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when uttered by philanthropists, in the spirit of commiseration, their obvious effect was to intensify the spirit of color-caste, and give to the foot that trampled upon an oppressed race the sanction of piety and benevolence. Garrison and his co-operators had not the mental discrimination to see that while the sentiments were deleterious, the real organic purpose of the society was benign, and that while he protested against the former, he should have given all aid to the latter. And then he might have made the society not his foe, but his auxiliary. And now, near half a century later, Oliver Johnson, in his late history of that day, shows himself not emancipated from the same mental and moral fallacy. He repeats the folly as if the fibers of his cerebrum had become fixedly shaped to the permanent error.

Nor have the advocates of the society grown more wise. Dr. Marshall's address is vivid with his style of imaginative rhetoric. He draws many radiant pictures, and titters many noble sentiments. He descries a regal glory in the far future of Africa, and so desires the education of our negroes, especially in industrial schools. He would have the society unfold anew its plans to public view, and hopes that in time Congress wi|l give millions to its aid. In forty years he believes the negro element will have no significant existence in America.

So far we should nearly agree with him. But there are several other utterances for which the society should not make itself responsible by the publication of his address. His statement that the educated negro had "learned the multiplication table, but forgotten his prayers," is an injustice, not only to the negroes, but to the large body of self-sacrificing Christian educators, who, in the face of obloquy and sneer from men like Dr. Marshall, have been religiously educating the negroes out of the ignorant superstitions in which slavery had bound them, and bringing them to an intelligent piety. Dr. Marshall tells us "the ballot has been his bane;" but we must tell htm it is not the " ballot " but tho bulldoze by Caucasian hands in the form of disfranchising fraud and force which has been the " bane'' of both negro and Caucasian. Dr. Marshall would not disfranchise the foreign-born, whiskeydrinking Irish papist, but he would disfranchise the home-born Protestant American negro. These and other blemishes in Dr. Marshall's address we would not consider as authorized by the society; but President Latrobe's utterances sound more authoritative, He tells us: "Colonkationists, as a rule, have believed that two distinct races, that cannot or will not amalgamate by intermarriage, can live in the same land in but one of two relations—master and slave, or oppressor and oppressed." That maxim would "rule" out the best part of the American people. It coolly avows the policy of oppression; that is, of serfdom for the neu roes, after slavery has ceased. If that is essential "colonisationism," we trample upon it. It is purely a gratuitous hypothesis, adopted not by reason, but by arbitrary will.

We support the organic operations of this society on the following basis. The negro has the same rights, and the same right to exercise his rights, on the American soil, that the Caucasian has. He has the right to stay here forever, and any declarations that he •will be expatriated by 1920 are simply fools' prophecy. He has a right to such respect, and civil franchises, and position, as be'ong to his personal qualifications, irrespective of color. Any disposition or purpose to induce him to emigrate by oppression here is unchristian, unmanly, and devilish. But if in his own free-will he prefers to go to a land where his color and race are predominant by numbers and organic power, let all our philanthropy and wealth combine to enable him to emigrate to the land of his choice, with our blessing upon him.

The History of the Deeline and Fall of the Roman Empire. By Edward Guidon. With Notes by Dean Milman, M. (juizot, and Dr. William Smith. In six volumes, 8vo. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1880.

We fully indorse the opinion that Gibbon's "Decline and Fall" is the greatest work of history ever written. It traces in a style both of thought and language worthy of so great a subject the slow transit of the world from the ancient to the modern. This va-t range of centuries presents events, characters and institutions requiring the hands of a master, and a master Gibbon always is. He is equally a master in discussion, narration, or description. On the great subject of Christianity it is his spirit rather than his facts that is to be impeached. In his own day critics impugned his narrations always to their own cost. The present edition presents us in the notes of Milman and Guizot, and especially in Milman'* elaborate preface, an antidote to Gibbon's colorings of the origin and history of Christianity and the Church. But a greater antidote may be found in Milman's own history of the first three centuries. This present edition is one in the train of the magnificent series of standard histories, issued from the Harper press, a series which nothing but limited pecuniary requisites should prevent any scholarly man from having upon a conspicuous library shelf.

Miscellaneous.

Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. By Heinrich August Wilhelm Meter, M.D. From the German, with the sanction of the Author. The translation revised and edited by William P. Dickson, D.D., and William Stewart, D.D. Part I. Second Edition. The Gospels of Mark and Luke. 8vo. Vol. I., pp. 348. Vol. II., pp. 371. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. 1880. Price $3 per volume.

A Model Superintendent. A Sketch of the Life, Character, and Methods of Work of Henry P. Haven, of the International Lesson Committee. By H. Clay Trumbull. 12mo., pp. 188. New York: Harper & Brothers. 18S0.

Masterpieces of English Literature. Being Typical Selections of British and American Authorship, from Shakespeare to the Present Time, Together with Definitions, Notes, Analyses, and Glossary as an Aid to Systematic Literary Study. For use in High and Normal Schools, Academies, Seminaries, etc. By William Swinton. With Portraits. 8vo., pp. 638. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1880.

A History of Classical Greek Literature. By the Rev. J. P. Mahafey, MA. In Two Vols. 12mo. Vol. I., The Poets, (with an Appendix on Homer, by Prof. Sayce,) pp. 525. Vol. II., The Prose Writers, (with an Index to both volumes,) pp.458. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1880.

Sketches and Studies in Southern Europe. By John Addington Symonds. In Two Vols. 12mo. Vol. I., pp. 394. Vol. II., pp. 388. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1880.

Popular Series. A Series of Sermons Against the Sins of the Times. By the Rev. B. F. Austin, M.A. Pp. 115. Toronto: Hunter Rose & Company. 1880.

English Men of Letters. Edited by Jonn Moulet. John Bunyan. By James Anthony Frocde, pp. 178. William Cowper. By Goldioni Smith, pp. 128. Alexander Pope. By Leslie Stephen, pp. 209. 12mo. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1880.

Shakespeare's Tragedy of King Richard the Third. Edited, with Notes, by WillIam J. Rolfe, A.M. With Engravings. ltimo., pp. 254. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1880.

Character and Work of a Oospel Minister. A Discourse Delivered before the Ordination of Deacons at the Holston Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in Abingdon, Va., Sunday Morning, October 2fi, 1879, by the Rev. Bishop Pierck. Edited by T. O. Summers, D.D. Paper Cover. 12mo., pp. 23. Nashville, Tenn.: Southern Methodist Publishing House. 1880.

Harper's Half-hour Series. Business Life in Ancient Rome. By Charles G. Herberjlann, Ph.D. 32mo., paper. Pp. 74. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1880.

Franklin Square Library, 4to., paper. The Duke's Children. By Anthony Trollope. Pp.105. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1880.

National Repository: Devoted to General and Religious Literature, Biographies and Travels, Criticisms and Art. May, 1880. Edited by Daniel Curry, D.D., LL.D. Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis: Hitchcock & Walden. New York: Phillips & Hunt.

Tlie Expositor. June, 1880. Edited by Rev. Samuel Cox. London: Hoddcr 4 Stoughton, 27 Paternoster Row.

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Art. I.—ADMINISTRATION OF CHURCH LAW.

Ecelesiastical Law and Mules of Evidence, with Special Reference to the Jurisprudence of the Methodist Episcopal Church. By Hon. William J. Henry and William L. Harris, D.D., LL.D. Cincinnati: Hitchcock & Walden. New York: Phillips k Hunt. 1879.

This treatise is designed to assist in the orderly and legal, and thereby just and fair, administration of the rules and discipline of the Church. A portion of it is specially adapted to our own denomination, but it likewise contains a compendious statement of principles of law and rules of evidence which might well be commended to the observance of other Church tribunals. The importance of the subject is to be estimated from the object to be attained, and this is set forth in the preface as the maintenance of "sound doctrine and good morals." "In its legislation and administration the Church should seek, in all legitimate ways and to the extent of its authority, to prevent whatever would corrupt its doctrines, subvert its order, interrupt its peace, and stain its purity. Nothing scandalous or offensive should be allowed in its members; every Christian and churchly duty should be faithfully fulfilled; and all things should be done with seemliness and order unto edification and the glory of God. All these things are, therefore, proper subjects for the thoughtfulness, care, and authority of the Church."

This is a clear and temperate statement of the great objects to be attained, as nearly as may be, by a faithful administration of discipline. Essential integrity in morals and doctrine is a

Fourth Skeibs, Vol. XXXII.—40

necessary condition of life and efficiency in a Church. We would not lightly esteem the charity which snffereth long and is kind, but every communion of Christians is bound to insist upon rectitude of intention, at least, in its members, and a persistent endeavor to conform the life to the pure standard of the Gospel. No fervors of devotion can atone for a willful and habitual disregard of the moral law. This may seem to be an incongruous joining of ideas, but we sometimes see both the fervor and the immorality, not only in the same Church, but in the same person.

There is at times a tendency to laxity of discipline, when faithfulness would lead to the sacrifice of social and material advantages; and we may be apt to think it better to retain these, even at some cost, as a means of influence and power. But it was found out long ago that "better is a little with righteousness than great revenues without right." The long toleration of wrong not only breeds corruption and contagion within, but repels them that are without.

Neither should a Church continue to harbor those who seek to undermine its cardinal doctrines. We would allow a liberal margin for individuality of opinion, and for the different colorings which are given to the same truth by the wonderful variety of human minds. We would by no means trench upon a becoming independence of thought; but when a man's convictions lead him to discard the recognized and authoritative standards of the Church to which he belongs, its doors should open outward for him. Indeed, it is one of the mysteries, that men finding themselves in such a position should wish to remain. Of course this has no reference to the advocacy of changes in the economy of the organization.

We shall have occasion further on to consider the manner and spirit in which the law should be enforced; but it is pertinent, in this connection, to quote a rule which Chief-Justice Hale laid down for his own administration of justice: "That it be done,-1, uprightly; 2, deliberately; 3, resolutely."

The book before us is very comprehensive in its scope. It gives a summary of principles and rnles which have been the subject of many and extended treatises. The attempt to condense within the compass of a volume such various matters, many of them involving ninute and technical learning, has,

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