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The center inscription reads—
"Captives brought by Pharaoh, (Thothmes III.,)
In order to cany on the works at the Temple of Amun."
On the left the inscription-reads—
"Molding bricks for making a treasure city in Thebes."
On the right—
"The chief task-master says to the builders, 1 Work hard—
The stick is in my hands. Be not idle. Let there be no giving in.'"
On these inscriptions Brugsch observes: "The picture and the words present an important illustration of the accounts in the Bible concerning the hard bondage of the Jews in Egypt." And in reply to a criticism which has been made against so treating the illustration, because the captive Israelites were not likely to have been removed so far from the place of their original bondage, we may point out that the inscription pointedly says that the captives, some of whom bear the unmistakable features of the Hebrew race, had been "brought" from some place for this special service; and also the Book of Exodus states that "the people were scattered abroad throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble instead of straw."
Era Op Tiie Exodus.
Of the Pharaoh of the Exode the inscriptions give but little information, though sufficient to confirm our belief that it was the grandson and namesake of Thothmes III. to whom we must ascribe that great disgrace. It appears that his reign was short and inglorious, which agrees with what Scripture records of this infatuated king. A tablet between the paws of the Great Sphinx at Ghizeh is one of the few remaining monuments of his reign, besides the obelisk at Rome, standing opposite the Church of St. John Lateran, which bears the names of no less than three Pharaohs, with an interval of more than two centuries between them. It was commenced by Thotmes III., continued by Thothmes IV., and completed by Ramessu the Great. Another inscription of this reign on a granite rock opposite the island of Phile has this singular circumstance connected with it. After the usual boasting titles, it stops suddenly short with the dejunctive particle "than" evidently pointing to defeat and disaster, which were certainly the characteristics of this Pharaoh's reign.* And the inference that he was the Pharaoh overthrown in the Red Sea appears to be confirmed by the fact that, after all the careful researches of modern explorers, no trace of this king's tomb has been found in the royal burial-place near Thebes, where the sovereigns of the eighteenth dynasty lie; while the tomb of his immediate successor, Amenopnis III., has been discovered in a valley adjoining the cemetery of the other kings.f
* Osburn's "Monumental History of Egypt," ii, p. 318.
This may be explained by the fact that the Pharaoh of the Exode was drowned in the Red Sea along with his army, as Moses in the story of the Exodus seems to imply, and as David in the Psalms positively declares, by his song of praise, "O give thanks to the Lord of lords: for his mercy endureth forever. To him that smote Egypt in their first-born: . . . and brought out Israel from among them . . . with a strong hand. ... To him which divided the Red Sea into parts, . . . and made Israel to pass through the midst of it, . . . but overthrew Pharaoh and his host in the Med Sea: for his mercy endureth forever." Psalm cxxxvi, 3-15.
Wilkinson and others have considered that the Mosaic record does not state as positively as it might the fact of Pharaoh himself having been drowned in the Red Sea along with his army, but that he continued on the throne for some time after the great catastrophe had taken place, as Sennacherib, king of Assyria, did some centuries later. If this be the correct interpretation of the Scripture account, it may serve to explain the tradition which Eusebius gives in the "Armenian Chronicle," * from Manetho's "History of Egypt," namely, that this Pharaoh, Thothmes IV., whom he calls Armais, after he had reigned four years in Egypt, was expelled from the country in the fifth year of his reign, by his younger brother Danaus, when he fled to Greece, where he founded the city of Argos. Other authorities call this fugitive king of Egypt Ceerops; as Augustine positively asserts that "in the reign of Ceerops, king of Athens, God brought his people out of Egypt by Moses." \ Accepting this as one of the many floating traditions connected with the story of the Exodus, it receives a singular confirmation in the matter of chronology from an unexpected source. We have already seen that according to the Hebrew computation the date of the Exode may be fairly placed at B.C. 1580. Now the "Parian Chronicle" at Oxford, a witness of the most unexceptionable character, inasmuch as it was drawn up as early as B.C. 264, commences with this announcement: "Since Ceerops reigned at Athens, and the country was called Actica, from Actous, the native, 1,318 years have elapsed."! Now 1,318 + 264=1,582, that is, within two years of the biblical computation for the date of the Exodus.
In confirmation that this Exodus date harmonizes better than any other system, besides what has already been gathered from Brugsch's reading of Manetho, we might adduce the testimony of the Apis Cycle, which has been so finely illustrated by Mariette-Bey,§ whose discovery of sixty-four mummies of the Apis Bulls, from the time of Amenophis III., the successor of Thothmes IV., in the sixteenth century B.C., to the time of the Roman Conquest, B.C. 30, sufficiently accords with our computed date of
* Eusebius, " Chron. Canon," liber prior, cap. xx.
Marmora Arundtlliana, Seldon's edition, London, 1628, pp. 1 and 6.
the Exode to warrant our acceptance of the Apis Cycle—a wellknown period of twenty-five years—as a confirmation of its truth.
Assuming, then, the identification of Thothmes IV. with the Pharaoh of the Exode, it is not quite certain that his successor Amenophis III., the Vocal Memnon on the plain of Thebes, either succeeded his reputed father immediately on his death, or was, indeed his son, as he pretended to be. The history of that period is singularly confused and perplexing at that very point, which is best explained by the disturbed state of the kingdom, which naturally followed the overthrow of Pharaoh's host in the Red Sea. Sir Gardner Wilkinson says that "Amenophis III. calls himself 'the son of Thothmes IV.,-the son of Amenophis II.;' there is reason to believe that he was not of pure Egyptian race. His features differ very much from those of other Pharaohs, and the respect paid to him by some of the 'Stranger Kings,' one of whom treats him as a god, seems to confirm this, and to argue that he was partly of the same race as those kings who afterward usurped the throne, and made their rule and name so odious to the Egyptians." * If this surmise be correct, it is noteworthy to see how far it agrees with the biblical statement that the eldest son of the Pharaoh of the Exode did not succeed his father on the throne, as it is written, "At midnight Jehovah smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sat on his throne, unto the first-born of the captive that was in the dungeon." Exod. xii, 29.
The testimony of Manetho concerning this period of Egyptian history is, to a considerable extent, in harmony with the biblical story of the Exodus, though he mingles his account of that event with the expulsion of the Shepherds, for he mentions the leader of the Israelites by name, as well as the country to which they went. He says that "the Shepherds were subdued by Amosis, and driven out of Egypt, and shut up in a place called Avaris, with 480,000 men; and that, in despair of success,he compounded with them to quit Egypt, on which they departed, in number 240,000, and took their journey from Egypt through the wilderness tg Syria, where they built a city, and named it Jerusalem, in a country now called Judea. It was also reported that the priest who ordained their government and their laws was by birth of Heliopdlis; but that when he went over to these people his name was changed and he was called Moses." f Considering that Moses was reared at the court of Pharaoh, one of whose capitals was at Heliopolis, we see in this Egyptian tradition, which was current when Manetho wrote, about thirteen centuries later, an undesigned testimony to the truth of the story of the Exodus as recorded in Holy Writ.
* Wilkinson, in Rawlinson's "Herodotus," App., book ii, c. viii, § 21. Sec also Dr. Birch's paper in " Arehirological Journal," No. 32, of Dec, 1851, in confirmation of the opinion that Amenophia had an elder twin brother, and that he succeeded his father when very young, and was for many years under his mother's tutelage.
f Manetho apud Joseph., OetUr. Apion, i, §§ 14, 16.
Art. VIII.—SYNOPSIS OP THE QUARTERLIES AND OTHERS OF THE HIGHER PERIODICALS.
Bibliotheca Sacra, July, 1880. (Andover.)—1. Do the Scriptures Prohibit the Use of Alcoholic Beverages? by Rev. A. B. Rich, D.D. 2. The Sabbath: the Change of Observance from the Seventh to the Lord's Day; by Rev. William De Loss Love, D.D. 3. Church Parties as Apologists; bv Rev. Francis Wharton, D.D., LL.D. 4. The Data of Ethics; by D. M'Gregor Means. 5. The New Testament Vocabulary; by Prof. Lemuel S Potwin. 6. Relations of the Aryan and Semitic Languages; by Rev. J. F. M'Curdy, Ph.D. 7. Theological Education.
New Englander, September, 1880. (New Haven.)—1. Historical Position of Modern Missions; by Rev. N. G Clark. 2. Professor Nordenskiiild as an Arctic Explorer; by Rev. S. J. Douglass. 3. Bryant; by Rev. John L. T. Phillips. 4. The Avesta and the Storm-Myth; by Dr. J. Luquiens. 5. Relation of Evolution to Christianity and Rational Truth; by Rev. L. Curtis. 6. Forcing Truths and Duties into Antagonism; by Rev. F. A. Noble. 7. Do we Need an Ethical Revival? by Rev. Henry M. Goodwin.
New England Historical And Genealogical Register, July, 1880. (Boston.) —1. Biographical Sketch of Joel Munsell; by George R. Howell, Esq. 2. Mun sell Genealogy; by Frank Munsell. 3. Records of the Boston Committee of Correspondence, Inspection, and Safety. (Concluded.) 4. Gray and Cdytniore; by William S. Applcton, A.M. 5. Bristol Church Records, 1710 to 1728.
6. Longmeadow Families. 7. Petition of William Horsham, 1684. 8. Taxes under Gov. Andros. 9. Marriage Certificate of John Tucker, 1688. 10. The Cumberland Cruiser. 11. Capt. Hugh Mason's Gravestones. 12. The Edgerly Family. 13. The Great Boston Fire of 1760. 14. Hallowell, Me., and its Library. 15. Records of the Rev. Samuel Danforth of Roxbury. 16. Churchill Genealogy. 17. Petition of the Friends or Quakers to the French National Assembly, 1791. 18. Schools in the Last Century. 19. Record of the Rev. John Cotton, 1091 to 1710. 20. Indenture of Apprenticeship, 1747.
North Americak Review, September, 1880. (New York.)—1. The Ruins of Central America. Part I. By Desire Charnay. 2. The Perpetuity of Chinese Institutions; by S. Wells Williams. 3. The Trial of Mrs. Surratt; by John W. Clampitt. 4. The Personality of God; by Prof. W. T. Harris. 5.' Steamboat Disasters; by R. B. Forbes. 6. Insincerity in the Pulpit; by Rev. E. E. Hale.
7. Recent Works on the Brain and Nerves; by Dr. George M. Beard.
Princeton Review, September, 1880. (New York.)—1. Physical Habits as Related to the Will; by Prof. Henry Caldcrwood, LL.D. 2. Late American Statesmen; by Francis Wharton, LL.D. 3. Popular Education as a Safeguard for Popular Suffrage; by President Robert L. Dabney, D.I)., LL.D. 4. Poetic Style; bj Principal Shairp, D.C.L. 5. Organization of Labor; by Simon N'ewcomb, LL.D. 6. Svml>olie Logic; Prof. John Venn. Herbert Spencer's Theory of Sociology: A Critical Essay; by President Porter, D.D., LL.D.
Quarterly Review or The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, October, 1880.
1. Of the Authority of General Councils. 2. Foreign Missions—Progress, Characteristics, Needs. 3. Southern Methodism and Colored Missions. 4. ,Studies in Shakspeare. 5. Evolution. 6. Christian Ethics vermt Agnosticism. 7. Bishop Marvin. 8. Sunday-school Centenary Celebration.
American Catholic Quarterly Review, October, 1879. (Philadelphia.)—1. The Character of Sanctity in the Catholic Church; by Rev. Aug. J. Thebaud, S. J.
2. Physiology and Modern Materialism; by C. M. O'Leary, M.D., Ph.D. 3. Positions of the Intellectual World as regards Religion; by A. de G. 4. Notes on Spain. Part II; by St. George Mivart, F.R.S., F.Z.S., Sec'y L.S. 5. the Couflict of Christianity with Heathenism; by Right Rev. John J. Keene, D.D. 6. A Pioneer of the West—Rev. Charles Nerinckx; by John Gilrnary Shea, LL.D. 1. Aubrey de Vere's Poems; by M. F. S. 8. The Recent Ministerial Change in England; by J. D. S. 9. Suicide, Considered in its Moral Bearings; by James A. Cain. 10. Some of the Uses of the Microscope in Science; by D. J. MacGoldrick, S.S.
In a justly severe notice of Dr. Lindsay's absurd book entitled, "Mind in the Lower Animals," the "Catholic Quarterly" furnishes some valuable contributions to our knowledge of the true character and susceptibility to education of the Australians. Dr. Winchell rates them as lowest in grade and first in time of the human race. It is very important to know then how low the lowest is:
Catholic missionaries are even now engaged in converting and civilizing the "black fellows of Western Australia" with marked success, and these people, so long looked upon as the extreme of hopeless degradation, show an astonishing intelligence, aptness, and industry. A perusal of the simple account of the mission of New Norcia, near Perth, in Western Australia, which was published in the "Messenger of the Sacred Heart" during the whole of the year 1879, must be sufficient, in any candid mind, to justify to the utmost that confidence of the "worthy people," at whom Dr. Lindsay sneers, in a "potentiality " for culture and civilization existing even in the lowest savages. It gives a direct contradiction of facts, be it remembered, to every one of the reckless assertions we have quoted above. For instance, with regard to their intelligence and capacity for improvement, Mgr. Salvado, Bishop and Superior of the mission, writes: "One day, while I was teaching some little natives to read, one of them learned in ten minutes forty letters of the alphabet, large and small. I believe that few scholars of the same age in Europe would do the same. Another mastered in a few weeks the four rules of arithmetic. A third, seeing a captain of the navy taking the meridian with a sextant, watched him closely, and then, taking up the instrument, repeated the operation with perfect exactness." Nor are these isolated cases. "Mr. Thomas, the present official in charge of the aborigines in the district of Victoria, (South Australia,) who has carefully studied the subject, says that the children easily learn to read and write, that they readily commit to memory eome lines of poetry or short songs, that they are very fond of oral lessons in geography, and perfectly understand the use of maps. A young native took, two years in succession, the prize for geography in the normal school at Sydney." A still more decisive instance is the following: "A young Australian woman, who with her father and mother had ranged the woods in the most degraded state of barbarism, was a few years ago received at the mission. She was instructed, baptized, and, because she showed more than ordinary talent, educated with special care, and