible that, as the same Tertull' states, Valentinus fell out with the Church because he fai1 in his aspiration to be elected bishop. Why should he' have aspired, at the death of Hyginus,. at the Roman e> Do we not find among the occupants of this see the P passian Kallistos, the Arian Felix, and Honorius, the autho" Monothelism. The Chronicles of Eusebius, which twice n tion Valentinus, also favor the opinion that he was not ye" outspoken heretic when he arrived at Rome during this • copate of Hyginus. Valentinus resided in Rome for a twenty years, as the active head of a heretical sect. It api probable that the sojourn of Valentinus on Cyprus, to « island he came by shipwreck, took place before his arrh Rome, that he fell out with the ruling Church neitl Egypt nor on Cyprus, but in Rome, where he arrived 140 and died about 160. Thus Valentinus belongs to t! ventors of heresies who, according to Clement of Alexn began to make their appearance in Rome during the rei Emperor Hadrian, (117 to 138,) and continued to agito Church during the reign of Antoninus Pius, (138 ti The same Church writer states that Valentinus boasted
ne a \ineMad.
evue ction the great resent State ch imants to <>ing Bo, e understate and ;igu right
Valentinus proceeded from the "living Aeon," as the true source. He still conceived the At'wv as a unit, like the Gnostics of Irenaeus. The unity of the Aeon is, however, by no means devoid of distinction. The primitive being is the "only good" Father. This Father has a Son, through whose revelation alone he can become present. At least very near to the Father and the Son stands the Logos, but also the pre-existing Anthropos. Thus the fragments point to a plurality of Aeons. The material body was regarded by Valentinus neither as an immediate nor as a perfect creation of the true God, but as a defective imitation of the living Aeon, executed, as it were, by a painter according to a model furnished by the highest Majesty, but stamped with the name of God, and authenticated by the invisible One. The painter is the creator of the material world, the first of a plurality of angels of the same kind. These angels fashion the created man upon the name of the pre-existing Anthropos. The latter (or the Son, or the Logos) invisibly fits man out with the seed of the Supreme (divine) Being. Adam, therefore, immediately startles his creators by lofty words, so that they disfigure or even destroy their work. The disfiguration of the original creation of men is the earthly man. Even the cosmic man is inspired with fear and trembling by statues and pictures, as well as by every thing that is framed by hands in the name of God. Into the hearts of man many unclean spirits or demons walk in and out, as in a hostelry, and work things improper. Nevertheless, the seed of the Supreme Being remains in a part of the human race. The "Only Good" becomes present to the race of earthly men through the Son in order to purify the hearts even up to the intuition of God. The Son, indeed, does not become a real man. But he founds a congregation among men, which is kept together not only by an external word or law of God, but by internal words of the heart, and by an inner law, and which is united with the Son in mutual love. Even after the appearance of the Son upon earth, the divine Logos is incarnated in man, who develops in himself the seed of the Divine Essence, may have the consciousness to be elevated above what is transitory, and to have assumed mortality only to overcome it. All difference of the spiritual and the material world may be traced back to a transcending and controlling unity.
The first article of this number is from the pen of Edward von Hartmann, who, as the author of the "Philosophy of the Unconscious," and as the founder of a new atheistic and pessimistic philosophy, has become widely known. The readers of the Journal, of course, may be surprised to see his name among the contributors, and Professor Hilgenfeld, therefore, deems it necessary to explain, in a prefatory note, that he does not share the views of E. von Hartmann on Christianity, and that his contribution was not solicited by him. But as periodicals are regarded by him as a kind of debating halls, he thinks the admission of an essay by one of the most eminent philosophers to be justifiable, although his views entirely differ from his own, and from those of his theological friends.
Revue Chretiennb, (Christian Review.) March, 1880.—1. Godet, The Recent Hypothesis of M. Renan in Regard to the Origin of the Fourth Gospel. 2. AsTic, Correspondence of Doudan, (Second Article.) 3. Bois, An Answer to Fouillee's Article on "Reparative Justice." 4. Jlndt, The Friends of God in the Fourteenth Century: A Reply to M. Bouset-Maury. 5. Lichtenberqer, German Chronicle.
April.—1. Schmidt, Primary Instruction in the Rural Districts of Lorraine a Hundred Years Ago. 2. Boegner, Bishop Patteson of Melanesia, a Martyr of the Nineteenth Century. 3. Mad. Bonzonne De Gardonne, A Revolt of Conscience. 4. E. W., English Chronicle.
May.—1. E. Schmidt, Primary Instruction in the Rural Districts of Lorraine a Hundred Years Ago, (Second Article.) 2. A. Boegnkr, A Martyr of the Nineteenth Century: Bishop Patteson of Melanesia, (Second Article.) 3. Mad. Bonzonne De Gardonne, A Revolt of Conscience, (Second Article.) 4. Sabatier, The Crisis of Faith. 5. Mad. Rey, nee Bonnet, The Young Girl: A Poem.
The monthly Historical Record (Revue de Mois) of the Revue Chretienne, in the May number, refers to the introduction of unsectarian schools into France. "The triumph of the lay school in France," it says, "will be undoubtedly a great moral revolution. We must not forget that at the present time we have only denominational schools. It is not the State which gives primary instruction, but the Churches which impart it under the control of the State. The latter wants to take back this right, as it has taken back others. By doing so, it only obeys the logic of the French Revolution. We understand why a political conflict breaks out between the State and the Catholic Church, because the latter asserts her sovereign right